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High sensitivity of invertebrate detritivores from tropical streams to different pesticides.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 10;216:112226. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain; IKERBASQUE, Bilbao, Spain.

Freshwater organisms are often sensitive to pesticides, but their sensitivity varies across different taxa and with pesticide type and action mode, as shown by multiple acute toxicity tests. Such variability hampers predictions about how freshwater ecosystems may be altered by pesticide toxicity, which is especially critical for understudied areas of the world such as the tropics. Furthermore, there is little information about the sensitivity of some organisms that are key components of stream food webs; this is the case of litter-feeding detritivorous invertebrates, which contribute to the fundamental process of litter decomposition. Read More

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The 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami-induced sediment remobilization on the Sendai shelf, Japan, from a comparison of pre- and post-tsunami surface sediments.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7864. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 7, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305-8567, Japan.

Tsunamis are generally considered to disturb the seafloor, rework surface sediments, and change seafloor environments. However, the response of the seafloor to such extreme wave events has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we compare the surface sediments before and after the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on the Sendai shelf and demonstrate that both sandy and muddy sediments were significantly reworked on the shelf. Read More

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He-Ne laser accelerates seed germination by modulating growth hormones and reprogramming metabolism in brinjal.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7948. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Plant Sciences, Manipal School of Life Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

A plant's ability to maximize seed germination, growth, and photosynthetic productivity depends on its aptitude to sense, evaluate, and respond to the quality, quantity, and direction of the light. Among diverse colors of light possessing different wavelengths and red light shown to have a high impact on the photosynthetic and growth responses of the plants. The use of artificial light sources where the quality, intensity, and duration of exposure can be controlled would be an efficient method to increase the efficiency of the crop plants. Read More

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[Cannabis use among hospitalized young people experiencing a first episode of psychosis: a case control study].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Nov;148(11):1606-1613

Departamento de Psiquiatría, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Cannabis use among young people in Chile has increased significantly in the last years. There is a consistent link between cannabis and psychosis.

Aim: To compare cannabis use in patients with a first episode of psychosis and healthy controls. Read More

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November 2020

Stylet Probing Behavior of Two Bactericera (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae) Species on Host and Nonhost Plants.

Environ Entomol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

USDA-ARS-Temperate Tree Fruit and Vegetable Research Unit, 5230 Konnowac Pass Road, Wapato, WA 98951, USA.

Understanding host use by psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) benefits from comparative studies of behavior on host and nonhost plant species. While most psyllid species develop on one or a few closely related plant species, some species are generalized enough to develop on species across plant families. We used electropenetography (EPG) technology to compare probing activities of an oligophagous psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc)) and a host-specialized psyllid (Bactericera maculipennis) on two species of Solanaceae (potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Read More

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Proteomic analysis of drought stress response mechanism in soybean ( L.) leaves.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 7;9(4):2010-2020. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Agriculture institute Iranian Research Organization of Science and Technology Tehran Iran.

Knowledge of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of drought responses is fundamental for developing genetically drought tolerant and high yielding crops. To understand molecular mechanism of drought tolerance of soybean ( L.), we compared leaf proteome patterns of in two genotypes GN-3074 (drought tolerant) and GN-2032 (drought-sensitive) under drought stress during vegetative stage. Read More

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Diversity and composition of pollen loads carried by pollinators are primarily driven by insect traits, not floral community characteristics.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260, USA.

Flowering plants require conspecific pollen to reproduce but they often also receive heterospecific pollen, suggesting that pollinators carry mixed pollen loads. However, little is known about drivers of abundance, diversity or composition of pollen carried by pollinators. Are insect-carried pollen loads shaped by pollinator traits, or do they reflect available floral resources? We quantified pollen on 251 individual bees and 95 flies in a florally diverse community. Read More

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Genomic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from seafood, horticulture and factory environments in New Zealand.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Mar 17;347:109166. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Auckland, New Zealand.

