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A systematic review and meta-analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use and psoriasis incidence.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10037. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03760, Republic of Korea.

Although a considerable volume of data supporting induction or aggravation of psoriasis because of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use exists, it remains insufficient for definitive conclusions. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between ACE inhibitor use and psoriasis incidence through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We searched for qualifying studies across PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. Read More

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Community Urgent Care Use Following Implementation of the Veterans Affairs Maintaining Internal Systems and Strengthening Integrated Outside Networks Act.

Med Care 2021 Jun;59(Suppl 3):S314-S321

Center for Innovation to Implementation, VA Palo Alto Healthcare System, Menlo Park.

Background: Effective June 6, 2019, Veterans Affairs (VA) began offering a new urgent care (UC) benefit that provides eligible Veterans with greater choice and access to care for the treatment of minor injuries and illnesses in their local communities.

Objectives: The aim was to describe trends in UC use, identify predictors of UC benefit use, and understand the factors associated with community UC use versus VA emergency department (ED) or urgent care center (UCC) use.

Study Design: Using VA administrative data, this was a retrospective cross-sectional study of Veterans that were enrolled in VA in FY19. Read More

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Prescription medications for sleep disturbances among midlife women during 2 years of follow-up: a SWAN retrospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 May 11;11(5):e045074. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Rush Medical College of Rush University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objective: To examine the effects of prescription sleep medications on patient-reported sleep disturbances.

Design: Retrospective cohort.

Setting: Longitudinal cohort of community-dwelling women in the USA. Read More

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Concurrent smoking and alcohol consumers had higher triglyceride glucose indices than either only smokers or alcohol consumers: a cross-sectional study in Korea.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 May 11;20(1):49. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is a noninsulin-based marker for insulin resistance (IR) in general practice. Although smoking and heavy drinking have been regarded as major risk factors for various chronic diseases, there is limited evidence regarding the combined effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on IR. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the TyG index and smoking and alcohol consumption using two Korean population-based datasets. Read More

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Cognitive performance and lifetime cannabis use in patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2021 May 11:1-16. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic.

Introduction: Cognitive impairment is among the core features of schizophrenia. In a healthy population, the cognitive deficit is often linked with cannabis abuse, and although the same would be expected in patients with schizophrenia, research has presented contradictory results.

Methods: Participants were patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) spectrum disorder who had been lifetime cannabis users ( = 30), FES non-users ( = 53) as well as healthy controls (HC) also divided into cannabis users ( = 20) and non-users ( = 49). Read More

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Improved prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma among metformin users in a population-based study.

Br J Cancer 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Metformin may improve the prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma, but the existing literature is limited and contradictory.

Methods: This was a Swedish population-based cohort study of diabetes patients who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma in 2005-2018 and followed up until December 2019. The data were retrieved from four national health data registries: Prescribed Drug Registry, Cancer Registry, Patient Registry and Cause of Death Registry. Read More

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Pre-transplant Amiodarone Use Does Not Affect Long-Term Heart Transplant Survival.

Pharmacotherapy 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Hartford HealthCare Heart and Vascular Institute, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA.

Purpose: Effect of pre-transplant amiodarone use on post heart transplant (HT) survival is not well established. We therefore sought to examine the effect of amiodarone use on post HT survival.

Methods: We stratified adults who underwent HT between January 2000 and August 2018 in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients according to pre-transplant amiodarone use and used recipient and donor characteristics to calculate propensity scores. Read More

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The impact of continuous glucose monitoring in youth with type I diabetes aged 15-21.

Intern Med J 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Diabetes Transition Support Programme, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Westmead Hospital, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: People with T1DM under 21 are eligible for subsidised continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) products under the Australian National Diabetes Services Scheme. There are few real world published studies to evaluate the benefits of CGM in young adults.

Methods: Patients at the Westmead Hospital young adult diabetes clinic aged 15-21 who commenced CGM before July 2018 were followed for 6 months post commencement CGM. Read More

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The Relationship Between Behavioral Inhibition and Approach Motivation Systems (BIS/BAS) and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity in Adult Cannabis Users.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Center for BrainHealth, 2200 W. Mockingbird Lane, Dallas, TX 75235, USA.

