9,613 results match your criteria combined substances


Quality Evaluation of Thunb. Based on Qualitative Analysis of the HPLC Fingerprint and UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS Combined with Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents.

J Anal Methods Chem 2021 21;2021:5546446. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmacy, Nantong Health College of Jiangsu Province, Nantong 226010, Jiangsu, China.

In this study, a new method was developed for the comprehensive quality evaluation (QE) of Thunb. (, named Yinchenhao in Chinese), which is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines (HMs). First, fingerprints of 31 batch samples of were determined by HPLC, the reference fingerprint was established, and the common peaks were assigned. Read More

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Pharmacotherapy of Patients Taking New Psychoactive Substances: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Case Reports.

Front Psychiatry 2021 23;12:669921. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, Centre for Preclinical, Research and Technology (CePT), Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

In recent years, an increase in the frequency of hospitalizations of patients taking newer and newer psychoactive substances has been observed around the world. Each year, authors publish case reports of patients who consumed previously unknown NPS. Most publications of this type concern the period between 2014 and 2016. Read More

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Perturbation of serum metabolome in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites and bisphenols.

Environ Int 2021 May 6;155:106609. Epub 2021 May 6.

Tianjin Medical University Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging evidence has proved the associations between exposure to phthalates (PAEs) and bisphenols and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mechanisms for these associations are poorly understood. Metabolomics is a powerful tool to identify differential metabolites and metabolic pathways related to diseases and chemical exposure, which may reveal underlying mechanisms. However, little is known about the roles of metabolism in the associations for PAE and bisphenol exposure with T2DM. Read More

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Occurrence, removal and mass balance of substituted diphenylamine antioxidants in wastewater treatment plants in Northeast China.

Environ Res 2021 May 6:111291. Epub 2021 May 6.

International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; International Joint Research Center for Arctic Environment and Ecosystem (IJRC-AEE), Polar Academy, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology & Food Sciences (KBM), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.

Substituted diphenylamine antioxidants (SDPAs) are additives used in various commodities and are commonly found in environmental samples. However, limited information was available on their fate and removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper reports the results on the occurrence and removal efficiency of ten selected SDPAs in six WWTPs equipped with different treatment processes in Northeast China. Read More

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Dewaterability improvement and environmental risk mitigation of waste activated sludge using peroxymonosulfate activated by zero-valent metals: Fe vs. Al.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130686. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangdong Polytechnic of Environmental Protection Engineering, Foshan, 528216, China. Electronic address:

The stabilization and dewaterability of waste activated sludge (WAS) are essential factors for downstream disposal or reuse. Herein, two types of zero-valent metals, zero-valent iron (Fe) and zero-valent aluminum (Al), were compared for their ability to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) during the WAS conditioning process, with the effects of PMS activation by these two metals on WAS dewaterability and the potential environmental risks evaluated. Results showed that compared to Al/PMS treatment, Fe/PMS treatment achieved superior WAS dewaterability and reduced operational costs. Read More

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Post-mortem distribution of mephedrone and its metabolites in body fluids and organ tissues of an intoxication case.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 22;201:114093. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are substances that continue to appear on the drug market to bypass controlled substance legislation. Mephedrone or 4-methylmethcathinone is becoming the most popular new psychoactive substance among youth as a recreational drug. The present study describes the optimization and validation of a sensitive method that combined clean up procedure and LC-MS/MS technique designed to simultaneously determine the presence of Mephedrone and its two metabolites (normephedrone as active metabolite and dyhidromephedrone) in post-mortem specimens (body fluids and organ tissues). Read More

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Impurity profiling of Compound Amino Acid Injection (6AA) using ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography coupled with corona-charged aerosol detection and high resolution mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 24;201:114099. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1, Tian Tan Xi Li, 100050, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

The complex industrial production process of amino acids (AAs) leads to the existence of a certain amount of impurities in Compound Amino Acid Injection (6AA). It is difficult to obtain its comprehensive and systematic impurity profile using conventional ultraviolet (UV) detectors due to lack of a suitable chromophore in the structures of AAs and their impurities. In our study, a universal ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) and charged aerosol detection (CAD) was developed to identify and determine the content of impurities in Compound Amino Acid Injection (6AA), respectively. Read More