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne human pathogen that causes systemic infection, fetal-placental infection in pregnant women causing abortion and stillbirth and meningoencephalitis in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyse L. monocytogenes from different sources from New Zealand (NZ) and to compare them with international strains. Read More

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Translocation factor of heavy metals by elephant grass grown with varying concentrations of landfill leachate.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Center of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Ceará, Av. Mister Hull s/n Antônio Bezerra, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

The aim of this study is to obtain the translocation factor by application of landfill leachate (LL) diluted in public irrigation water (IW). Pennisetum purpureum Schum (elephant grass) was cultivated for 83 days in an experimental water reuse unit. The present work was developed at the Experimental Water Reuse Unit (UERA), on the UFERSA campus in Mossoró, RN, Brazil. Read More

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Rapid methodologies for assessing colonization and effector-mediated hypersensitive response in kiwifruit.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Plant and Food Research Ltd, 1413, 120 Mt Albert road, Sandringham, Auckland, New Zealand, 1142;

The infection of in kiwifruit is currently assessed by numerous methodologies, each with their own limitations. Most studies are based on either a laborious method of growth quantification of the pathogen or qualitative assessments by visual scoring following stem or cutting inoculation. Additionally, when assessing for resistance against specific pathogen effectors, confounding interactions between multiple genes in the pathogen can make mapping resistance phenotypes nearly impossible. Read More

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Population structure and genetic diversity of invasive Fall Armyworm after 2 years of introduction in India.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7760. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources, Bellary Road, Hebbal, Bengaluru, 560024, India.

Fall Armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a polyphagous pest capable of feeding over 80 plant species and was indigenous to the Western Hemisphere. Within a span of 4 years, FAW has established itself throughout most of the regions in Africa and Asia causing significant losses in maize production. Owing to its revamped distribution range, it would be prudent to analyze the ensuing genetic changes and study the emerging phylogeographic patterns across the world. Read More

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Hematopoietic effects of Azadirachta indica methanolic extract in cyclophosphamide mediated myelosuppressed albino rat.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5(Supplementary)):2269-2273

Imran Adrees College of Pharmacy, 3Km Daska Road, Sialkot, Pakistan.

Myelosuppression or bone marrow suppression is one of the most common side effects caused by anti-cancer drugs. Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics and viruses like B19 virus can also cause bone marrow suppression resulting in serious consequences like leukopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Currently, it is mainly treated by Filgrastim, use of which is not without side effects. Read More

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September 2020

An improved method for the segmentation of roots from X-ray computed tomography 3D images: Rootine v.2.

Plant Methods 2021 Apr 8;17(1):39. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Soil System Science, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH-UFZ, Halle, Germany.

Background: X-ray computed tomography is acknowledged as a powerful tool for the study of root system architecture of plants growing in soil. In this paper, we improved the original root segmentation algorithm "Rootine" and present its succeeding version "Rootine v.2". Read More

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Evidence for Middle Miocene origin and morphological evolutionary stasis in a Barbacenia Inselberg clade (Velloziaceae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 5:107163. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Botânica, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Atlantic Forest Inselbergs (AFI) and Campos Rupestres (CR) are mountains and highlands of eastern South America, relatively poorly studied and highly threatened, which display extraordinary levels of plant endemism and richness. In spite of their geographical and environmental differences, the origin of the flora of CR and AFI are likely linked to each other, because several plant clades are distributed across both ecosystems. In addition to these studies, little has been investigated about the historical biogeographical connections between AFI and CR and most evolutionary studies are restricted to CR. Read More

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Soil bacterial communities and their associated functions for forest restoration on a limestone mine in northern Thailand.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0248806. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Opencast mining removes topsoil and associated bacterial communities that play crucial roles in soil ecosystem functioning. Understanding the community composition and functioning of these organisms may lead to improve mine-rehabilitation practices. We used a culture-dependent method, combined with Illumina sequencing, to compare the taxonomic richness and composition of living bacterial communities in opencast mine substrates and young mine-rehabilitation plots, with those of soil in adjacent remnant forest at a limestone mine in northern Thailand. Read More

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Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Rech. & Esfand from Iran.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Apr 8:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Estahban Branch, Islamic Azad University, Estahban, Iran.

Rech. & Esfand is a folkloric endemic medicinal plant which is found in south of Iran. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities from the aerial parts of were investigated. Read More

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[Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Aloe-Emodin Metal Complex].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):241-247

Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for the Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China.

Objective: To synthesize three kinds of metal complexes of aloe-emodin and compare the antioxidant activities of the ligands and the complexes.

Methods: Three kinds of aloe emodin metal complex, the aloe-emodin-iron (Ⅱ), the aloe-emodin-copper (Ⅱ) and the aloe-emodin-magnesium (Ⅱ) complexes, were synthesized by dissolving and stirring in anhydrous ethanol solvent, and their structures were characterized. The Fe -H O -methylene blue method, the diphenyl bitter hydrazine radical method (DPPH method) and other assays were used to determine the clearance effect of ligands and complexes on superoxide radicals (O •), hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and phenyl bitter hydrazine radical (DPPH•). Read More

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Using near-infrared spectroscopy to discriminate closely related species: a case study of neotropical ferns.

