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Delayed care for patients with newly diagnosed cancer due to COVID-19 and estimated impact on cancer mortality in France.

ESMO Open 2021 Apr 17;6(3):100134. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen, France.

Background: The impact of the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wave on cancer patient management was measured within the nationwide network of the Unicancer comprehensive cancer centers in France.

Patients And Methods: The number of patients diagnosed and treated within 17 of the 18 Unicancer centers was collected in 2020 and compared with that during the same periods between 2016 and 2019. Unicancer centers treat close to 20% of cancer patients in France yearly. Read More

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Combination of deep speaker embeddings for diarisation.

Neural Netw 2021 Apr 21;141:372-384. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK. Electronic address:

Significant progress has recently been made in speaker diarisation after the introduction of d-vectors as speaker embeddings extracted from neural network (NN) speaker classifiers for clustering speech segments. To extract better-performing and more robust speaker embeddings, this paper proposes a c-vector method by combining multiple sets of complementary d-vectors derived from systems with different NN components. Three structures are used to implement the c-vectors, namely 2D self-attentive, gated additive, and bilinear pooling structures, relying on attention mechanisms, a gating mechanism, and a low-rank bilinear pooling mechanism respectively. Read More

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Breast glandularity and mean glandular dose assessment using a deep learning framework: Virtual patients study.

Phys Med 2021 May 10;83:264-277. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Physics "Gleb Wataghin", University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: Breast dosimetry in mammography is an important aspect of radioprotection since women are exposed periodically to ionizing radiation due to breast cancer screening programs. Mean glandular dose (MGD) is the standard quantity employed for the establishment of dose reference levels in retrospective population studies. However, MGD calculations requires breast glandularity estimation. Read More

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Identification of SRGAP2 as a potential oncogene and a prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Life Sci 2021 May 10:119592. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common malignancies worldwide. Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (SRGAPs) have been shown to regulate the occurrence and development of various tumors. However, their specific roles in HCC remain elusive. Read More

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Interferon-Gamma Release Assays Differentiate Between Mycobacterium avium Complex and Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Children.

J Pediatr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Diseases and Systemic Inflammatory Response in Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Sant Joan de Déu Hospital Research Foundation, Barcelona, Spain; Center for Biomedical Network Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Department of Pediatrics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Translational Research Network in Pediatric Infectious Diseases (RITIP), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: To assess the performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the differential diagnosis between Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and tuberculosis (TB) in children affected with subacute/chronic submandibular/cervical lymphadenitis.

Study Design: Multicenter observational study comparing children with microbiologically-confirmed MAC lymphadenitis from the European NontuberculouS MycoBacterial Lymphadenitis in childrEn (ENSeMBLE) study with children with TB lymphadenitis from the Spanish Network for the Study of Pediatric TB (pTBred) database.

Results: Overall, 78 patients with MAC and 34 with TB lymphadenitis were included. Read More

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Neuronal circuits on a chip for biological network monitoring.

Biotechnol J 2021 May 13:e2000355. Epub 2021 May 13.

Group of Optics, Photonics and Biophotonics (GOFB), Center for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain.

Cultured neuronal networks (CNNs) are a robust model to closely investigate neuronal circuits' formation and monitor their structural properties evolution. Typically, neurons are cultured in plastic plates or, more recently, in microfluidic platforms with potentially a wide variety of neuroscience applications. As a biological protocol, cell culture integration with a microfluidic system provides benefits such as accurate control of cell seeding area, culture medium renewal, or lower exposure to contamination. Read More

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Natural gene therapy by reverse mosaicism leads to improved hematology in Fanconi anemia patients.

Am J Hematol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Genomic Instability and DNA repair Syndromes group and Joint Research Unit on Genomic Medicine UAB-Sant Pau Biomedical Research Institute (IIB Sant Pau), Institut de Recerca Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau-IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by chromosome fragility, bone marrow failure (BMF) and predisposition to cancer. As reverse genetic mosaicism has been described as "natural gene therapy" in patients with FA, we sought to evaluate the clinical course of a cohort of FA mosaic patients followed at referral centers in Spain over a 30-year period. This cohort includes patients with a majority of T-cells without chromosomal aberrations in the DEB-chromosomal breakage test. Read More

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Prediction of direct carbon emissions of Chinese provinces using artificial neural networks.

