250 results match your criteria compared arvs


Forgiveness of Dolutegravir-Based Triple Therapy Compared With Older Antiretroviral Regimens: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort of Adherence Patterns and HIV-RNA Replication.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jul 1;8(7):ofab316. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Regional Hospital, Orléans, France.

Background: For many people with HIV (PWH), taking antiretroviral therapy (ARV) every day is difficult.

Methods: Average adherence (Av-Adh) and log-transformed treatment interruption (TI) to ARV were prospectively measured over 6 months using electronic drug monitoring (EDM) in several cohorts of PWH. Multivariate linear regression models including baseline confounders explored the influence of EDM-defined adherence ( ) on 6-month log HIV-RNA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Safety and Effectiveness Analysis of Dolutegravir in Patients with HIV-1: Interim Report of Post-Marketing Surveillance in Japan.

Adv Ther 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Medical Affairs Unit, ViiV Healthcare K.K., Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Dolutegravir (DTG), a novel HIV-integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), is usually used with multiple antiretrovirals (ARVs) for treatment of HIV. DTG is now approved as Tivicay tablets in over 120 countries and Triumeq combination tablets (DTG/abacavir [ABC]/lamivudine [3TC]) in over 90 countries. In Japan, these formulations have been marketed since 2014 and 2015. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HIV-1 Recent Infection Testing Algorithm With Antiretroviral Drug Detection to Improve Accuracy of Incidence Estimates.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Aug;87(Suppl 1):S73-S80

Division of Global HIV and TB, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background: HIV-1 incidence calculation currently includes recency classification by HIV-1 incidence assay and unsuppressed viral load (VL ≥ 1000 copies/mL) in a recent infection testing algorithm (RITA). However, persons with recent classification not virally suppressed and taking antiretroviral (ARV) medication may be misclassified.

Setting: We used data from 13 African household surveys to describe the impact of an ARV-adjusted RITA on HIV-1 incidence estimates. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular epidemiology of Microsporidia among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 May 31;15(5):710-718. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Introduction: Human microsporidiosis represents an important and rapidly emerging opportunistic disease. The present study investigated the prevalence of microsporidia among HIV positive and HIV negative patients with or without diarrhoea in Vhembe and Mopani Districts in the Limpopo Province.

Methodology: A total of 170 stool samples were collected from these patients and microsporidia species was detected using a Real-Time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Incidence and predictors of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) among adult HIV positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment in Arba Minch town public health facilities, southern Ethiopia: A retrospective cohort study, 2020.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0251763. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

Background: Besides its contribution in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients, anti-retroviral drugs may also cause mild to serious adverse effects. It is the main causes for poor drug adherence, treatment discontinuation and changes in Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART) regimens. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of adverse drug reaction among adult Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment from January 1, 2013 up to December 30, 2018 at Arba Minch town public health facilities, Southern Ethiopia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of a Long-Acting Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Monoclonal Antibody VRC01LS in HIV-1-Exposed Newborn Infants.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Background: Perinatal HIV-1 continues to occur due to barriers to effective antiretroviral prevention that might be mitigated by long-acting broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs).

Methods: Extended half-life bNAb, VRC01LS, was administered subcutaneously (SC) at 80 mg/dose after birth to HIV-1-exposed, non-breastfed (Cohort 1, n=10) and breastfed (Cohort 2, n=11) infants. Cohort 2 received a second dose (100mg) at 12 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lower birth weight-for-age and length-for-age z-scores in infants with in-utero HIV and ART exposure: a prospective study in Cape Town, South Africa.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 May 4;21(1):354. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Successful scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy has minimized infant HIV acquisition, and over 1 million infants are born HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU), with an increasing proportion also exposed in utero to maternal ART. While benefits of ART in pregnancy outweigh risks, some studies have reported associations between in utero ART exposure and impaired fetal growth, highlighting the need to identify the safest ART regimens for use in pregnancy.

Methods: We compared birth anthropometrics of infants who were HEU with those HIV-unexposed (HU) in Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Undisclosed exposure to antiretrovirals prior to treatment initiation: An exploratory analysis.

