145,417 results match your criteria compared conventional

Wastewater treatment and fouling control in an electro algae-activated sludge membrane bioreactor.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147475. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sanitary Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy. Electronic address:

The effect of addition of algae to activated sludge as active biomass in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and electro-MBRs (e-MBRs) for wastewater remediation was examined in this study. The performances of Algae-Activated Sludge Membrane Bioreactor (AAS-MBR) and electro Algae-Activated Sludge Membrane Bioreactor (e-AAS-MBR) were compared to those observed in conventional MBR and e-MBR, which were previously reported and utilized activated sludge as biomass. The effect of application of electric field was also examined by the comparison of performances of e-AAS-MBR and AAS-MBR. Read More

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Growth environment influences B16.F10 mouse melanoma cell response to gene electrotransfer.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Apr 26;140:107827. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, Izola, Slovenia. Electronic address:

We developed and characterized a 3D collagen hydrogel model for B16.F10 melanoma tumors. Cells in this 3D environment exhibited lower proliferation than cells in the conventional 2D culture environment. Read More

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Microemulsion-based gel for the transdermal delivery of rasagiline mesylate: In vitro and in vivo assessment for Parkinson's therapy.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address:

Rasagiline mesylate (RSM) is a selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its unfavorable biopharmaceutical properties, such as extensive degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and first-pass metabolism are responsible for its low oral bioavailability and suboptimal therapeutic efficacy. Here, we report the feasibility of delivering RSM via the transdermal route using RSM containing microemulsion-based gel (RSM-MEG) to achieve effective management of PD. Read More

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Synthesis of starch-based super absorbent polymer with high agglomeration and wettability for applying in road dust suppression.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Dust pollution is an important factor restricting social development and affecting human health, especially in some developing countries. Herein, mechanical activation-assisted solid phase reaction (MASPR) and conventional liquid phase (LP) method were employed to synthesize different superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), defined as SAP-MA and SAP-LP, respectively. The rheological properties, crystal structure, changes of functional groups, and dust suppression performance of the SAPs prepared by these two methods were compared, and the dust suppression mechanism of SAPs was discussed via the adsorption experiment between dust suppressant and dust particles. Read More

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Static and dynamic culture of human endothelial cells encapsulated inside alginate-gelatin microspheres.

Microvasc Res 2021 May 7:104174. Epub 2021 May 7.

Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

This study aimed to explore the angiogenesis potential of human endothelial cells encapsulated inside alginate-gelatin microspheres under static and dynamic culture systems after 7 days. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were encapsulated inside alginate (1%) and gelatin (1.2%) using an electrostatic encapsulation method. Read More

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F-fluciclovine-PET/CT imaging versus conventional imaging alone to guide postprostatectomy salvage radiotherapy for prostate cancer (EMPIRE-1): a single centre, open-label, phase 2/3 randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta GA, USA.

Background: Molecular imaging is increasingly used to guide treatment decisions and planning in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of F-fluciclovine-PET/CT in improving cancer control compared with conventional imaging (bone scan and either CT or MRI) alone for salvage postprostatectomy radiotherapy.

Methods: In EMPIRE-1, a single-centre, open-label, phase 2/3 randomised controlled trial, patients with prostate cancer with detectable PSA after prostatectomy and negative conventional imaging (no extrapelvic or bone findings) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to radiotherapy directed by conventional imaging alone or to conventional imaging plus F-fluciclovine-PET/CT. Read More

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Effectiveness of orthodontic toothbrush versus conventional toothbrush on plaque and gingival index reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Dent Hyg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Dentistry, Centro Universitário Christus, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

Objective: In orthodontic patients submitted to oral hygiene instruction, what is the efficacy of orthodontic toothbrush (O-TB) versus conventional toothbrush (C-TB) on plaque and gingival index reduction in randomized and nonrandomized controlled clinical trials?

Methods: Electronic database search was performed on: PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Database research, study selection, data extraction and ROBINS-I and Risk of Bias Tool 2. Read More

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Effectiveness of ozone therapy in addition to conventional treatment on mortality in patients with COVID-19.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 10:e14321. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Health Sciences, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ozone therapy, which is one of the integrative medicine applications that has been used safely for many years, on the prevalence of mortality in patients receiving COVID-19 treatment.

