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Biomarker-Based Determination of Equiseti herba Contamination by Equisetum palustre Using HPLC-MS/MS.

Planta Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.

Equiseti herba has been traditionally indicated in bacterial diseases of the efferent urinary tract or bad healing wounds in many regions worldwide. Most of the plant material used for medical purposes comes from collections of wild growing plants. The European Pharmacopoeia requires that Equiseti herba should consist of a minimum of 95% and a maximum of 5% foreign ingredients. Read More

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A mixed-methods evaluation of the uptake of novel differentiated ART delivery models in a national sample of health facilities in Uganda.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254214. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Kabale University, School of Medicine, Kabale, Uganda.

Introduction: Since 2017, Uganda has been implementing five differentiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery models to improve the quality of HIV care and to achieve health-system efficiencies. Community-based models include Community Client-Led ART Delivery and Community Drug Distribution Points. Facility-based models include Fast Track Drug Refill, Facility Based Group and Facility Based Individual Management. Read More

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Irritability-related neural responses to frustrative nonreward in adolescents with trauma histories: A preliminary investigation.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Irritability, conceptualized as a lowered frustration response threshold to blocked goal attainment (i.e., frustrative nonreward), is a common, detrimental symptom in adolescence. Read More

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Predictive factors for patients who need treatment for chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) after breast cancer surgery.

Breast Cancer 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Breast Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8601, Japan.

Background: Although chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after breast cancer surgery is a common and prevalent postsurgical adverse event, the need for CPSP treatment has not been investigated. This study examined the proportion of patients who needed treatment for CPSP and associated predictors.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with female patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at our institution. Read More

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Handball-Related Head and Neck Trauma: An Analysis of the 2000-2019 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) Database.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Columbia University College of Dental Medicine Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Dental Medicine (Oral Surgery), Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report on the characteristics of head and neck injuries secondary to the sport of Handball in the United States.

Materials And Methods: This is a 20-year cross-sectional study that was conducted using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Handball injuries were included in the study if they involved the head, face, eyeball, mouth, ear, or neck. Read More

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Laboratory-Developed Tests: Design of a Regulatory Strategy in Compliance with the International State-of-the-Art and the Regulation (EU) 2017/746 (EU IVDR [In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Regulation]).

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Labor Berlin - Charité Vivantes GmbH, Sylter Strasse 2, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: This study aimed at the development of a regulatory strategy for compliance of laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) with requirements of the Regulation (EU) 2017/746 ("EU-IVDR") under consideration of international requirements for LDTs as established in major regulatory regions. Furthermore, it was analysed in how far elements of current LDT regulation could qualify for an internationally harmonised concept ensuring quality, safety and performance of LDTs.

Methods: A review of regulatory literature including legislation as well as guidance documents was performed. Read More

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Insulin-resistance and depression cohort data mining to identify nutraceutical related DNA methylation biomarker for type 2 diabetes.

Genes Dis 2021 Sep 27;8(5):669-676. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Lab of Epigenetics and Advanced Health Technology, SPACEnter Space Science and Technology Institute, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, 518117, PR China.

Insulin-resistance (IR) is one of the most important precursors of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent evidence suggests an association of depression with the onset of T2D. Accumulating evidence shows that depression and T2D share common biological origins, and DNA methylation examination might reveal the link between lifestyle, disease risk, and potential therapeutic targets for T2D. Read More

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September 2021

Keeping Balance Between Genetic Stability and Plasticity at the Telomere and Subtelomere of .

Authors:
Bibo Li

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:699639. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, College of Sciences and Health Professions, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Telomeres, the nucleoprotein complexes at chromosome ends, are well-known for their essential roles in genome integrity and chromosome stability. Yet, telomeres and subtelomeres are frequently less stable than chromosome internal regions. Many subtelomeric genes are important for responding to environmental cues, and subtelomeric instability can facilitate organismal adaptation to extracellular changes, which is a common theme in a number of microbial pathogens. Read More

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Dermatologic Manifestations of Tick-borne Diseases in Travelers.

Curr Trop Med Rep 2021 Jun 12;8(2):99-103. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK, USA.

Purpose Of Review: International and domestic travelers may acquire a wide variety of infectious diseases transmitted by exposure to insects. Exposure to ticks may be associated with systemic infections clinically suspected through skin and soft tissue manifestations along with fever, myalgia, headache, and other related symptoms. Cutaneous lesions may include eschars at the site of initial contact, maculopapular rashes, or others as the result of systemic dissemination of viral, Rickettsial, parasitic, and protozoan infections acquired by exposure to different types of ticks. Read More

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A 10-year review of colonoscopy at aminu kano teaching hospital, Kano Nigeria.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jul;24(7):1072-1076

Department of Internal Medicine, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: Colonoscopy is an investigation modality used for colorectal examination; it is the most accurate technique for the diagnosis and surveillance of important colorectal diseases such as cancers (colorectal cancer) and polyps. Aims: Most studies on colonoscopy in Nigeria were conducted in southwest such as Ilorin, Ife, Ibadan, and Lagos. We therefore feel the need to get information from other regions such as northwest, the area of this study. Read More

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Enhancers with tissue-specific activity are enriched in intronic regions.