South Afr J HIV Med 2021 8;22(1):1200. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

HIV/AIDS and Global Health Research Programme, Department of Microbiology, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa.

Background: The proportion of individuals with a history of exposure ('pre-exposure') to antiretrovirals (ARVs) prior to formal initiation into antiretroviral treatment (ART) is unknown.

Objectives: This study describes the detection of ARVs in plasma and/or hair, of persons who self-reported no pre-exposure to ART at their first-time initiation onto ART in three clinics in the province of Limpopo, South Africa (SA).

Method: Concentrations of tenofovir (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC) and efavirenz (EFV) in the plasma and hair of individuals initiating ART were analysed using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characteristics of adolescents aged 15-19 years living with vertically and horizontally acquired HIV in Nampula, Mozambique.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(4):e0250218. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

ICAP at Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) 15-19 years of age are a growing proportion of all people living with HIV globally and the population includes adolescents with vertically acquired HIV (AVH) and behaviorally acquired HIV (ABH).

Methods: We conducted a survey to measure sociodemographic characteristics, educational status, health history, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among a convenience sample of ALHIV at three government health facilities in 2019 in Nampula, Mozambique. ALHIV 15-19 years on ART, including females attending antenatal care, were eligible. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Influence of hepatitis B virus co-infection on virological and immunological response to antiretroviral treatment among HIV patients attending comprehensive care clinics in Makueni County, Kenya.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 1;38:103. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Introduction: the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease remains uncertain. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association of HBV co-infections with CD4 count and viral load levels in response to antiretroviral treatment among HIV patients attending comprehensive care clinics in Makueni County (Kenya).

Methods: this was a prospective case-control study among patients seeking HIV services in three hospitals of Makueni County (Kenya). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association of cell free mitochondrial DNA and caspase-1 expression with disease severity and ARTs efficacy in HIV infection.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 22;48(4):3327-3336. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, University Road, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

HIV infection is a global health concern. Current HIV-diagnostics provide information about the disease progression and efficacy of anti-retroviral therapies (ARVs), but this information is very limited and sometimes imprecise. Present study assessed the potential role of mononuclear cell (MNC) death, expression of caspases (1&3) and cell free mitochondrial DNA (CF mt-DNA) in HIV infected individuals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Concept Evaluation Study of a New Combination Bictegravir plus Tenofovir Alafenamide Nanoformulation with Prolonged Sustained-Drug-Release Potency for HIV-1 Preexposure Prophylaxis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 03 18;65(4). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA

The antiretroviral treatment (ART) approach is the best-prescribed approach to date for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for high-risk individuals. However, the daily combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimen has become cumbersome for healthy individuals, leading to nonadherence. Recent surveys showed high acceptance of parenteral sustained-release ART enhancing PrEP adherence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Population pharmacokinetic modelling to quantify the magnitude of drug-drug interactions between amlodipine and antiretroviral drugs.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jul 16;77(7):979-987. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Centre for Research and Innovation in Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) represent an important issue in elderly people living with HIV (PLWH). Amlodipine is a commonly prescribed antihypertensive drug metabolized by CYP3A4, thus predisposed to a risk of DDIs. Guidance on the management of DDIs is mostly based on theoretical considerations derived from coadministration with other CYP3A4 inhibitors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigation of CYP2B6, 3A4 and β-esterase interactions of Withania somnifera (L.) dunal in human liver microsomes and HepG2 cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 1;270:113766. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae) is a traditional herb, used in African indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of various diseases (including HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis). The relevance of clinically significant interactions of Withania with ARVs and anti-TB drugs needs to be investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The initiation of human immunodeficiency virus treatment for children at different levels of care.