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PFAS and their substitutes in groundwater: Occurrence, transformation and remediation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 23;412:125159. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Integrated Surface Water-Groundwater Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are increasingly investigated due to their global occurrence and potential human health risk. The ban on PFOA and PFOS has led to the use of novel substitutes such as GenX, F-53B and OBS. This paper reviews the studies on the occurrence, transformation and remediation of major PFAS i. Read More

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Microalgae-based technology for antibiotics removal: From mechanisms to application of innovational hybrid systems.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 30;155:106594. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

SCNU Environmental Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China; School of Environment, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Antibiotics contamination is an emerging environmental concern, owing to its potential risks to ecosystems and human health. Microalgae-based technology has been widely reported as a promising alternative to conventional wastewater treatment, since it is a solar-power driven, ecologically friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable reclamation strategy. This review provides fundamental insights into the major mechanisms underpinning microalgae-based antibiotics removal, including bioadsorption, bioaccumulation, and biodegradation. Read More

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Montanide™ ISA 763A VG and ISA 761 VG induce different immune pathway responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) when used as adjuvant for an Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 30;114:171-183. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, UK. Electronic address:

Adjuvants are the helper substances that increase vaccine efficacy by enhancing the potency and longevity of specific immune responses to antigens. Most existing fish vaccines are presented in the form of oil-based emulsions delivered by intraperitoneal injection. The characterization of their mode of action is a valuable aid to future vaccine development, particularly for the potential identification and stimulation of specific immunological pathways related to the desired protective response. Read More

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Strategy for the identification of flavor compounds in e-liquids by correlating the analysis of GCxIMS and GC-MS.

Talanta 2021 Aug 26;230:122318. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Faculty of Chemistry, Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstrasse 5, 45141, Essen, Germany. Electronic address:

This work presents a strategy to correlate the results from gas chromatography coupled ion mobility spectrometry (GCxIMS) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to enable a simpler and cheaper analysis of flavor compounds in e-liquids. The use of the retention index for GCxIMS measurements was validated for its application to correlate results with GC-MS data. The easy detection of the GCxIMS for substances at concentrations as low as 1 μg/L can therefore be combined with the identification power of the MS. Read More

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Community overdose surveillance: Comparing substances collected from the death scene investigation to toxicology results.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 24;224:108722. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Science, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN, 46556, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Recent overdose trends are characterized by increased toxicological detection of stimulants with opioids, yet it is unclear whether these substances are mixed prior to consumption or purposefully used simultaneously.

Methods: Postmortem toxicology data were collected in Marion County, Indiana, from 45 fatal overdose cases involving heroin, fentanyl, methamphetamine, or cocaine. Substances found by death scene investigators at the scene of the fatal overdose (57 samples) were tested using high-pressure liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) technology. Read More

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CATMoS: Collaborative Acute Toxicity Modeling Suite.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 Apr 30;129(4):47013. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background: Humans are exposed to tens of thousands of chemical substances that need to be assessed for their potential toxicity. Acute systemic toxicity testing serves as the basis for regulatory hazard classification, labeling, and risk management. However, it is cost- and time-prohibitive to evaluate all new and existing chemicals using traditional rodent acute toxicity tests. Read More

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Effects of psilocybin microdosing on awe and aesthetic experiences: a preregistered field and lab-based study.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Wassenaarseweg 52, 2333 AK, Leiden, The Netherlands.

There is an increased societal trend to engage in microdosing, in which small sub-hallucinogenic amounts of psychedelics are consumed on a regular basis. Following subjective reports that microdosing enhances the experience of nature and art, in the present study we set out to study the effects of psilocybin microdosing on feelings of awe and art perception. In this preregistered combined field- and lab-based study, participants took part in a microdosing workshop after which they volunteered to self-administer a psilocybin microdose or a placebo for three consecutive weeks, while the condition was kept blind to the participants and researchers. Read More

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An Experimental Approach to Study the Effects of Realistic Environmental Mixture of Linuron and Propamocarb on Zebrafish Synaptogenesis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 27;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.

