World J Clin Cases 2021 May;9(13):2969-2982
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Hallym College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang 14068, South Korea.
Pancreatic cancer, a highly lethal cancer, has the lowest 5-year survival rate for several reasons, including its tendency for the late diagnosis, a lack of serologic markers for screening, aggressive local invasion, its early metastatic dissemination, and its resistance to chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Pancreatic cancer evades immunologic elimination by a variety of mechanisms, including induction of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts interact with inhibitory immune cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages and regulatory T cells, to form an inflammatory shell-like desmoplastic stroma around tumor cells. Read More