395,785 results match your criteria colony-forming units

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-15 is a rapidly internalised cell-surface antigen expressed by acute myeloid leukaemia cells.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology (DMI), The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-15 has recently been identified as a critical tumour checkpoint, augmenting the expression and function of programmed death-ligand 1. We raised a monoclonal antibody, A9E8, specific for Siglec-15 using phage display. A9E8 stained myeloid leukaemia cell lines and peripheral cluster of differentiation (CD)33 blasts and CD34 leukaemia stem cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Read More

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IFNλ Therapy Prevents Severe Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Blood 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Washington, United States.

Immunopathology and intestinal stem cell (ISC) loss in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the prima-facie manifestation of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and is responsible for significant mortality after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Approaches to prevent GVHD to date focus on immune-suppression. Here we identify interferon-lambda (IFNl, IL-28/IL-29) as a key protector of GI GVHD immunopathology, notably within the intestinal stem cell (ISC) compartment. Read More

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel isoxazole-piperazine hybrids as potential anti-cancer agents with inhibitory effect on liver cancer stem cells.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Apr 24;221:113489. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

In our effort for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics, a series of isoxazole-piperazine analogues were prepared, and primarily screened for their antiproliferative potential against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; Huh7/Mahlavu) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. All compounds demonstrated potent to moderate cytotoxicity on all cell lines with IC values in the range of 0.09-11. Read More

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Adenine base editing and prime editing of chemically derived hepatic progenitors rescue genetic liver disease.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Surgery, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea; HY Indang Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea; Department of HY-KIST Bio-convergence, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

DNA base editors and prime editing technology enable therapeutic in situ correction of disease-causing alleles. These techniques could have broad applications for ex vivo editing of cells prior to transplantation in a range of diseases, but it is critical that the target population is efficiently modified and engrafts into the host. Chemically derived hepatic progenitors (CdHs) are a multipotent population capable of robust engraftment and hepatocyte differentiation. Read More

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Activation of HERV-K(HML-2) disrupts cortical patterning and neuronal differentiation by increasing NTRK3.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Virology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany; Developmental Biology and Center for Stem Cell Biology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The biological function and disease association of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are largely elusive. HERV-K(HML-2) has been associated with neurotoxicity, but there is no clear understanding of its role or mechanistic basis. We addressed the physiological functions of HERV-K(HML-2) in neuronal differentiation using CRISPR engineering to activate or repress its expression levels in a human-pluripotent-stem-cell-based system. Read More

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CFTR regulates embryonic T lymphopoiesis via Wnt signaling in zebrafish.

Immunol Lett 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

SCU-CUHK Joint Laboratory for Reproductive Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The number and function of T cells are abnormal as observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and CF mouse models, and our previous work shows that the CFTR mutant leads to deficiency of primitive and definitive hematopoietic in zebrafish. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of CFTR in T cell development during early embryogenesis have not been explored. Here, we report that the genetic ablation of CFTR in zebrafish resulted in abrogated embryonic T lymphopoiesis, which was ascribed to impaired thymic homing and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Read More

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Preconditioning of mesenchymal stem cells with ghrelin exerts superior cardioprotection in aged heart through boosting mitochondrial function and autophagy flux.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 2:174142. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Huaiyin District, Jinan, Shandong Province, 250021, China. Electronic address:

Application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is considered as a promising cell-based therapy to induce cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Preconditioning of MSCs is the key strategy to improve MSCs functions in vitro and their efficacy in vivo, especially in elderly subjects in whom cardioprotection is lost. This study investigated the effects of preconditioning of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs with ghrelin and their combination with nicotinamide-mononucleotide (NMN) on cardioprotection, and the role of autophagy flux and mitochondrial function in aged hearts subjected to IR injury. Read More

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Aging modulates the effects of ischemic injury upon mesenchymal cells within the renal interstitium and microvasculature.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

The renal mesenchyme contains heterogeneous cells, including interstitial fibroblasts and pericytes, with key roles in wound healing. Although healing is impaired in aged kidneys, the effect of age and injury on the mesenchyme remains poorly understood. We characterized renal mesenchymal cell heterogeneity in young vs old animals and after ischemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI) using multiplex immunolabeling and single cell transcriptomics. Read More

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Current perspectives of limbal-derived stem cells and its application in ocular surface regeneration and limbal stem cell transplantation.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cornea and Uveitis, Dr. Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Limbal stem cells are involved in replenishing and maintaining the epithelium of the cornea. Damage to limbus due to chemical/physical injury, infections, or genetic disorders leads to limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) with partial or total vision loss. Presently, LSCD is treated by transplanting limbal stem cells from the healthy eye of the recipient, living-related, or the cadaveric donors. Read More

