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Trophic relationships between the crab Libinia ferreirae and its symbionts.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Sep 17;171:105479. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Group of Studies on Crustacean Biology, Ecology and Culture (NEBECC), Department of Zoology, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 18618-970, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Symbioses are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. However, in most cases, the role of each member is relatively fixed, and it is rare for the same species to exhibit different symbiotic behaviours throughout its ontogeny. Here, we use stable isotope analyses of food resources to identify the relationships between the spider crab Libinia ferreirae as a symbiont of its jellyfish host during juvenile life stages and as a host for sea anemone epibionts on its carapace as an adult. Read More

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September 2021

Acute Gastroenteritis on Cruise Ships - Maritime Illness Database and Reporting System, United States, 2006-2019.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2021 Sep 24;70(6):1-19. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Problem/condition: Gastrointestinal illness is common worldwide and can be transmitted by an infected person or contaminated food, water, or environmental surfaces. Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness commonly occur in crowded living accommodations or communities where persons are physically close. Pathogens that cause gastrointestinal illness outbreaks can spread quickly in closed and semienclosed environments, such as cruise ships. Read More

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September 2021

Do patient-reported outcome measures improve after aseptic revision total hip arthroplasty?

Hip Int 2021 Sep 23:11207000211036320. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Orthopaedic Department, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) changes in: (1) pain, function and global health; and (2) predictors of PROMs in patients undergoing aseptic revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) using a multilevel model with patients nested within surgeon.

Methods: A prospective cohort of 216 patients with baseline and 1-year PROMs who underwent aseptic rTHA between January 2016 and December 2017 were analysed. The most common indication for rTHA was aseptic loosening, instability, and implant failure. Read More

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September 2021

Not all superabsorbent wound dressings are born equal: theory and experiments.

Authors:
Amit Gefen

J Wound Care 2021 Sep;30(9):738-750

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.

Among the advanced wound dressing types, superabsorbent (SA) dressings form an important class of dressings, particularly for the management of medium to highly exuding wounds. However, SA dressings are not all made the same. This educational article describes distinct, common SA dressing designs, which differ fundamentally in structure and composition, and, thereby, in their exudate absorption function and clinical efficacy. Read More

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September 2021

Ferroptosis-related lncRNA pairs to predict the clinical outcome and molecular characteristics of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death initiated by oxidative perturbations that can be blocked by iron chelators and lipophilic antioxidants, and ferroptosis may be the silver bullet treatment for multiple cancers, including immunotherapy- and chemotherapy-insensitive cancers such as pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Numerous studies have noted that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate the biological behaviour of cancer cells by binding to DNA, RNA and protein. However, few studies have reported the role of lncRNAs in ferroptosis processes and the function of ferroptosis-associated lncRNAs. Read More

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September 2021

A pig model of tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC) infection and dysfunction: Opportunities for therapeutic innovation.

J Vasc Access 2021 Sep 23:11297298211046751. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

UNC Kidney Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Although tunneled dialysis catheters (TDC) are far from ideal, they still represent the main form of vascular access for most patients beginning dialysis. Catheters are easy to place and allow patients instant access to dialysis, but regardless of these benefits, catheters are associated with a high incidence of significant complications like bloodstream infections, central venous stenosis, thrombosis, and dysfunction. In the present study, we aim to describe and characterize a swine model of catheter dysfunction and bloodstream infection, that recreates the clinical scenario, to help to serve as a platform to develop therapeutic innovations for this important clinical problem. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of species isolated from oral lesions in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

Curr Med Mycol 2021 Mar;7(1):44-50

Invasive Fungi Research Center, Communicable Diseases Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Radiation therapy in patients with head and neck malignancies predisposes them to oral colonization and infection due to damage of oral mucosa and destruction of the salivary gland. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) undergoing radiotherapy (RT), identify the yeasts isolated from them, and determine their antifungal susceptibility.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2018 to June 2019 at two referral radiotherapy centers in northern Iran. Read More

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Surgical Management of Proximal Fifth Metatarsal Fractures in Elite Athletes: A Systematic Review.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Sep 17;9(9):23259671211037647. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Physical Rehabilitation, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Background: As a result of the high physical demand in sport, elite athletes are particularly prone to fifth metatarsal fractures. These injuries are typically managed surgically to avoid high rates of delayed union and allow for quicker return to play (RTP).