Authors:
Hui Jin

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0236685. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Economics, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai, China.

Closely connected to human carbon emissions, global climate change is affecting regional economic and social development, natural ecological environment, food security, water supply, and many other social aspects. In a word, climate change has become a vital issue of general concern in the current society. In this study, the carbon emission data of Chinese provinces in 1999-2019 are collected and analyzed, so as to identify the carbon emission of direct consumption per 10,000 residents in each province (including each municipal city and autonomous region) and the entire nation based on population data. Read More

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Global importance analysis: An interpretability method to quantify importance of genomic features in deep neural networks.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 13;17(5):e1008925. Epub 2021 May 13.

Bioinformatics and Integrative Genomics Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Deep neural networks have demonstrated improved performance at predicting the sequence specificities of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins compared to previous methods that rely on k-mers and position weight matrices. To gain insights into why a DNN makes a given prediction, model interpretability methods, such as attribution methods, can be employed to identify motif-like representations along a given sequence. Because explanations are given on an individual sequence basis and can vary substantially across sequences, deducing generalizable trends across the dataset and quantifying their effect size remains a challenge. Read More

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Qutrit-Inspired Fully Self-Supervised Shallow Quantum Learning Network for Brain Tumor Segmentation.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 May 13;PP. Epub 2021 May 13.

Classical self-supervised networks suffer from convergence problems and reduced segmentation accuracy due to forceful termination. Qubits or bilevel quantum bits often describe quantum neural network models. In this article, a novel self-supervised shallow learning network model exploiting the sophisticated three-level qutrit-inspired quantum information system, referred to as quantum fully self-supervised neural network (QFS-Net), is presented for automated segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Read More

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Hypoactivation in the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex during ambiguous decision making in individuals with HIV.

J Neurovirol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Box 102848, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often have neurocognitive impairment. People with HIV make riskier decisions when the outcome probabilities are known, and have abnormal neural architecture underlying risky decision making. However, ambiguous decision making, when the outcome probabilities are unknown, is more common in daily life, but the neural architecture underlying ambiguous decision making in people with HIV is unknown. Read More

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SPOT-1D-Single: Improving the Single-Sequence-Based Prediction of Protein Secondary Structure, Backbone Angles, Solvent Accessibility and Half-Sphere Exposures using a Large Training Set and Ensembled Deep Learning.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Information and Communication Technology, Griffith University, Parklands Dr. Southport, QLD 4222, Australia.

Motivation: Knowing protein secondary and other one-dimensional structural properties are essential for accurate protein structure and function prediction. As a result, many methods have been developed for predicting these one-dimensional structural properties. However, most methods relied on evolutionary information that may not exist for many proteins due to a lack of sequence homologs. Read More

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Convolutional neural network for estimating physical parameters from Newton's rings.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3964-3970

By analyzing Newton's rings, often encountered in interferometry, the parameters of spherical surfaces such as the rings' center and the curvature radius can be estimated. First, the classical convolutional neural networks, visual geometry group (VGG) network and U-Net, are applied to parameter estimation of Newton's rings. After these models are trained, the rings' center and curvature radius can be obtained simultaneously. Read More

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Optical wireless communication performance enhancement using Hamming coding and an efficient adaptive equalizer with a deep-learning-based quality assessment.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3677-3688

Optical wireless communication (OWC) technology is one of several alternative technologies for addressing the radio frequency limitations for applications in both indoor and outdoor architectures. Indoor optical wireless systems suffer from noise and intersymbol interference (ISI). These degradations are produced by the wireless channel multipath effect, which causes data rate limitation and hence overall system performance degradation. Read More

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Characterization and absolute calibration of an AERONET-OC radiometer.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(12):3380-3392

The Ocean Color component of the global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) utilizes CE-318 sun photometers modified for above-water radiometry from fixed structures such as oil rigs, lighthouses, and service platforms. Primarily, AERONET-OC measurements allow determination of the water-leaving radiance required for the validation of ocean color satellite data products. One instrument from the AERONET-OC network, identified as AERONET #080, was studied in this work. Read More