Dampened behavioral inhibition and overactive behavioral approach motivation systems (i.e., BIS/BAS) are associated with cannabis use disorder (CUD), although the underlying neural mechanisms of these alterations have not yet been examined. Read More

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Impact of mobile health application on data collection and self-management of epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 1;119:107982. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Recent advances in mobile health have enabled health data collection, which includes seizure and medication tracking and epilepsy self-management. We developed a mobile epilepsy management application, integrated with a hospital electronic health record (EHR). In this prospective clinical trial, we assessed whether the mobile application provides quality healthcare data compared to conventional clinic visits, and enhances epilepsy self-management for patients with epilepsy. Read More

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Correlates of e-cigarette use among adults initiating smoking cessation treatment.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 24;224:108724. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States; TSET Health Promotion Research Center, Stephenson Cancer Center, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Little is known about the correlates of e-cigarette (EC) use among adults seeking smoking cessation treatment, and it is unclear how EC use affects smoking treatment outcomes.

Methods: Participants were 649 adult smokers enrolled in smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed a baseline (pre-quit) assessment with follow-up at 4-, 12-, and 26-weeks after a scheduled combustible cigarette (CC) cessation date. Read More

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The Association Between Second-Line Oral Antihyperglycemic Medication on Types of Dementia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Nationwide Real-World Longitudinal Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: There are few reports that evaluated the association between various types of dementia and dual oral therapy with antihyperglycemic medication.

Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the association between treatment of dual antihyperglycemic medication and dementia subclass in type 2 diabetes mellitus using the Korean National Health Insurance System.

Methods: This study included 701,193 individuals with diabetes prescribed dual oral therapy between 2009 and 2012 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database, which were tracked until 2017. Read More

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Cigarette and E-Cigarettes Dual Users, Exclusive Users and COVID-19: Findings from Four UK Birth Cohort Studies.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 8;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Public Health Policy Evaluation Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W6 8RP, UK.

Introduction: The relationship between current cigarette and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) dual use, exclusive use and COVID-19-related measures are still unclear. This study aims to assess the association between different tobacco use patterns and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, testing, self-reported infection and social distancing behaviors in the United Kingdom (UK).

Methods: Data come from the first wave of the Centre for Longitudinal Studies (CLS) COVID-19 survey, comprising four birth cohorts (N = 13,077, aged 20-63 years) surveyed between 2 to 31 May 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Consumer Perception of Red Wine by the Degree of Familiarity Using Consumer-Based Methodology.

Foods 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition & Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

Capturing and understanding consumers' perceptions is not a simple quest, particularly for wine, which is one of the most complex beverages. In contrast to the increasing amount of wine import and consumption, studies on how Korean consumers perceive wine characteristics are limited. In this study, two different consumer-based questionnaires, check-all-that-apply (CATA) and rating, were used to compare the discrimination ability of samples and attributes. Read More

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Incidence of advanced opportunistic infection and its predictors among HIV infected children at Debre Tabor referral Hospital and University of Gondar Compressive specialized hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2020: A multicenter retrospective follow-up study.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 9;7(4):e06745. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia.

Background: This study is aimed to assess the incidence of advanced opportunistic infections (OIs) and its predictors among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected children at Debre Tabor referral Hospital and University of Gondar Compressive specialized Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2020.

Methods: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted from June 1, 2010, to May 30, 2020. A total of 349 children under the age of 15 who had received Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) were included in the study. Read More

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Hip Fracture Risk in Antiepileptic Drug Initiators and Non-Initiators with Alzheimer's Disease.

Clin Epidemiol 2021 22;13:295-307. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Objective: To determine the risk of hip fracture in persons with Alzheimer´s disease (AD) who initiated antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).

Methods: In the Medication use and AD (MEDALZ) cohort of 70,719 Finnish community dwellers with clinically verified incident AD diagnosis in 2005-2011, we identified all incident users of AEDs using national Prescription register. AEDs were classified as older (valproate, carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, levetiracetam, primidone) or newer (pregabalin, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate). Read More

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Entomological and Anthropological Factors Contributing to Persistent Malaria Transmission in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Cameroon.