Purpose: To review studies showing clinical and radiographic outcomes, RTP rates, and complication rates after different surgical treatment modalities for fifth metatarsal fractures exclusively in elite-level athletes. Read More

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September 2021

Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in South Asian infants: Results of observational cohort studies in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations.

J Glob Health 2021 4;11:04054. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage (NPC) is a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease and reduced carriage of vaccine serotypes is a marker for the protection offered by the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). The present study reports NPC during the first year of life in a vaccinated (with PCV10) cohort in Bangladesh and an unvaccinated cohort in India.

Methods: A total of 450 and 459 infants were recruited from India and Bangladesh respectively within 0-7 days after birth. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization and Identification of a Novel Torovirus Associated With Recombinant Bovine Torovirus From Tibetan Antelope in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China.

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:737753. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Toroviruses (ToVs) are enteric pathogens and comprise three species, equine torovirus (EToV), bovine torovirus (BToV), and porcine torovirus (PToV). In this study, a novel torovirus (antelope torovirus, AToV) was discovered from fecal samples of Tibetan antelopes () with viral loads of 2.10×10 to 1. Read More

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September 2021

A web-based fuzzy risk predictive-decision model of de novo stress urinary incontinence in women undergoing pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

Curr Urol 2021 Sep 9;15(3):131-136. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Research Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, A Joanna Briggs Institute Affiliated Group, Urology Department, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) are common conditions affecting women's health and quality of life. In 50% of cases, SUI occurs after POP surgery, which is called de novo SUI. Predicting the risk of de novo SUI is a complex multi-attribute decision-making process. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of a Mediterranean diet intervention on gastrointestinal function in Parkinson's disease (the MEDI-PD study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 22;11(9):e053336. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Introduction: Constipation is a common and sometimes debilitating non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that can result in intestinal inflammation and microbial dysbiosis. The Mediterranean diet, rich in fermentable fibres and anti-inflammatory phenolic compounds, is associated with reduced risk of developing PD and slower progression of parkinsonism. The Mediterranean diet is often recommended for people with PD; however, no studies to date examine this diet as a therapeutic intervention to modulate gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Read More

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September 2021

Use of metformin to prolong gestation in preterm pre-eclampsia: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.

BMJ 2021 Sep 22;374:n2103. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Translational Obstetrics Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To evaluate whether extended release metformin could be used to prolong gestation in women being expectantly managed for preterm pre-eclampsia.

Design: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.

Setting: Referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

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September 2021

Unusual endophytic non-enhancing tumour in the renal pelvis: a diagnostic dilemma.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Sep 22;14(9). Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Histopathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India.

Renal cell cancer (RCC) is incidentally detected on imaging in 50%-60% of cases. Among the RCCs, clear cell variant is most common and classically seen as heterogenous enhancing lesion on CT imaging. Hypoenhancing mass presents a diagnostic dilemma with differential diagnosis being urothelial carcinoma, fat poor angiomyolipoma, oncocytoma or rarer variants of RCC. Read More

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September 2021

Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica cases caused by GPNMB mutations with different inheritance patterns.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Diagnosis on Dermatoses, National Clinical Research Center for Skin and Immune Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica (ACD) is a rare form of primary cutaneous amyloidosis featured by reticulate dotted hypo- and hyperpigmentation. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in GPNMB, encoding glycoprotein (transmembrane) nonmetastatic melanoma protein B, were found in autosomal-recessive or semi-dominant ACD.