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Physics-guided neural network for predicting chemical signatures.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(11):3176-3181

Achieving high classification accuracy on trace chemical residues in active spectroscopic sensing is challenging due to the limited amount of training data available to the classifier. Such classifiers often rely on physics-based models for generating training data though these models are not always accurate when compared to measured data. To overcome this challenge, we developed a physics-guided neural network (PGNN) for predicting chemical reflectance for a set of parameterized inputs that is more accurate than the state-of-the-art physics-based signature model for chemical residues. Read More

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Hybrid IPSO-IAGA-BPNN algorithm-based rapid multi-objective optimization of a fully parameterized spaceborne primary mirror.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(11):3031-3043

The surface figure precision, weight, and dynamic performance of spaceborne primary mirrors depend on mirror structure parameters, which are usually optimized to improve the overall performance. To realize rapid multi-objective design optimization of a primary mirror with multiple apertures, a fully parameterized primary mirror structure is established. A surrogate model based on a hybrid of improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO), adaptive genetic algorithm (IAGA), and optimized back propagation neural network (IPSO-IAGA-BPNN) is developed to replace optomechanical simulation with its high computational cost. Read More

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Accurate feature point detection method exploiting the line structure of the projection pattern for 3D reconstruction.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(11):2926-2937

The 3D imaging methods using a grid pattern can satisfy real-time applications since they are fast and accurate in decoding and capable of producing a dense 3D map. However, like the other spatial coding methods, it is difficult to achieve high accuracy as is the case for time multiplexing due to the effects of the inhomogeneity of the scene. To overcome those challenges, this paper proposes a convolutional-neural-network-based method of feature point detection by exploiting the line structure of the grid pattern projected. Read More

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Systematic literature review and network Meta-analysis of sulodexide and other drugs in chronic venous disease.

Phlebology 2021 May 13:2683555211015020. Epub 2021 May 13.

Isheo s.r.l, Rome, Italy.

Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of sulodexide, including a comparison with venoactive drugs (VAD) (micronized purified flavonoid fraction, MPFF; hydroxy-ethyl-rutosides, HR; calcium dobesilate;Ruscus extract combined with hesperidin methyl chalcone and vitamin C, Ruscus+HMC+VitC; horse chestnut seed extract, HCSE) and pentoxifylline in patients with chronic venous disease.

Methods: We performed a literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Proportion of patients with complete venous ulcer healing was the primary outcome and lower leg volume, foot volume, ankle circumference and symptoms were the secondary outcomes. Read More

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A Pre-TACE Radiomics Model to Predict HCC Progression and Recurrence in Liver Transplantation. A Pilot Study on a Novel Biomarker.

Transplantation 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

1Multi-Organ Transplant Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 2Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health System, Mount Sinai Hospital, Joseph & Wolf Lebovic Health Complex. Phone: + 1 (416) 586-8224. Ext 7804, Address: 600 University Avenue, 6th floor, office 6-200. M5G 1X5, Toronto, ON, Canada. 3Joint Department Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4Genetics and Genome Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Despite Trans-Arterial Chemo Embolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a significant number of patients will develop progression on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list or disease recurrence post-LT. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of a pre-TACE radiomic model, an imaging-based tool to predict these adverse outcomes.

Methods: We analyzed the pre-TACE computed tomography images of patients waiting for a LT. Read More

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January 2021

Relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary function measures on spirometry in the UK Biobank.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Rheumatology, Inflammation, and Immunity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: We investigated the independent relationship of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with type and severity of pulmonary patterns on spirometry compared to general population controls.

Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the association of RA and pulmonary function measures on spirometry among subjects who had spirometry performed for research purposes in the UK Biobank. RA cases were identified by self-report and current DMARD/glucocorticoid use. Read More

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Multi-scale attention-based convolutional neural network for classification of breast masses in mammograms.

Med Phys 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Data Science, Taiyuan University of Technology, No.209 university street, Taiyuan, China, 030600.

Purpose: Breast cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence in women, and early detection can effectively improve the survival rate of patients. Mammography is an important method for physicians to screening breast cancer, but the diagnosis of mammograms by physicians depends largely on clinical practice experience. Studies have shown that using computer aided diagnosis techniques can help doctors diagnose breast cancer. Read More

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[Screening of key genes and pathways of ischemic stroke and prediction of traditional Chinese medicines based on bioinformatics].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1803-1812

Department of Neurology, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Beijing 100700, China Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Bejing 100700, China.