Methods: This was a prospective, controlled study conducted on patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized. In this study, 55 patients were included. Read More

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Shoot Tip Cryopreservation as a Conservation Tool for Species of Quercus: Effects of Species and Environment on Recovery.

Cryo Letters 2021 May-Jun;42(3):159-167

Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW). Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, 3400 Vine Street Cincinnati, OH 45220 USA.

Background: The seeds of oak (Quercus) species cannot be conserved in conventional seed banks and require cryobiotechnologies for long-term, ex situ conservation.

Objective: To evaluate shoot tip cryopreservation as a method for conserving oaks ex situ.

Materials And Methods: Droplet vitrification was tested on tips from shoot cultures of four oak species; the effects of three preculture and recovery growth conditions on survival and growth were tested with Q. Read More

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Mixed-precision weights network for field-programmable gate array.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251329. Epub 2021 May 10.

Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan.

In this study, we introduced a mixed-precision weights network (MPWN), which is a quantization neural network that jointly utilizes three different weight spaces: binary {-1,1}, ternary {-1,0,1}, and 32-bit floating-point. We further developed the MPWN from both software and hardware aspects. From the software aspect, we evaluated the MPWN on the Fashion-MNIST and CIFAR10 datasets. Read More

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Microwave applications in the food industry: an overview of recent developments.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 10:1-20. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, Poland in Cracow, Krakow.

Microwave radiation has the ability to heat a material with dielectric properties. Material absorbs microwave energy and then converts it into heat, which gives the possibility of a wide use of microwaves in many industry sectors or agricultural sciences. Microwaves are especially widely used in food industry. Read More

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Improved Protein Coverage in Bottom-Up Proteomes Analysis Using Fluoroalcohol-Mediated Supramolecular Biphasic Systems With Mixed Amphiphiles for Sample Extraction, Fractionation, and Enrichment.

Anal Chem 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019, United States.

A new class of supramolecular biphasic systems containing fluoroalcohol-induced coacervates (FAiC) provides concomitant fractionation of complex protein mixtures, high solubilizing power for extraction of various types of proteins, especially those with high hydrophobicity (such as membrane proteins), and enrichment of low-abundance proteins. Subsequently, the use of FAiC biphasic systems (BPS) in the bottom-up proteomics workflow resulted in significantly higher coverage for the whole proteome, various subproteomes, especially those embedded or associated with membranes, post-translationally modified proteins, and low-abundance proteins (LAPs) as compared to the conventional methodologies. In this work, we used a new type of FAiC-BPS composed of mixed amphiphiles, a zwitterionic surfactant 3-(,-dimethylmyristyl ammonia) propane sulfonate (DMMAPS), a quaternary ammonium salt (QUATS), and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) as the coacervator for extraction, fractionation, and enrichment of yeast proteome in bottom-up proteomics. Read More

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Burosumab for Pediatric X-Linked Hypophosphatemia.

Erik A Imel

Curr Osteoporos Rep 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1120 West Michigan Street, CL 365, Indianapolis, IN, 46202-5111, USA.

Purpose Of Review: X-Linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common genetic cause of rickets. This review describes advances in the management of XLH using burosumab which was FDA approved for treating children with XLH in 2018.

Recent Findings: Elevated FGF23 in XLH leads to systemic hypophosphatemia and several musculoskeletal manifestations, including rachitic bone deformities, impaired growth, dental abscesses, insufficiency fractures, osteoarthritis, and enthesopathy, with lifelong consequences for physical function and quality of life. Read More

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Development and Demonstration of Low-Impact IPM Strategy to Control Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Urban Residential Settings.

J Econ Entomol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Argentine ants are one of the most common nuisance pest ants treated by pest management professionals (PMPs) in southern and western urban residential areas of the United States. Two new technologies (spraying with a pheromone adjuvant and using a biodegradable hydrogel bait delivery method) were used to develop a unique low-impact integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for Argentine ants in urban residential settings. The IPM protocol included a one-time perimeter spray treatment with 0. Read More

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Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging towards clinical application in multiple sclerosis.