Genome Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08003, Catalonia, Spain.

Tissue function and homeostasis reflect the gene expression signature by which the combination of ubiquitous and tissue-specific genes contribute to the tissue maintenance and stimuli-responsive function. Enhancers are central to control this tissue-specific gene expression pattern. Here, we explore the correlation between the genomic location of enhancers and their role in tissue-specific gene expression. Read More

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Complications of oral piercing: a review of the literature and two case reports.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2021 May-Jun;35(3 Suppl. 1):167-178

Department of Clinical Science and Translational Medicine University of Rome "Tor Vergata".

The practice of piercing has been used since ancient times, and nowadays is coming back in fashion among adolescents and young adults. Teenagers wearing oral piercings are frequently observed during routine examination, and there are, also, recurrent harmful consequences attributed to the devices. Unfortunately, piercings are usually placed by unlicensed individuals, lacking the appropriate anatomical knowledge, and therefore unable to provide sufficient information regarding the potential risks, especially when compared to the ones known by the patients. Read More

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Adaptive and non-adaptive causes of heterogeneity in genetic differentiation across the Mimulus guttatus genome.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 111 Koshland Hall, CA, 94720, USA.

Genetic diversity becomes structured among populations over time due to genetic drift and divergent selection. Although population structure is often treated as a uniform underlying factor, recent resequencing studies of wild populations have demonstrated that diversity in many regions of the genome may be structured quite dissimilar to the genome-wide pattern. We explore the adaptive and non-adaptive causes of such genomic heterogeneity using population-level, whole genome resequencing data obtained from annual Mimulus guttatus individuals collected across a rugged environment landscape. Read More

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Structural basis for glucocorticoid receptor recognition of both unmodified and methylated binding sites, precursors of a modern recognition element.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

The most common form of DNA methylation involves the addition of a methyl group to a cytosine base in the context of a cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotide. Genomes from more primitive organisms are more abundant in CpG sites that, through the process of methylation, deamination and subsequent mutation to thymine-phosphate-guanine (TpG) sites, can produce new transcription factor binding sites. Here, we examined the evolutionary history of the over 36 000 glucocorticoid receptor (GR) consensus binding motifs in the human genome and identified a subset of them in regulatory regions that arose via a deamination and subsequent mutation event. Read More

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Local Microcircuitry of PaS Shows Distinct and Common Features of Excitatory and Inhibitory Connectivity.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

The parasubiculum (PaS) is located within the parahippocampal region, where it is thought to be involved in the processing of spatial navigational information. It contains a number of functionally specialized neuron types including grid cells, head direction cells, and border cells; and provides input into layer 2 of the medial entorhinal cortex where grid cells are abundantly located. The local circuitry within the PaS remains so far undefined but may provide clues as to the emergence of spatially tuned firing properties of neurons in this region. Read More

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The brain basis of handwriting deficits in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.

Dev Sci 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Center for Brain Disorders and Cognitive Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China.

Abundant behavioral studies have demonstrated high comorbidity of reading and handwriting difficulties in developmental dyslexia (DD), a neurological condition characterized by unexpectedly low reading ability despite adequate nonverbal intelligence and typical schooling. The neural correlates of handwriting deficits remain largely unknown, however, as well as the extent that handwriting deficits share common neural bases with reading deficits in DD. The present work used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity during handwriting and reading tasks in Chinese dyslexic children (n = 18) and age-matched controls (n = 23). Read More

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Structural atrophy of the right superior frontal gyrus in adolescents with severe irritability.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Severe irritability is common in youths with psychiatric disorders and results in significant dysfunction across domains (academic, social, and familial). Prior structural MRI studies in the pediatric population demonstrated that aberrations of cortical thickness (CT) and gray matter volume (GMV) in the fronto-striatal-temporal regions which have been associated with irritability. However, the directions of the correlations between structural alteration and irritability in the individual indices were not consistent. Read More

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Perinatal mental health around the world: priorities for research and service development in Africa.

BJPsych Int 2020 Aug;17(3):56-59

Senior Clinical Research Fellow, Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Email:

Africa is a diverse and changing continent with a rapidly growing population, and the mental health of mothers is a key health priority. Recent studies have shown that: perinatal common mental disorders (depression and anxiety) are at least as prevalent in Africa as in high-income and other low- and middle-income regions; key risk factors include intimate partner violence, food insecurity and physical illness; and poor maternal mental health is associated with impairment of infant health and development. Psychological interventions can be integrated into routine maternal and child healthcare in the African context, although the optimal model and intensity of intervention remain unclear and are likely to vary across settings. Read More

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Th17 T cells and immature dendritic cells are the preferential initial targets after rectal challenge with an SIV-based replication-defective dual-reporter vector.

