139,708 results match your criteria comparative surveys

Evaluation of Eight-Item Vancomycin Prescribing Confidence Questionnaire Among Junior Doctors.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:677818. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Medical Education, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Assessing the preparedness of junior doctors to use vancomycin is important in medical education. Preparedness is typically evaluated by self-reported confidence surveys. An eight-item vancomycin prescribing confidence questionnaire was developed, piloted, and evaluated. Read More

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Impact of public support and government's policy on climate change in China.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 10;294:112983. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Research Center for Energy Economics & Low-carbon Development, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, 350108, China; School of Management, China Institute for Studies in Energy Policy, Collaborative Innovation Center for Energy Economics and Energy Policy, Xiamen University, Fujian, 361005, China. Electronic address:

Climate change is a global environmental issue that would damage the natural and biological systems. Although there are many controversies about climate change, the temperature rise has become more and more obvious in the world since the 1990s. It is worthwhile to understand whether the public supports the government's policy on climate change and how public support affects climate change. Read More

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Changes in Levels and Determinants of Maternal Health Service Utilization in Ethiopia: Comparative Analysis of Two Rounds Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys.

Matern Child Health J 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Health Promotion and Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-1266, USA.

Background: Antenatal care (ANC), delivery by skilled birth attendants, and postnatal care (PNC) are critical components of maternal health services for reducing maternal mortality. The study aimed to compare the utilization of maternal health services in the two most recent rounds of Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) and identify the factors influencing the utilization of these services using the 2016 EDHS.

Methods: Two rounds of EDHS data in 2011 and 2016 were used to estimate the proportion of women who had ANC, delivered by skilled birth attendants, and had a postnatal checkup and other characteristics of the surveyed population. Read More

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Does education variability change testicular cancer awareness and testicular self-examination?

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1592-1595

Tekirdag Namik Kemal University School of Medicine, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the awareness about testicular cancer and testicular self examination among medical students and the community.

Methods: The cross-sectional comparative study was conducted from January to April 2019 at Tekirdag, Turkey, and comprised young male medical students aged 18-26 years and an age-matched control group of male high school graduates. Data was collected using face-to-face survey through a 15-question survey form. Read More

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Biofouling impacts on polyethylene density and sinking in coastal waters: A macro/micro tipping point?

Water Res 2021 May 26;201:117289. Epub 2021 May 26.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

Biofouling causing an increase in plastic density and sinking is one of the hypotheses to account for the unexpectedly low amount of buoyant plastic debris encountered at the ocean surface. Field surveys show that polyethylene and polypropylene, the two most abundant buoyant plastics, both occur below the surface and in sediments, and experimental studies confirm that biofouling can cause both of these plastics to sink. However, studies quantifying the actual density of fouled plastics are rare, despite the fact that density will determine the transport and eventual fate of plastic in the ocean. Read More

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Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with COVID-19: clinical features and potential inference with lung dysbiosis.

Crit Care 2021 06 7;25(1):197. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Dipartimento Di Scienze Biotecnologiche Di Base, Cliniche Intensivologiche E Perioperatorie, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-associated bacterial infections secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study aimed to investigate clinical features of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (SA-VAP) and, if bronchoalveolar lavage samples were available, lung bacterial community features in ICU patients with or without COVID-19.

Methods: We prospectively included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across two medical ICUs of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Read More

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Comparison of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors with other antihypertensives in association with coronavirus disease-19 clinical outcomes.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 5;21(1):527. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 26, Hobart, TAS, 7001, Australia.

Background: Reports on the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have been conflicting. We performed this meta-analysis to find conclusive evidence.

Methods: We searched published articles through PubMed, EMBASE and medRxiv from 5 January 2020 to 3 August 2020. Read More

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Vicarious traumatization in healthcare providers in response to COVID-19 pandemic in Kelantan, Malaysia.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252603. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Raja Perempuan Zainab II Hospital, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: In the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, frontline healthcare providers who are engaged in the direct diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients face a high risk of infection yet receive inadequate protection from contamination and minimal support to cope with overwork, frustration, and exhaustion. These problems have created significant psychological and mental health concerns for frontline healthcare providers. This study aimed to compare the levels of vicarious traumatization between frontline and non-frontline healthcare providers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Strategic purchasing and the performance of health-care systems in upper middle income countries: A comparative study.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 31;10:84. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Associate Professor, Health Services Management, Health Management and Economics Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Providing financial resources for health services is one of the most important issues in the study of health systems, of which purchasing health services is very essential. The World Health Organization considers strategic purchasing as a key option for improving the performance of health systems. The aim of this study was to identify payment methods for service providers and strategic purchasing strategies in upper middle income countries. Read More

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Environmental and spatial risk factors for the larval habitats of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11810. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, Bloomsbury, London, WCIE 7HT, UK.