Afr J AIDS Res 2020 Dec;19(4):304-311

Department of Paediatrics, Grey's Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic increased the demand for health care resources in South Africa. To decrease the burden on specialised facilities, the Department of Health decentralised antiretroviral (ARV) management. In the uMgungundlovu district, adult HIV primary care services reported lower rates of HIV viral load (VL) suppression after initiation of ARVs compared to other levels of care. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

HIV drug resistance profile in South Africa: Findings and implications from the 2017 national HIV household survey.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(11):e0241071. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

School of Public Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing was included in the 2017 South African national HIV household survey. We describe the prevalence of HIVDR by drug class, age, sex and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) status.

Methods: Dried blood were spots tested for HIV, with Viral load (VL), exposure to ARVs and HIVDR testing among those HIV positive. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Trends in the incidence of cancer in Kampala, Uganda, 1991 to 2015.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 29;148(9):2129-2138. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Trends in the incidence of cancer in the population of Kyadondo County, Uganda-which comprises the city of Kampala and a peri-urban hinterland-are presented for a period of 25 years (1991-2015) based on data collected by the Kampala Cancer Registry. Incidence rates have risen overall-age-adjusted rates are some 25% higher in 2011 to 2015 compared with 1991 to 1995. The biggest absolute increases have been in cancers of the prostate, breast and cervix, with rates of some 100% (prostate), 70% (breast) and 45% (cervix) higher in 2010 to 2015 than in 1991 to 1995. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Preventing mother to child transmission of HIV: lessons learned from China.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Oct 26;20(1):792. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Background: The program for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was launched in 2003 in China, but few studies have been conducted to describe the panorama of PMTCT. We investigated the rate and associated factors of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in China from 2004 to 2018.

Methods: HIV-infected pregnant women from two areas in China between 2004 and 2018 were enrolled. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Prevention of Perinatal HIV Transmission in an Area of High HIV Prevalence in the United States.

J Pediatr 2021 01 21;228:101-109. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC; Elizabeth Glaser Pediatrics AIDS Foundation, Washington, DC.

Objective: To evaluate the uptake of perinatal HIV preventive interventions by the risk of perinatal HIV transmission in mother-infant pairs in a high-HIV prevalence area in the US.

Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs with perinatal HIV exposure during 2013-2017 managed at a subspecialty pediatric HIV program in Washington, DC. We collected demographic data, maternal HIV history, delivery mode, maternal and infant antiretroviral drug (ARV) use, and infant HIV test results. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Dyslipidemia in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy Receiving Care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Infect Dis (Auckl) 2020 26;13:1178633720948860. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Pediatric and Child Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.

Background: Worldwide prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral medications (ARVs) is rising due to extensive use of treatment during their entire lives. Dyslipidemia is the potential side effect of ARVs, especially in individuals taking protease inhibitors. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected children on ARVs receiving care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Tanzania. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in patients of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study in the era of HIV integrase inhibitors.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases & Hospital Hygiene, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) between antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and comedications was high in 2008 in a Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) survey. We reassessed the prevalence of PDDIs in the era of HIV integrase inhibitors (INIs), characterized by more favorable interaction profiles.

Methods: The prevalence of PDDIs in treated HIV positive individuals was assessed for the period: 01-12/2018 by linkage of the Liverpool HIV drug interactions and SHCS databases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The genomic constellation of a novel duck reovirus strain associated with hemorrhagic necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis in Muscovy ducklings in Fujian, China.

Mol Cell Probes 2020 10 2;53:101604. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, 350013, China; Fujian Animal Diseases Control Technology Development Center, Fuzhou, 350013, China. Electronic address:

The complete sequence of a reovirus, strain NP03 associated with necrotic focus formation in the liver and spleen of Muscovy ducklings in Fujian Province, China in 2009, was determined and compared with sequences of other waterfowl and chicken-origin avian reoviruses (ARVs). Sequencing of the complete genomes of strain NP03 showed that they consisted of 23,418 bp and were divided into 10 segments, ranging from 1191 bp (S4) to 3959 bp (L1) in length, and all segments contained conserved sequences in the 5' non-coding region (GCUUUU) and 3' non-coding region (UCAUC). Pairwise sequence comparisons demonstrated that NP03 strain showed the highest similarity with novel waterfowl origin reoviruses (WRVs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

The dynamics of molecular evolution of emerging avian reoviruses through accumulation of point mutations and genetic re-assortment.