The reasons behind the extensive use of pesticides include the need to destroy vector organisms and promote agricultural production in order to sustain population growth. Exposure to pesticides is principally occupational, even if their persistence in soil, surface water and food brings the risk closer to the general population, hence the demand for risk assessment, since these compounds exist not only as individual chemicals but also in form of mixtures. In light of this, zebrafish represents a suitable model for the evaluation of toxicological effects. Read More

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Welfare Health and Productivity in Commercial Pig Herds.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Animal Breeding and Product Quality Assessment, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Słoneczna 1, 62-002 Suchy Las, Poland.

In recent years, there have been very dynamic changes in both pork production and pig breeding technology around the world. The general trend of increasing the efficiency of pig production, with reduced employment, requires optimisation and a comprehensive approach to herd management. One of the most important elements on the way to achieving this goal is to maintain animal welfare and health. Read More

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Occurrence and Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals and Hormones in Drinking Water Sources in the Metropolitan Area of Turin in Italy.

Toxics 2021 Apr 20;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Società Metropolitana Acque Torino S.p.A.-Research Center, C.so Unità d'Italia 235/3, 10127 Turin, Italy.

Pharmaceuticals and hormones (PhACs) enter the aquatic environment in multiple ways, posing potential adverse effects on non-target organisms. They have been widely detected in drinking water sources, challenging water companies to reassure good quality drinking water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of sixteen PhACs in both raw and treated drinking water sources in the Metropolitan Area of Turin-where Società Metropolitana Acque Torino (SMAT) is the company in charge of the water cycle management-and evaluate the potential human health risks associated to these compounds. Read More

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Immuno-Hormonal, Genetic and Metabolic Profiling of Newborns as a Basis for the Life-Long OneHealth Medical Record: A Scoping Review.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 15;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Paediatrics and Neonatology, Dijklander Hospital, 1624 NP Hoorn, The Netherlands.

Holistic and life-long medical surveillance is the core of personalised medicine and supports an optimal implementation of both preventive and curative healthcare. Personal medical records are only partially unified by hospital or general practitioner informatics systems, but only for citizens with long-term permanent residence. Otherwise, insight into the medical history of patients greatly depends on their medical archive and memory. Read More

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Combinations of Piperine with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin as a Multifunctional System.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 18;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Swiecickiego 4, 60-781 Poznań, Poland.

Piperine is an alkaloid that has extensive pharmacological activity and impacts other active substances bioavailability due to inhibition of CYP450 enzymes, stimulation of amino acid transporters and -glycoprotein inhibition. Low solubility and the associated low bioavailability of piperine limit its potential. The combination of piperine with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) causes a significant increase in its solubility and, consequently, an increase in permeability through gastrointestinal tract membranes and the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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A review of combined sewer overflows as a source of wastewater-derived emerging contaminants in the environment and their management.

Authors:
Bruce Petrie

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7GJ, UK.

Emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products can be released to the environment in untreated wastewater/stormwater mixtures following storm events. The frequency and intensity of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) has increased in some areas due to increasing urbanisation and climate change. Therefore, this review provides an up-to-date overview on CSOs as an environmental source of emerging contaminants. Read More

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The Reward Re-Training protocol: A novel intervention approach designed to alter the reward imbalance contributing to binge eating during COVID-19.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Center for Weight, Eating, and Lifestyle Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Reduced exposure to social reward during the COVID-19 pandemic may result in both reduced reward response to day-to-day life activities and elevated reward response to substances or naturally rewarding stimuli (e.g., food). Read More

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Role of SIRT1/AMPK signaling in the proliferation, migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells.

Oncol Rep 2021 Jun 28;45(6). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032, P.R. China.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a lethal urologic tumor commonly seen in men that best responds to partial nephrectomy. An enhanced understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of RCC can broaden treatment options and tumor prevention strategies. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD+‑dependent deacetylase that regulates several bioactive substances, and the present study aimed to identify the role of SIRT1/AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in RCC progression. Read More

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Comparison of childhood household injuries and risk factors between urban and rural communities in Ghana: A cluster-randomized, population-based, survey to inform injury prevention research and programming.