Land-use changes, such as deforestation and agriculture, can influence mosquito vector populations and malaria transmission. These land-use changes have been linked to increased incidence in human cases of the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. This study investigates whether these associations are partially driven by fine-scale land-use changes creating more favourable aquatic breeding habitats for P. Read More

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What works when: mapping patient and stakeholder engagement methods along the ten-step continuum framework.

J Comp Eff Res 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, 220 Arch St. 12 Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

This study provides a recommended 'patient engagement translation table' that identifies evidence-based methods for meaningful patient engagement along a ten-step framework for continuous engagement. We used a mixed methods research design to collect data on preferred engagement methods, including an environmental scan of available literature, interviews and focus groups with patient-centered outcomes research stakeholders to match methods with research steps and a modified Delphi process with subject matter experts to create the final translation table. Evidence-based engagement methods included community partnerships, focus groups, interviews, meetings, sharing print materials, social media, storytelling, surveys and including patients as research team members. Read More

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Effect of Opt-In vs Opt-Out Framing on Enrollment in a COVID-19 Surveillance Testing Program: The COVID SAFE Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 06 1;4(6):e2112434. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

VA Health Services Research & Development Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Faculty leadership development: A case study of a synergistic approach.

Med Teach 2021 Jun 2:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Introduction: Ongoing leadership development is essential for academic health center faculty members to respond to increasing environmental complexity. At the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, an 8-month program, based on Conger's leadership development approach emphasizing conceptual understanding, skill building, feedback and personal growth was offered to mid-level faculty charged with developing educational programs, clinical services, and/or research initiatives. We studied how specific learning methods catering to different learning approaches contributed to improving leadership competencies. Read More

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Increased extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) reflects rapid non-cardiogenic oedema and mortality in COVID-19 associated ARDS.

Sci Rep 2021 06 1;11(1):11524. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Internal Medicine II, School of Medicine, University Hospital Rechts Der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Nearly 5% of patients suffering from COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) is a marker of pulmonary oedema which is associated with mortality in ARDS. In this study, we evaluate whether EVLWI is higher in patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS as compared to COVID-19 negative, ventilated patients with ARDS and whether EVLWI has the potential to monitor disease progression. Read More

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Changes in presentation, presenting severity and disposition among patients accessing emergency services during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Calgary, Alberta: a descriptive study.

CMAJ Open 2021 Apr-Jun;9(2):E592-E601. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Cumming School of Medicine (Lane, Blanchard, Shaw, McRae), University of Calgary; Department of Emergency Medical Services (Blanchard), Alberta Health Services; Department of Emergency Medicine (McRae), University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation (Buick), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unique pressures on the emergency services system. This study describes changes in the presentation, presenting severity and disposition of patients accessing emergency services in Calgary, Alberta, during the first wave of the pandemic.

Methods: In this descriptive study, we constructed a population cohort of all patients who accessed emergency services by calling emergency medical services (EMS) (ambulance service that provides prehospital treatment and transport to medical facilities) or presenting directly to an emergency department (4 adult and 1 pediatric) or 2 urgent care centres in Calgary during the exposure period (December 2019 to June 2020) compared to 2 historical control periods (December to June, 2017-2018 and 2018-2019) combined. Read More

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Examining the Determinants of Healthcare Workers' Performance: A Configurational Analysis during COVID-19 Times.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 25;18(11). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Spanish and International Economics, Econometrics and History and Economic Institutions, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain.

The evaluation of the work performance of health professionals has focused the interest of scientific research in recent decades as a basis for improving the quality of health services. The global COVID-19 pandemic has pushed countries' health systems to the limit and had previously unknown consequences on the job performance of health professionals. In this context, what are the determinants of performance? There are numerous studies that link job performance with other variables that directly affect it, such as leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work environment. Read More

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Validity and Reliability of a COVID-19 Stigma Scale Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Sample of Egyptian Physicians: E16-COVID19-S.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 19;18(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Community, Environmental, and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt.

Introduction: To date, a universal validated and specific tool for assessing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stigma among healthcare workers is lacking. We adapted a SARS stigma scale that was developed using the Berger HIV scale for use as a COVID-19 stigma scale and evaluated its psychometric properties among Egyptian physicians.

Methods: We administered the 17-item SARS stigma scale in an anonymous online questionnaire among 509 Egyptian physicians recruited via convenience sampling during a cross-sectional study in June 2020. Read More

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Vicarious Traumatization Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties Using Rasch Model and Structural Equation Modeling.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 6;18(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu 15586, Malaysia.

Frontline healthcare providers are exposed to indirect trauma through dealing with traumatized patients. This puts them at risk of vicarious traumatization. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, this study seeks to establish the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Vicarious Traumatization Questionnaire among healthcare providers. Read More

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Calcifediol Treatment and Hospital Mortality Due to COVID-19: A Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2021 May 21;13(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Internal Medicine Department, IMIBIC/Reina Sofia University Hospital/University of Córdoba, Avda. Menéndez Pidal s/n, 14004 Córdoba, Spain.