Brain 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Neurologic Clinic and Policlinic, Departments of Medicine, Clinical Research and Biomedical Engineering, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Quantitative MRI provides biophysical measures of the microstructural integrity of the CNS, which can be compared across CNS regions, patients, and centres. In patients with multiple sclerosis, quantitative MRI techniques such as relaxometry, myelin imaging, magnetization transfer, diffusion MRI, quantitative susceptibility mapping, and perfusion MRI, complement conventional MRI techniques by providing insight into disease mechanisms. These include: (i) presence and extent of diffuse damage in CNS tissue outside lesions (normal-appearing tissue); (ii) heterogeneity of damage and repair in focal lesions; and (iii) specific damage to CNS tissue components. Read More

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Piezo-ICSI for Human Oocytes.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 20(170). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Kameda Medical Center; Kameda IVF Clinic Makuhari; Tokyo Medical and Dental University.

Since the first successful pregnancies achieved by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were reported, ICSI has become an essential technique in assisted reproductive technology (ART). ICSI uses micropipettes with a spiking tip to penetrate the zona pellucida and membrane. Then, the cytoplasm is usually aspirated into the micropipette for membrane breakage (conventional-ICSI). Read More

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Validation Study of Kids Hearing Game: A Self-Administered Pediatric Audiology Application.

Perm J 2021 May;25

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA.

Objective: Conduct a comparison study between conventional audiometry and a tablet-based hearing screening application, Kids Hearing Game (KHG). If KHG measures hearing at levels comparable with conventional audiometry, it could be used to screen hearing in children.

Methods: Prospective equivalence study where measurements of pure tone hearing via KHG are compared with measurements of pure tone hearing via conventional audiometry in patients aged 6-11 years over a 4-month period. Read More

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Design and perspective of amorphous metal nanoparticles from laser synthesis and processing.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Technical Chemistry I and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 7, Essen 45141, Germany.

Amorphous metal nanoparticles (A-NPs) have aroused great interest in their structural disordering nature and combined downsizing strategies (e.g. nanoscaling), both of which are beneficial for highly strengthened properties compared to their crystalline counterparts. Read More

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Development of a novel risk score for the prediction of critical illness amongst COVID-19 patients.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Apr 22;75(4):e13915. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, "Sotiria" General and Chest Diseases Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Objectives: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is associated with various clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to critical illness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalised COVID-19 patients and construct a predictive model for the discrimination of patients at risk of disease progression.

Methods: A single-centre cohort study was conducted including consecutively patients with COVID-19. Read More

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Measuring rater bias in diagnostic tests with ordinal ratings.

Stat Med 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Diagnostic tests are frequently reliant upon the interpretation of images by skilled raters. In many clinical settings, however, the variability observed between experts' ratings plays a detrimental role in the degree of confidence in these interpretations, leading to uncertainty in the diagnostic process. For example, in breast cancer testing, radiologists interpret mammographic images, while breast biopsy results are examined by pathologists. Read More

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Propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics-a perspective in minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Anthea Hospital, GVM Care & Research, Bari, Italy.

There is limited evidence as to the pharmacokinetic changes expected in adults with extracorporeal technologies. Drugs may be taken up by various components of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit itself. Issues include the increased volume of the circuit leading to haemodilution; the sequestration of lipophilic drugs within the circuit tubing; and the absorption of proteins, especially albumin, onto the circuit, which can result in increased free drug. Read More

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Active Microneedle Administration of Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Cancer Vaccination Improves Immunotherapeutic Efficacy.

ACS Appl Nano Mater 2020 Aug 7;3(8):8037-8051. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Radiology, UC San Diego Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California 92093, United States.