Injury 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Childhood household injuries incur a major proportion of the global disease burden, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, household injury hazards are differentially distributed across developed environments. Therefore, we aimed to compare incidence of childhood household injuries and prevalence of risk factors between communities in urban and rural Ghana to inform prevention initiatives. Read More

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Wastewater collection system failures in a capital city: analysis and sustainable prevention.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Apr;83(8):1958-1972

Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

An analysis of failures in a capital city's wastewater collection system was carried out and recommendations were made for sustainable preventive measures based on a risk of failure assessment. Most failures in sewer lines were associated with blockage caused by sediment accumulation and clogging from fats, oils and/or grease dumped by restaurants along several streets, combined with poor or nonexistent maintenance of the lines. Sewer lines in streets with higher risk levels due to multiple food establishments along those streets experienced most of the failures. Read More

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Improvement of phosphorus release from sludge by combined electrochemical-EDTA treatment.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Apr;83(8):1824-1833

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99, Shangda Rd, Shanghai 200444, China E-mail:

In this paper, combined with the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the electrochemical treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated to explore its effect on the release of phosphorus (P) from WAS. The results showed that during the electrochemical treatment, the addition of EDTA could significantly promote the release of P from the WAS to the supernatant, the optimal amount of EDTA was 0.4 g/g total suspended solids (TSS), when the release of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), organic phosphorus (OP) and molybdate reactive phosphorus (PO-P) were 187. Read More

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Falling bacterial communities from the atmosphere.

Environ Microbiome 2020 Dec 10;15(1):22. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Background: Bacteria emitted into the atmosphere eventually settle to the pedosphere via sedimentation (dry deposition) or precipitation (wet deposition), constituting a part of the global cycling of substances on Earth, including the water cycle. In this study, we aim to investigate the taxonomic compositions and flux densities of bacterial deposition, for which little is known regarding the relative contributions of each mode of atmospheric deposition, the taxonomic structures and memberships, and the aerodynamic properties in the atmosphere.

Results: Precipitation was found to dominate atmospheric bacterial deposition, contributing to 95% of the total flux density at our sampling site in Korea, while bacterial communities in precipitation were significantly different from those in sedimentation, in terms of both their structures and memberships. Read More

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December 2020

Biological removal processes in aerobic granular sludge exposed to diclofenac.

Environ Technol 2021 Apr 26:1-30. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF - Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina - Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Diogo Botelho 1327, 4169-005 Porto, Portugal.

Diclofenac is a worldwide consumed drug included in the watch list of substances to be monitored according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (Directive 2013/39/EU). Aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors (AGS-SBR) are increasingly used for wastewater treatment but there is scant information on the fate and effect of micropollutants to nutrient removal processes. An AGS-SBR fed with synthetic wastewater containing diclofenac was bioaugmented with a diclofenac degrading bacterial strain and performance and microbial community dynamics was analysed. Read More

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Model based analysis of carbon fluxes within microalgae-bacteria flocs using respirometric-titrimetric data.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 15;784:147048. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory for Industrial Water and Ecotechnology (LIWET), Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ghent University, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, B-8500 Kortrijk, Belgium.

With the emerging need of nutrient recycling in resource recovery facilities, the use of microalgae-bacteria flocs has received considerable attention in the past few years. However, although the main biological processes are already known, the complex interactions occurring between algae and bacteria are not fully understood. In this work, a combined respirometric-titrimetric unit was used to assess the microorganisms' kinetics within microalgae-bacteria flocs under different growth regimes (i. Read More

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Potentiating activity of Norfloxacin by synthetic chalcones against NorA overproducing Staphylococcus aureus.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 21;155:104894. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Regional University of Cariri, Crato, Ceará, Brazil; Department of Chemistry, Vale do Acaraú State University, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a series of infections occurring in both human and animal hosts. S. aureus SA1199B is a strain resistant to hydrophilic fluoroquinolone due to overproduction of the NorA efflux pump that has been used as a microbial model to evaluate if a compound act as efflux pump inhibitor. Read More

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Intermolecular dark resonance energy transfer (DRET): upgrading fluorogenic DNA sensing.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Nice, UMR 7272 - Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2, France.

The sensitivity of FRET-based sensing is usually limited by the spectral overlaps of the FRET donor and acceptor, which generate a poor signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome this limitation, a quenched donor presenting a large Stokes shift can be combined with a bright acceptor to perform Dark Resonance Energy Transfer (DRET). The consequent fluorogenic response from the acceptor considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Read More

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