J Infect Dis 2021 Apr;223(Supplement_2):S155-S170

Center for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kilifi, Kenya.

Introduction: In order to improve our understanding of the fundamental limits of core interventions and guide efforts based on prioritization and identification of effective/novel interventions with great potentials to interrupt persistent malaria transmission in the context of high vector control coverage, the drivers of persistent disease transmission were investigated in three eco-epidemiological settings; forested areas in Cameroon, coastal area in Kenya and highland areas in Ethiopia.

Methods: Mosquitoes were sampled in three eco-epidemiological settings using different entomological sampling techniques and analysed for Plasmodium infection status and blood meal origin in blood-fed specimens. Human behavioural surveys were conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of the population on malaria and preventive measures, their night activities, and sleeping pattern. Read More

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The associations between prenatal cannabis use disorder and neonatal outcomes.

Addiction 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background And Aims: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) during pregnancy has increased dramatically in the United States (US). This study examined the associations between prenatal CUD and adverse neonatal outcomes and heterogeneities in the associations by mothers' tobacco use status and race/ethnicity.

Design: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Read More

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Combined Use of Aspirin and Statin is Associated With a Decreased Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center Clinical Research Office, Biostatistics, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer and cancer-related mortality worldwide. Studies have suggested that aspirin (ASA) and statins may be associated with a decrease in incident HCC.

Goals: We aimed to evaluate the effect of ASA and statin use on the incidence of HCC in a prospective cohort of patients with liver cirrhosis and to identify if there was an increased risk of esophageal variceal hemorrhage (VH) in patients with ASA use. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of antiplatelet use before intravenous thrombolysis for acute Ischemic stroke.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 15;425:117451. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States of America.

Aim: To study the effects of pretreatment with Antiplatelet (AP) before IV thrombolysis (IVT) on the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) and functional outcome in patients with Acute Ischemic stroke (AIS).

Method: In this retrospective study, the medical records and cerebrovascular images of all the patients who received IVT for AIS in our center in a 9.6-year period were reviewed. Read More

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Clinical performance of early warning scoring systems for identifying sepsis among anti-hypertensive agent users.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 5;48:120-127. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

TXP Medical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Little is known about the accuracy of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) in identifying sepsis patients with a history of hypertension on anti-hypertensive agents, which affect vital signs as components of the scoring systems. We aimed to examine the ability of qSOFA and NEWS to predict sepsis among anti-hypertensive agent users by comparing them with non-users.

Methods: We retrospectively identified adult patients (aged ≥18years) with suspected infection who presented to an emergency department (ED) of a large tertiary medical center in Japan between April 2018 and March 2020. Read More

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The effects of ACE2 expression mediating pharmacotherapy in COVID-19 patients.

Neth Heart J 2021 May 16;29(Suppl 1):20-34. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: There has been debate on the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme‑2 (ACE2) expression mediating pharmacotherapy in COVID-19 infected patients. Although it has been suggested that these drugs might lead to a higher susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection, experimental data suggest these agents may reduce acute lung injury via blocking angiotensin-II-mediated pulmonary permeability, inflammation and fibrosis.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed to answer the question: What is the effect of medications that influence ACE2 expression (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and thiazolidinediones) on the outcomes of COVID-19? Relevant outcome measures were mortality (crucial), hospital admission, length of stay, thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism, stroke, transient ischaemic attack), need for mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury and use of renal replacement therapy. Read More

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Menopausal hormone therapies and risk of colorectal cancer: a Swedish matched-cohort study.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 15;53(11):1216-1225. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has been associated with various malignancies.

Aims: To investigate the association of various MHT regimens with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: All MHT ever-users (n = 290 186) were included through the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry, with a 1:3 group-level matching to non-users. Read More

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Improved cancer coping from a web-based intervention for prostate cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial.

Psychooncology 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.

Objectives: Prostate cancer (PCa) survivors report poor physical functioning alongside negative psychological outcomes as they cope with treatment side effects and practical concerns after treatment completion. This study evaluated PROGRESS, a web-based intervention designed to improve adaptive coping among PCa survivors.