The aim of this paper was to explore the key genes and pathogenesis of ischemic stroke(IS) by bioinformatics, and predict the potential traditional Chinese medicines for IS. Based on the gene-chip raw data set of GSE22255 from National Center of Biotechnology Information(NCBI), the article enrolled in 20 patients with ischemic stroke and 20 sex-and age-matched controls, and differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were screened based on R language software. The DAVID tool and R language software were used to perform gene ontology(GO) biological process enrichment analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and gnomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Read More

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WGCNA identification of TLR7 as a novel diagnostic biomarker, progression and prognostic indicator, and immunotherapeutic target for stomach adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinical Laboratory of Integrative Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China.

Stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) is a malignant tumor with high histological heterogeneity. However, the potential mechanism of STAD tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated. The purpose of our research was to identify candidate genes associated with the diagnosis, progression, prognosis, and immunotherapeutic targets of STAD. Read More

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Comparative Efficacy of Transcutaneous Functional Electrical Stimulation With or Without Biofeedback Therapy on Functional Non-retentive Fecal Incontinence in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Pediatric Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, No. 62, Dr. Qarib St, Keshavarz Blvd, 14194 33151, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We compared the effects of transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation (TFES) and biofeedback therapy with TFES alone in a cohort of children with functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI).

Methods: This prospective, single-center randomized clinical trial was performed on 40 children with FNRFI. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal treatment groups. Read More

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Aortic wall segmentation in F-sodium fluoride PET/CT scans: Head-to-head comparison of artificial intelligence-based versus manual segmentation.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital, 5000, Odense, Denmark.

Background: We aimed to establish and test an automated AI-based method for rapid segmentation of the aortic wall in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans.

Methods: For segmentation of the wall in three sections: the arch, thoracic, and abdominal aorta, we developed a tool based on a convolutional neural network (CNN), available on the Research Consortium for Medical Image Analysis (RECOMIA) platform, capable of segmenting 100 different labels in CT images. It was tested on F-sodium fluoride PET/CT scans of 49 subjects (29 healthy controls and 20 angina pectoris patients) and compared to data obtained by manual segmentation. Read More

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Polymer informatics with multi-task learning.

Patterns (N Y) 2021 Apr 9;2(4):100238. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.

Modern data-driven tools are transforming application-specific polymer development cycles. Surrogate models that can be trained to predict properties of polymers are becoming commonplace. Nevertheless, these models do not utilize the full breadth of the knowledge available in datasets, which are oftentimes sparse; inherent correlations between different property datasets are disregarded. Read More

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A review of microscopic analysis of blood cells for disease detection with AI perspective.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 21;7:e460. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of CSE, Vardhaman College of Engineering, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Background: Any contamination in the human body can prompt changes in blood cell morphology and various parameters of cells. The minuscule images of blood cells are examined for recognizing the contamination inside the body with an expectation of maladies and variations from the norm. Appropriate segmentation of these cells makes the detection of a disease progressively exact and vigorous. Read More

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Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and Strategies for Resumption of Activities During the Second Wave of the Pandemic: A Report From Eight Paediatric Hospitals From the ECHO Network.

Front Public Health 2021 26;9:630168. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Meyer Children's Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic impacted the organization of paediatric hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate the preparedness for the pandemic among a European network of children's hospitals and to explore the strategies to restart health care services. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was distributed in May 2020 to the 13 children's tertiary care hospitals belonging to the European Children's Hospitals Organisation. Read More

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Downregulation of ATP6V1A Involved in Alzheimer's Disease via Synaptic Vesicle Cycle, Phagosome, and Oxidative Phosphorylation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:5555634. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiology, The Shengjing Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004 Liaoning, China.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms of ATPase H transporting V1 subunit A (ATP6V1A) underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: Microarray expression data of human temporal cortex samples from the GSE118553 dataset were profiled to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between AD/control and ATP6V1A-low/high groups. Correlations of coexpression modules with AD and ATP6V1A were assessed by weight gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Read More

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