Context: Calcifediol has been proposed as a potential treatment for COVID-19 patients.

Objective: To compare the administration or not of oral calcifediol on mortality risk of patients hospitalized because of COVID-19.

Design: Retrospective, multicenter, open, non-randomized cohort study. Read More

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Social Restrictions versus Testing Campaigns in the COVID-19 Crisis: A Predictive Model Based on the Spanish Case.

Viruses 2021 05 15;13(5). Epub 2021 May 15.

Scientific & Medical Affairs, Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Grifols SSNA, 79 TW Alexander Dr Bldg. 4101, Durham, NC 27713, USA.

The global COVID-19 spread has forced countries to implement non-pharmacological interventions (NPI) (i.e., mobility restrictions and testing campaigns) to preserve health systems. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on happiness and stress: comparison of preclinical and clinical medical students.

Korean J Med Educ 2021 Jun 26;33(2):75-85. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Purpose: To compare differences in happiness and stress and related factors between pre-clinical and clinical year medical students during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. All undergraduate medical students were requested to voluntarily respond to an electronic survey. Read More

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International comparisons of weight stigma: addressing a void in the field.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background/objectives: Despite substantial evidence documenting weight stigma toward people with higher body weight, international comparative studies are lacking in this field. The few studies that have compared weight stigma across different countries focus on explicit weight-biased attitudes rather than people's experiences of weight stigma. The present study conducted a multinational systematic comparison of weight stigma in six countries to assess experiences and interpersonal sources of weight stigma. Read More

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Robotic arm-assisted versus conventional medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: five-year clinical outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6):1088-1095

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a bone-preserving treatment option for osteoarthritis localized to a single compartment in the knee. The success of the procedure is sensitive to patient selection and alignment errors. Robotic arm-assisted UKA provides technological assistance to intraoperative bony resection accuracy, which is thought to improve ligament balancing. Read More

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Trajectories of pain and function in the first five years after total hip and knee arthroplasty : an analysis of patient reported outcome data from the National Joint Registry.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6):1111-1118

Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Aims: To determine the trajectories of patient reported pain and functional disability over five years following total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: A prospective, longitudinal cohort sub-study within the National Joint Registry (NJR) was undertaken. In all, 20,089 patients who underwent primary THA and 22,489 who underwent primary TKA between 2009 and 2010 were sent Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS) questionnaires at six months, and one, three, and five years postoperatively. Read More

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Circulating Type I Interferon Levels and COVID-19 Severity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:657363. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, School of Health and Life Science, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. Laboratory and immunological alterations have been considered as potential markers of disease severity and clinical evolution. Type I interferons (IFN-I), mainly represented by IFN-α and β, are a group of cytokines with an important function in antiviral responses and have played a complex role in COVID-19. Read More

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The Comparative Panel File: Harmonized Household Panel Surveys from Seven Countries.

Eur Sociol Rev 2021 Jun 12;37(3):505-523. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

University of Cologne, Institute of Sociology and Social Psychology, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, 50923 Köln, Germany.

The Comparative Panel File (CPF) harmonizes the world's largest and longest-running household panel surveys from seven countries: Australia (HILDA), Germany (SOEP), United Kingdom (BHPS and UKHLS), South Korea (KLIPS), Russia (RLMS), Switzerland (SHP), and the United States (PSID). The project aims to support the social science community in the analysis of comparative life course data. The CPF builds on the Cross-National Equivalent File but offers a larger range of variables, larger and more recent samples, an easier and more flexible workflow, and an open science platform for development. Read More

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One Health approach for elimination of human anthrax in a tribal district of Odisha: Study protocol.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0251041. Epub 2021 May 27.

ICMR - Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Background: Anthrax is a major but neglected zoonotic disease of public health concern in India with Odisha contributing a major share to the disease burden. Bacillus anthracis spores can be found naturally in soil and commonly affect both animals and humans around the world. Domestic and wild animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, and deer can become infected when they inhale or ingest spores from contaminated soil, plants, or water. Read More

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Analysis of the AUDIT factor structure in adolescents between 18 and 19 years.

Rev Saude Publica 2021 24;55:27. Epub 2021 May 24.

Universidade Federal do Maranhão. Departamento de Saúde Pública. São Luís, MA, Brasil.

Objective: To determine the factor structure of the instrument Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in a representative sample of adolescents aged 18 to 19 years.

Methods: Cross-sectional study performed with adolescents born in São Luís (MA). The internal consistency of the instrument was determined by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the validity of the construct was assessed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Read More

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How medical students cope with stress: a cross-sectional look at strategies and their sociodemographic antecedents.

BMC Med Educ 2021 May 25;21(1):299. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Academic Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E5, Canada.

Background: Medical training can be highly stressful for students and negatively impact their mental health. Important to this matter are the types of coping strategies (and their antecedents) medical students use, which are only characterized to a limited extent. A better understanding of these phenomena can shed additional light on ways to support the health and well-being of medical students. Read More

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