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microRNA-125b and its downstream Smurf1/KLF2/ATF2 axis as important promoters on neurological function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Spine Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of microRNA-125b (miR-125b) and its mechanism in spinal cord injury (SCI) by targeting Smurf1. After loss- and gain-function approaches were conducted in SCI rat models and neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from foetal rats, the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was calculated, and related protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis and cell apoptosis by TUNEL staining. NSC viability was detected by CCK-8, migration abilities by Transwell assay and apoptosis by flow cytometry. Read More

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Priming human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for corneal surface regeneration.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

CellTec-UB, Department of Cell Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Limbal stem cells (LSC) maintain the transparency of the corneal epithelium. Chemical burns lead the loss of LSC inducing an up-regulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors, triggering corneal neovascularization and blindness. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSC) have shown promise in animal models to treat LSC deficiency (LSCD), but there are not studies showing their efficacy when primed with different media before transplantation. Read More

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Stem cells and hearing loss.

Stem Cells 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Eaton Peabody Laboratories, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

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Characterization of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Anterior Teeth with Varying Levels of Root Resorption.

J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021 Apr;45(2):104-111

Background: Deciduous teeth undergo the physiologic process of resorption, during which the remnant pulp undergoes activation. However, the quality of stem cells obtained at various stages of root resorption has not been documented.

Objective: To isolate and characterize stem cells from deciduous teeth with varying levels of root resorption. Read More

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GSK3ß inhibitor CHIR 99021 modulates cerebral organoid development through dose-dependent regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation and migration.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251173. Epub 2021 May 5.

Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Cerebral organoids generated from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are unique in their ability to recapitulate human-specific neurodevelopmental events. They are capable of modeling the human brain and its cell composition, including human-specific progenitor cell types; ordered laminar compartments; and both cell-specific transcriptional signatures and the broader telencephalic transcriptional landscape. The serine/threonine kinase, GSK3β, plays a critical role in neurodevelopment, controlling processes as varied as neurogenesis, morphological changes, polarization, and migration. Read More

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Distinct expression of select and transcriptome-wide isolated 3'UTRs suggests critical roles in development and transition states.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250669. Epub 2021 May 5.

Dept. of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States of America.

Mature mRNA molecules are expected to be comprised of a 5'UTR, a 3'UTR and a coding region (CDS). Unexpectedly, however, there have been multiple recent reports of widespread differential expression of mRNA 3'UTRs and their cognate coding regions (CDS), reflecting the expression of isolated 3'UTRs (i3'UTRs); these i3'UTRs can be highly expressed, often in reciprocal patterns to their cognate CDS. As with other long non-coding (lncRNAs), isolated 3'UTRs are likely to play an important role in gene regulation, but little is known about the contexts in which they are deployed. Read More

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A Tool for Accurate Stoichiometric Composition of Cryopreservative Media for Fetal and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Human Neural Stem Cells.

Curr Protoc 2021 May;1(5):e123

Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, La Jolla, California.

Fetal human neural stem cells (fhNSC) are of considerable interest as potential regenerative therapies for neuronal or glial degeneration or destruction resulting from genetic abnormalities, disease, or injury. Realization of this potential requires securing a supply of cells sufficient to meet the needs of transplantation, which are often tens to hundreds of millions of cells per dose. This challenge necessitates the establishment of safe and efficient cell banking protocols. Read More

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Modification of COL1A1 in autologous adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells rescues the bone phenotype in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a congenital genetic disorder mainly manifested as bone fragility and recurrent fracture. Mutation of COL1A1/COL1A2 genes encoding the type I collagen are most responsible for the clinical patients. Allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide the potential to treat OI through differentiation into osteoblasts. Read More

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Fatty acid oxidation is required for embryonic stem cell survival during metabolic stress.

EMBO Rep 2021 May 5:e52122. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Metabolic regulation is critical for the maintenance of pluripotency and the survival of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The transcription factor Tfcp2l1 has emerged as a key factor for the naïve pluripotency of ESCs. Here, we report an unexpected role of Tfcp2l1 in metabolic regulation in ESCs-promoting the survival of ESCs through regulating fatty acid oxidation (FAO) under metabolic stress. Read More

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A single-cell RNA expression atlas of normal, preneoplastic and tumorigenic states in the human breast.

EMBO J 2021 May 5:e107333. Epub 2021 May 5.

ACRF Cancer Biology and Stem Cells Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Vic, Australia.

To examine global changes in breast heterogeneity across different states, we determined the single-cell transcriptomes of > 340,000 cells encompassing normal breast, preneoplastic BRCA1 tissue, the major breast cancer subtypes, and pairs of tumors and involved lymph nodes. Elucidation of the normal breast microenvironment revealed striking changes in the stroma of post-menopausal women. Single-cell profiling of 34 treatment-naive primary tumors, including estrogen receptor (ER) , HER2 , and triple-negative breast cancers, revealed comparable diversity among cancer cells and a discrete subset of cycling cells. Read More

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Wnt and Src signals converge on YAP-TEAD to drive intestinal regeneration.