J Virol 2021 Jul 21:JVI0070721. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Chicago Illinois, USA.

Understanding the earliest events of HIV sexual transmission is critical to develop and optimize HIV prevention strategies. To gain insights into the earliest steps of HIV rectal transmission, including cellular targets, rhesus macaques were intra-rectally challenged with a single-round SIV-based dual reporter that expresses luciferase and iRFP670 upon productive transduction. The vector was pseudotyped with the HIV-1 envelope JRFL. Read More

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The π-hole revisited.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Computer-Chemie-Centrum and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nägelbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen, Germany.

It follows from the Schrödinger equation that the forces operating within molecules and molecular complexes are Coulombic, which necessarily entails both electrostatics and polarization. A common and important class of molecular complexes is due to π-holes. These are molecular regions of low electronic density that are perpendicular to planar portions of the molecular frameworks. Read More

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Converging dopaminergic neurotoxicity mechanisms of antipsychotics, methamphetamine and levodopa.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jul;25(13):4514-4519

Department of Psychiatry, General Hospital of Nikea and Pireus Hagios Panteleimon, Patras, Greece.

Objective: Drugs affecting dopaminergic neurotransmission may exert toxic and beneficial effects that persist after discontinuation by modulating gene expression in key brain regions. Drug addiction, cravings and the tardive symptoms associated with chronic exposure to antipsychotics are among the most common processes attributed to long-term dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The purpose of this review was to investigate the mechanisms of dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by neuroleptic drugs, dopamine agonists, levodopa, stimulants and known dopaminergic neurotoxins MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed search for each of the dopaminergic compounds in question was carried out. Read More

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Clinical Review of Proton Therapy in the Treatment of Unilateral Head and Neck Cancers.

Int J Part Ther 2021 25;8(1):248-260. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Radiotherapy is a common treatment modality in the management of head and neck malignancies. In select clinical scenarios of well-lateralized tumors, radiotherapy can be delivered to the primary tumor or tumor bed and the ipsilateral nodal regions, while intentional irradiation of the contralateral neck is omitted. Proton beam therapy is an advanced radiotherapy modality that allows for the elimination of exit-dose through nontarget tissues such as the oral cavity. Read More

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Co-evolutionary landscape at the interface and non-interface regions of protein-protein interaction complexes.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 24;19:3779-3795. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Structural Biology and Bioinformatics Division, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Kolkata, West Bengal 700032, India.

Proteins involved in interactions throughout the course of evolution tend to co-evolve and compensatory changes may occur in interacting proteins to maintain or refine such interactions. However, certain residue pair alterations may prove to be detrimental for functional interactions. Hence, determining co-evolutionary pairings that could be structurally or functionally relevant for maintaining the conservation of an inter-protein interaction is important. Read More

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Varicella Admissions in Children and Adolescents in Portugal: 2000-2015.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal

Objectives: Varicella is a common, usually benign, and autolimited disease in children but can lead to severe complications and hospitalization. With this study, we aim to analyze all varicella hospitalizations to provide epidemiological information to help outline preventive policies.

Methods: We assessed all varicella hospitalizations in children aged 0 to 17 years, from 2000 to 2015, in mainland, public Portuguese hospitals using a Portuguese administrative database. Read More

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Radiotherapy CT-based contouring atlas for non-malignant skeletal and soft tissue disorders: a practical proposal from Spanish experience.

Br J Radiol 2021 Aug;94(1124):20200809

Department of Radiation Oncology, HM Hospitales, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: Interest in low-dose radiotherapy (LD-RT) for the symptomatic treatment of nonmalignant conditions, including inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the joints and para-articular soft tissues, has increased substantially in recent years. In the present document, we provide a CT-based contouring atlas to help identify and delineate the most common osteoarticular regions susceptible to LD-RT.

Methods: The clinical efficacy of LD-RT is supported by a large body of evidence. Read More

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Different cerebral functional segregation in Sjogren's syndrome with or without systemic lupus erythematosus revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation.

Acta Radiol 2021 Jul 20:2841851211032441. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, PR China.

Background: Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SjS-SLE) was considered a standalone but often-overlooked entity.

Purpose: To assess altered spontaneous brain activity in SjS-SLE and SjS using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF).

Material And Methods: Sixteen patients with SjS-SLE, 17 patients with SjS, and 17 matched controls underwent neuropsychological tests and subsequent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations. Read More

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