The solid tumor microenvironment (TME) poses a significant structural and biochemical barrier to immunotherapeutic agents. To address the limitations of tumor penetration and distribution, and to enhance antitumor efficacy of immunotherapeutics, we present here an autonomous active microneedle (MN) system for the direct intratumoral (IT) delivery of a potent immunoadjuvant, cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles (CPMV) . In this active delivery system, magnesium (Mg) microparticles embedded into active MNs react with the interstitial fluid in the TME, generating a propulsive force to drive the nanoparticle payload into the tumor. Read More

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Pecking Behavior in Conventional Layer Hybrids and Dual-Purpose Hens Throughout the Laying Period.

Front Vet Sci 2021 23;8:660400. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Animals in Science and Society, Department Population Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

To avoid the killing of surplus male layer chickens, dual-purpose hybrids are suggested as an alternative approach. These strains may offer additional advantages compared to conventional laying hens, for instance, a lower tendency to develop injurious pecking behavior. The aim of this study was to assess the behavior, with focus on pecking behavior, of conventional layers (Lohmann Brown plus, LB+) and dual-purpose hens (Lohmann Dual, LD). Read More

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Comparative Analysis of Diagnostic Techniques for Melanoma Detection: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies and Meta-Analysis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 21;8:637069. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy.

Melanoma has the highest mortality rate among skin cancers, and early-diagnosis is essential to maximize survival rate. The current procedure for melanoma diagnosis is based on dermoscopy, i.e. Read More

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An Extrudable Partially Demineralized Allogeneic Bone Paste Exhibits a Similar Bone Healing Capacity as the "Gold Standard" Bone Graft.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 20;9:658853. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

INSERM, UMR 1229, RMeS, Regenerative Medicine and Skeleton, CHU Nantes, ONIRIS, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Autologous bone grafts (BGs) remain the reference grafting technique in various clinical contexts of bone grafting procedures despite their numerous peri- and post-operative limitations. The use of allogeneic bone is a viable option for overcoming these limitations, as it is reliable and it has been widely utilized in various forms for decades. However, the lack of versatility of conventional allogeneic BGs (e. Read More

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Irradiation-Induced Changes in the Immunogenicity of Lung Cancer Cell Lines: Based on Comparison of X-rays and Carbon Ions.

Front Public Health 2021 22;9:666282. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

The First Clinical Medical College of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Increasing the immunogenicity of tumors is considered to be an effective means to improve the synergistic immune effect of radiotherapy. Carbon ions have become ideal radiation for combined immunotherapy due to their particular radiobiological advantages. However, the difference in time and dose of immunogenic changes induced by Carbon ions and X-rays has not yet been fully clarified. Read More

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Machine Learning for Mortality Prediction in Pediatric Myocarditis.

Front Pediatr 2021 23;9:644922. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Lakes Region General Hospital, Laconia, NH, United States.

Pediatric myocarditis is a rare disease. The etiologies are multiple. Mortality associated with the disease is 5-8%. Read More

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Exploratory Study of the Clinical Value of Near-Infrared Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping With Indocyanine Green in Vulvar Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:652458. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of indocyanine green sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in patients with vulvar cancer. The conventional procedure of SLN mapping in vulvar cancer includes peritumoral injection of technetium-99m nanocolloid before surgery and intraoperative injection of a blue dye. However, these techniques harbor some limitations. Read More

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The role of ultrasound elastography and virtual touch tissue imaging in the personalized prediction of lymph node metastasis of breast cancer.

Gland Surg 2021 Apr;10(4):1460-1469

Department of Ultrasound, Hwa Mei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo Institute of Life and Health Industry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, China.

Background: This study examined the effects of different ultrasound imaging technologies in the identification and prediction of axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer. It also investigated the relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and axillary lymph node metastasis.

Methods: Eighty-five female patients diagnosed with breast masses participated in this study. Read More

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Dual-source dual-energy thin-section CT combined with small field of view technique for small lymph node in thyroid cancer: a retrospective diagnostic study.

Gland Surg 2021 Apr;10(4):1347-1358

Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative spectral parameters derived from dual-source dual-energy CT at small field of view (FOV) for small lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer.

Methods: This was a retrospective diagnostic study. From 2016 to 2019, 280 patients with thyroid disease underwent thin-section dual-source dual-energy thyroid CT and thyroid surgery. Read More

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