Objective: This study aims to detect the genetic defect underlying ACD in nine separate cases and to investigate the functional consequences of the mutants. Read More

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Localized cold urticaria: an unusual form of cold urticaria.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Dermatology Department, Coimbra University Hospital Center, Coimbra, Portugal.

Cold urticaria (ColdU) is a common type of inducible urticaria, characterized by the appearance of wheals, angioedema or both upon cold exposure, either by direct contact or exposure to a cold ambient. Patients may have generalized cutaneous lesions and up to 30% may develop systemic symptoms, including dizziness, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, muscle weakness, respiratory distress or even anaphylaxis. ColdU can be familial or acquired, the latter being further classified into primary or secondary to an underlying cause, such as cryoglobulins, infections or drugs. Read More

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September 2021

Synthesis and antiviral activity of diverse heterocyclic scaffolds.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004, Punjab, India.

Heterocyclic moieties form a major part of organic chemistry as they are widely distributed in nature and have wide scale practical applications ranging from extensive clinical use to diverse fields such as medicine, agriculture, photochemistry, biocidal formulations and polymer science. By virtue of their therapeutic properties, they could be employed in combating many infectious diseases. Among the common infectious diseases, viral infections are of great public health importance worldwide. Read More

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September 2021

Being a parent of a child with Down's arthritis: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Sep 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Centre for Pain Research, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

Purpose: To explore the parental impact and experiences of caring for a child with Down's arthritis (DA), an aggressive, erosive form of arthritis affecting children with Down syndrome.

Materials And Methods: Ten mothers of children with DA were interviewed via telephone. Interviews were guided using a semi-structured non-directive topic guide and ranged from 17 to 242 minutes in duration. Read More

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September 2021

Multiple Dietary Vitamin K Forms Are Converted to Tissue Menaquinone-4 in Mice.

J Nutr 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: "Vitamin K" is a family of structurally-related quinones, phylloquinone (PK) and the menaquinones (MKn), that share a common naphthoquinone ring but vary in sidechain length (n) and saturation. Dietary PK is a biosynthetic precursor to tissue menaquinone-4 (MK4), but little is known about the absorption and metabolism of dietary MKn.

Objective: To characterize absorption and metabolism of dietary MKn relative to PK. Read More

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September 2021

Feasibility and Acceptability of a Web-Based Caregiver Decision Aid (Safety in Dementia) for Firearm Access: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Sep 22;5(9):e30990. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Veterans Affairs Eastern Colorado Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Rocky Mountain Regional Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Aurora, CO, United States.

Background: Firearms are common in the households of persons with Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD). Safety in Dementia (SiD) is a free web-based decision aid that was developed to support ADRD caregivers in addressing firearm access.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of SiD among a web-based sample of ADRD caregivers. Read More

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September 2021

Designing an Indoor Air Quality Monitoring App for Asthma Management in Children: User-Centered Design Approach.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Sep 22;5(9):e27447. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

School of Communication and Information, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

Background: Indoor air pollution is a well-known risk factor that triggers and exacerbates asthma, the most common pediatric chronic disease. Using a mobile app to monitor indoor air quality could be promising in engaging children in keeping their indoor air quality clean and healthy as secondary environmental prevention for asthma management. However, no app is available to allow children to monitor, assess, and improve their indoor air quality. Read More

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September 2021

Microbiota-Macroalgal Relationships at a Hawaiian Intertidal Bench Are Influenced by Macroalgal Phyla and Associated Thallus Complexity.

mSphere 2021 Sep 22:e0066521. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Biology, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

The ocean represents the largest biome on earth; however, we have only begun to understand the diversity and function of the marine microbial inhabitants and their interactions with macroalgal species. Macroalgae play an integral role in overall ocean biome health and serve both as major primary producers and foundation species in the ecosystem. Previous studies have been limited, focusing on the microbiome of a single algal species or its interaction with selected microbes. Read More

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September 2021

Reactive Chlorine Species Reversibly Inhibit DnaB Protein Splicing in Mycobacteria.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 22:e0030121. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, Murray State Universitygrid.214409.a, Murray, Kentucky, USA.