Virus Evol 2020 Jan 10;6(1):veaa025. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada.

In the last decade, the emergence of variant strains of avian reovirus (ARV) has caused enormous economic impact in the poultry industry across Canada and USA. ARVs are non-enveloped viruses with ten segments of double-stranded RNA genome. So far, only six genotyping cluster groups are identified worldwide based on sequence analysis of the σC protein encoded by the S1 segment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

"It made me more confident that I have it under control": Patient and provider perspectives on moving to a two-drug ART regimen in the United States and Spain.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(5):e0232473. Epub 2020 May 1.

Center on Health, Risk and Society, American University, Washington, D.C., United States of America.

Background: Two-drug regimens (2DR) to treat HIV infection have the potential to reduce long-term toxicity and increase therapeutic options for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Prior phase III trials, SWORD-1 and SWORD-2, as well as GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2, have demonstrated that a dolutegravir-based 2DR is as effective as three- or four-drug regimens among virologically suppressed patients. Limited information exists, however, on patient and provider experiences with 2DR to inform roll-out and integration into routine clinical care. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation and nasogastric tube administration on the pharmacokinetic profile of abacavir, lamivudine and dolutegravir: a case report.

Antivir Ther 2020 ;25(2):115-119

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Pharmacokinetic (PK) changes can affect antiretroviral (ARV) systemic exposure for critically ill patients living with HIV (CI-PLWH). Studies to guide ARV adjustments in this population are limited.

Methods: A PK analysis was conducted in a 44-year-old CI-PLWH who presented for a heart and lung transplant on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Real-life management of drug-drug interactions between antiretrovirals and statins.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 07;75(7):1972-1980

University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: PIs cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with most statins due to inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes and/or the hepatic uptake transporter OATP1B1, which may alter the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of statins.

Objectives: To assess the management of DDIs between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and statins in people living with HIV (PLWH) considering statin plasma concentrations, compliance with dosing recommendations and achievement of lipid targets.

Methods: PLWH of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were eligible if they received a statin concomitantly with ARVs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prevalence of ABCC3-1767G/A polymorphism among patients with antiretroviral-associated hepatotoxicity.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 06 25;8(6):e1124. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Background: Plasma concentrations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) regimens have considerably varied in individuals of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of variations in the expression of drug-metabolizing and transporter genes. Transporter genes play an important role in the disposition of drugs. Polymorphism in transporter gene (ABCC3) affects the MRP3 expression and varies the treatment outcome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High rates of tenofovir failure in a CRF01_AE-predominant HIV epidemic in the Philippines.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 17;95:125-132. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, National Institutes of Health, University of the Philippines, Manila 1000, Philippines; Philippine Genome Center, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Electronic address:

Background: The Philippines has the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the Asia-Pacific. This increase was accompanied by a shift in the predominant HIV subtype from B to CRF01_AE. Increasing evidence points to a difference in treatment responses between subtypes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Registration timelines of antiretroviral medicines in Ghana and Kenya.

AIDS 2020 06;34(7):1093-1095

Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) Program, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

: This study examines registration timelines of antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) in Ghana and Kenya, to assess whether prior reviews by the US Food and Drug Administration Tentative Approval or WHO prequalification (WHO/PQP) affect in-country approval timelines. Data were collected from online and national databases. Median in-country review period in Ghana was 9 months compared with 25 months in Kenya. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Partial Molecular Characterization and Pathogenicity Study of an Avian Reovirus Causing Tenosynovitis in Commercial Broilers.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):452-460

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616,

This study describes the molecular characterization of avian reoviruses (ARVs) isolated during an outbreak in commercial chickens between 2015 and 2016. In addition, a pathogenicity study of a selected ARV strain isolated from a field case of viral tenosynovitis in commercial broiler chickens was performed. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of a 1088-bp fragment of the ARV S1 gene, the investigated sequences were differentiated into five distinct genotypic clusters (GCs), namely GC1, GC2, GC3, GC4, and GC6. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2019