J Plant Res 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade, Rua Vera Paz, s/n (Unidade Tapajós) Bairro Salé, Santarém, PA, 68040-255, Brazil.

Identifying plant species requires considerable knowledge and can be difficult without complete specimens. Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) is an effective technique for discriminating plant species, especially angiosperms. However, its efficacy has never been tested on ferns. Read More

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Cost, Nutritional Content and Number of Gluten-Free Staple Foods Available in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Food and Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Data has indicated that gluten-free (GF) foods are more expensive and have lower nutritional value than their gluten-containing (GC) counterparts. The aim of the present study was to compare the cost and nutrient content between GF and GC staple foods and determine whether the number and price of GF staple foods differed based on type of store or location within Winnipeg, Canada. Twelve grocery stores (2 chain stores/quadrant;1 local store/quadrant) in the four quadrants (northwest, northeast, southwest, southeast) of Winnipeg were visited to identify GF staple products (bread, flour, cereal, pasta) along with a GC comparator. Read More

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Quantitative cell biology of tip growth in moss.

Plant Mol Biol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA.

Key Message: Here we review, from a quantitative point of view, the cell biology of protonemal tip growth in the model moss Physcomitrium patens. We focus on the role of the cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, and cell wall mechanics, including reviewing some of the existing mathematical models of tip growth. We provide a primer for existing cell biological tools that can be applied to the future study of tip growth in moss. Read More

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Effective remediation of petrochemical originated pollutants using engineered materials with multifunctional entities.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 29;278:130405. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey, 64849, Mexico. Electronic address:

The highly robust, effective, and sustainable remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater matrices, which is mainly generated from petroleum and related petrochemical industries, is of supreme interest. Owing to the notable presence of suspended solids, oil, and grease, organic matter, highly toxic elements, high salts, and recalcitrant chemicals, crude oil emulsions, and hydrocarbon-contaminated wastewater are considered a potential threat to the environments, animals, plants, and humans. To effectively tackle this challenging issue, magnetic hybrid materials assembled at nano- and micro-scale with unique structural, chemical, and functional entities are considered robust candidates for demulsification purposes. Read More

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IntEResting structures: formation and applications of organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum in plant cells.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr;185(3):550-561

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle with remarkable plasticity, capable of rapidly changing its structure to accommodate different functions based on intra- and extracellular cues. One of the ER structures observed in plants is known as "organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum" (OSER), consisting of symmetrically stacked ER membrane arrays. In plants, these structures were first described in certain specialized tissues, e. Read More

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Alteration in the Stylet Probing Behavior and Host Preference of the Vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) After Infection with Sugarcane White Leaf Phytoplasma.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang, Muang, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

The leafhopper (Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)) is a crucial insect vector of the phytoplasma associated with sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The aim of this study was to compare the stylet probing behaviors of M. hiroglyphicus on healthy sugarcane plants, asymptomatic, and symptomatic SCWL-infected sugarcane plants, using DC electropenetrography. Read More

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Crop-photoperiodism model 2.0 for the flowering time of sorghum and rice that includes daily changes in sunrise and sunset times and temperature acclimation.

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

CIRAD, UMR AGAP Institut, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background And Aims: Daylength determines flowering dates. However, questions remain regarding flowering dates in the natural environment, such as the synchronous flowering of plants sown simultaneously at highly contrasting latitudes. The daily change in sunrise and sunset times is the cue for the flowering of trees and for the synchronisation of moulting in birds at the equator. Read More

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Charting the genomic landscape of seed-free plants.

Nat Plants 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, NY, USA.

During the past few years several high-quality genomes has been published from Charophyte algae, bryophytes, lycophytes and ferns. These genomes have not only elucidated the origin and evolution of early land plants, but have also provided important insights into the biology of the seed-free lineages. However, critical gaps across the phylogeny remain and many new questions have been raised through comparing seed-free and seed plant genomes. Read More

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Established diet quality indices are not universally associated with body composition in young adult women.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Apr 6:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Departments of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, and Health Promotion and Policy, 325 Arnold House, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, 715 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9304.

Objective: To determine which established diet quality indices best predict weight-related outcomes in young women.

Design: In this cross-sectional analysis, we collected dietary information using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and measured body fat percentage (BF%) by duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We used FFQ data to derive five diet quality indices: Recommended Food Score (RFS), Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015), Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), Healthy Plant-Based Diet Index (HPDI). Read More

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