tervening pro, or inteins, are mobile genetic elements that are translated within host polypeptides and removed at the protein level by splicing. In protein splicing, a self-mediated reaction removes the intein, leaving a peptide bond in place. While protein splicing can proceed in the absence of external cofactors, several examples of conditional protein splicing (CPS) have emerged. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical Practice Trends and Postoperative Outcomes in Primary Cleft Rhinoplasty.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Sep 22:10556656211032196. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

12228Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Purpose: Optimal correction of the cleft nasal deformity remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the practice patterns and postoperative course of patients undergoing cleft lip repair with rhinoplasty compared to those who have primary lip repair without rhinoplasty.

Methods And Materials: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the Kids' Inpatient Database. Read More

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September 2021

K-wire Made Easy by Premarking Wire Trajectory on the Skin in Management of Finger Fractures.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Sep 17;9(9):e3797. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Prince Mohammed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Hand injury in general and fractures in particular are among the most common complaints of hand trauma patients presenting to our emergency department. Depending on fracture types, geometry, locations, and stability, treatment options may vary from close reduction and splinting to close reduction and K-wire fixation, and finally, to open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of the study was to prove that premarking of K-wire trajectory helps reduce procedure and fluoroscopy time, as well as the number of wire-insertion attempts, and minimize bone and soft tissue injury in the management of phalangeal finger fractures. Read More

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September 2021

Intussusception in children under five years of age in Enugu, Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 6;39(Suppl 1). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

Introduction: intussusception is the invagination of a segment of the bowel into a distal segment. It occurs predominantly in infants worldwide. Following documentation of increased incidence after introduction of the first rotavirus vaccine (Rotashield, Wyeth-Lederle), it has become a standard recommendation to maintain surveillance for intussusception as newer rotavirus vaccines are introduced into EPI. Read More

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The LIN28B/TGF-β/TGFBI feedback loop promotes cell migration and tumour initiation potential in cholangiocarcinoma.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a lethal malignancy of the biliary epithelium, is the second most common primary liver cancer. The poor prognosis of CCA is due to the high rate of tumour invasion and distant metastasis. We found that the RNA-binding protein LIN28B, a known regulator of microRNA biogenesis, stem cell maintenance, and oncogenesis, is expressed in a subpopulation of CCA patients. Read More

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September 2021

Bio-inspired spatially variant photonic crystals for self-collimation and beam-steering applications in the near-infrared spectrum.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 21;11(1):18767. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL, 32542-6810, USA.

The self-collimation of light through Photonic Crystals (PCs) due to their optical properties and through a special geometric structure offers a new form of beam steering with highly optical control capabilities for a range of different applications. The objective of this work is to understand self-collimation and bending of light beams through bio-inspired Spatially Variant Photonic Crystals (SVPCs) made from dielectric materials such as silicon dioxide and common polymers used in three-dimensional printing like SU-8. Based upon natural PCs found in animals such as butterflies and fish, the PCs developed in this work can be used to manipulate different wavelengths of light for optical communications, multiplexing, and beam-tuning devices for light detection and ranging applications. Read More

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September 2021

Predisease Physical Activity Level and Current Functional Capacity in Patients With COVID-19: Relationship With Pneumonia and Oxygen Requirement.

J Phys Act Health 2021 Sep 21:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictive measures can reduce physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate predisease physical activity and current functional capacity in patients with and without the presence of pneumonia and oxygen requirement in Turkish survivors of COVID-19.

Methods: Among the COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital, 100 patients were selected. Read More

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September 2021

Adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the treatment of cancers in Australia and the factors associated with adherence: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 21;11(9):e050912. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) synthesise the latest evidence to support clinical and patient decision-making. CPG adherent care is associated with improved patient survival outcomes; however, adherence rates are low across some cancer streams in Australia. Greater understanding of specific barriers to cancer treatment CPG adherence is warranted to inform future implementation strategies. Read More

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September 2021