EMBO J 2021 May 5:e105770. Epub 2021 May 5.

Epithelial Biology Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, London, UK.

Wnt signalling induces a gradient of stem/progenitor cell proliferation along the crypt-villus axis of the intestine, which becomes expanded during intestinal regeneration or tumour formation. The YAP transcriptional co-activator is known to be required for intestinal regeneration, but its mode of regulation remains controversial. Here we show that the YAP-TEAD transcription factor is a key downstream effector of Wnt signalling in the intestine. Read More

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Derivation of Clinical-Grade Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Erythroid Progenitor Cells in Xenofree Conditions.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Centre for Stem Cell Research (A Unit of inStem, Bengaluru), Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.

One of the major hurdles in realizing the therapeutic potential of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) is the generation of clinical-grade iPSC lines and their differentiated progenies for preclinical and clinical applications. Therefore, there is a need to have standardized protocols for efficient generation of clinical-grade iPSC lines from easily accessible somatic cells in feeder-free, xenofree GMP grade culture conditions without genomic integration of the reprogramming factors. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for expansion of erythroid progenitor cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and generation of iPSC lines in feeder-free and xenofree culture conditions from these cells by using GMP grade reagents. Read More

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Lysosome biogenesis: Regulation and functions.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jun 5;220(6). Epub 2021 May 5.

National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Lysosomes are degradation centers and signaling hubs in cells and play important roles in cellular homeostasis, development, and aging. Changes in lysosome function are essential to support cellular adaptation to multiple signals and stimuli. Therefore, lysosome biogenesis and activity are regulated by a wide variety of intra- and extracellular cues. Read More

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Disruption of entire locus leads to embryonic lethality by diminished gene expression and enhanced p53 pathway.

Elife 2021 May 5;10. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

In vivo function of CDK5 and Abl enzyme substrate 2 (Cables2), belonging to the Cables protein family, is unknown. Here, we found that targeted disruption of the entire locus () caused growth retardation and enhanced apoptosis at the gastrulation stage and then induced embryonic lethality in mice. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed disruption of , 50% down-regulation of abutting on the locus, and up-regulation of p53-target genes in gastrulas. Read More

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Propolis Extract Regulate microRNA Expression in Glioblastoma and Brain Cancer Stem Cells.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Grade IV gliomas are classified as glioblastoma (GBM), which is the most malignant brain cancer type. Various genetic and epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the initiation and progression of GBM. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that are the main epigenetic regulatory RNA class. Read More

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Rediscovering potential molecular targets for glioma therapy through the analysis of the cell of origin, microenvironment, and metabolism.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Tomas Lindahl Nobel Laureate Laboratory, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), No.628, Zhenyuan Rd, Guangming Dist., Shenzhen 518107. China.

Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors. Despite significant medical advances, gliomas remain incurable and are associated with high mortality. Although numerous biomarkers of diagnostic value have been identified and significant progress in the prognosis of the outcome has been made, the treatment has not been parallelly improved during the last three decades. Read More

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NFIB induces functional astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursor cells mimicking in vivo astrogliogenesis.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

The ability to generate astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers a promising cellular model to study the development and physiology of human astrocytes. The extant methods for generating functional astrocytes required long culture periods and there remained much ambiguity on whether such paradigms follow the innate developmental program. In this report, we provided an efficient and rapid method for generating physiologically functional astrocytes from hPSCs. Read More

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Phenotypic Recapitulation and Correction of Desmoglein-2-deficient Cardiomyopathy using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Desmoglein-2, encoded by DSG2, is one of the desmosome proteins that maintains the structural integrity of tissues, including heart. Genetic mutations in DSG2 cause arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, mainly in an autosomal dominant manner. Here, we identified a homozygous stop-gain mutations in DSG2 (c. Read More

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Direct laser writing for cardiac tissue engineering: a microfluidic heart on a chip with integrated transducers.

Lab Chip 2021 May;21(9):1724-1737

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA and Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

We have developed a microfluidic platform for engineering cardiac microtissues in highly-controlled microenvironments. The platform is fabricated using direct laser writing (DLW) lithography and soft lithography, and contains four separate devices. Each individual device houses a cardiac microtissue and is equipped with an integrated strain actuator and a force sensor. Read More

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Artificial testis: a testicular tissue extracellular matrix as a potential bio-ink for 3D printing.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3465-3484

Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. and Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Testicular scaffolds may be an option for fertility preservation. The aim was to develop various procedures for the decellularization of testicular tissue and to design a bio-ink to construct a bioartificial testis. Ram testicular tissue fragments were decellularized using NaCl buffer, NaCl buffer-Triton, SDS and SDS-Triton. Read More

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