Methods: Localized PCa patients (N = 431) within one year of treatment completion were randomized to receive educational booklets or PROGRESS + educational booklets. Read More

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Harm Perceptions of Tobacco/Nicotine Products and Child Exposure: Differences between Non-Users, Cigarette-Exclusive, and Electronic Cigarette-Exclusive Users.

Tob Use Insights 2021 30;14:1179173X21998362. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, USA.

Objective: This study examined caregiver perception of harm and child secondhand exposure to nicotine in a sample of e-cigarette-exclusive, cigarette-exclusive, and non-tobacco/nicotine users (non-users).

Methods: Cigarette-exclusive (n = 19), e-cigarette-exclusive (n = 12), and non-users (n = 20) and their children (N = 51,  = 10.47) completed self-report questionnaires about perceptions of harm, child secondhand exposure, and provided urine to assess child nicotine exposure (cotinine). Read More

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'I perceive it to be less harmful, I have no idea if it is or not:' a qualitative exploration of the harm perceptions of IQOS among adult users.

Harm Reduct J 2021 Apr 13;18(1):42. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Harm perceptions of tobacco and nicotine products can influence their use and could be targeted by policies to change behaviour. IQOS was introduced to the UK in 2016, and there is little independent qualitative research on IQOS harm perceptions. This study explored the perceived health harms of IQOS to users and those exposed to the emissions, what shapes these perceptions, and what participants wanted to know about the harms of IQOS. Read More

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Evaluation of relationship between antihypertensive drug usage and dermatoscopic features in patients with keratinizing skin cancer.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Apr 11:e14957. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Dermatology, Health Science University, Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Keratinizing skin cancers including actinic keratoses (AK), in situ squamous cell carcinoma/Bowen's disease/intraepidermal carcinoma (IEC), invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and keratoacanthoma share similar dermatoscopic features and also reveal different patterns that assist in their diagnosis. Recently epidemiological studies reveal the association between antihypertensive drugs and skin cancer risk, especially cSCC. This study aims to determine the dermatoscopic features of keratinizing skin cancer in patients using antihypertensive drug and compare with non-users. Read More

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Perception and Belief on Cannabinoids: A Comparative Study of Rheumatology Patients and Primary Care Physicians on the Use of Cannabinoids for Pain Management.

Cureus 2021 Mar 7;13(3):e13756. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Medicine, College of Life Sciences, Leicester Medical School, University of Leicester, Leicester, GBR.

Introduction With the recent increase in popularity of cannabinoids in the management of chronic pain, the inquisitiveness among our patients and health care professionals are probably now at its peak. Many treating health care professionals in their clinical practice come across patients who either use cannabinoids or are interested in their efficacy and side effects. As there is paucity of data and research about their use in rheumatology, patient's self-reported responses and experience of primary care physicians (General Practitioners [GPs]) can guide in expanding our knowledge. Read More

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"Hot" and "Cold" Cognition in Users of Club Drugs/Novel Psychoactive Substances.

Front Psychiatry 2021 24;12:660575. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are popular "club/party" drugs that first attracted attention in the UK in 2009 and remained legal until the 2016 Psychoactive Substances Act criminalized their distribution. Unlike "traditional" illicit drugs, very little is known about the influence of their analogs on neuropsychological functioning. We characterized the cognitive and emotional profile of NPS/polydrug users using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and EMOTICOM test battery in adult male (aged 20-49 years) recreational users without psychiatric comorbidities ( = 27; "psychonauts"), service users attending a UK specialist "Club Drug" Clinic for problematic use ( = 20) and healthy control volunteers without significant drug-taking histories ( = 35). Read More

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Marijuana use among adult liver transplant candidates and recipients.

Clin Transplant 2021 Apr 7:e14312. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Data regarding marijuana (MJ) use among liver transplant (LT) candidates are limited. We set out to determine the incidence and pre- and post-LT outcomes of adult LT candidates with a self-reported history of MJ use.

Methods: Baseline clinical characteristics, waitlist, and post-LT outcomes of adult LT candidates from January 2010 to March 2017 were compared. Read More

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