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How Common Is the Exponential Decay Pattern of Motor Skill Acquisition? A Brief Investigation.

Motor Control 2021 May 13:1-11. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Utah.

Motor performance is classically described as improving nonlinearly with practice, demonstrating rapid improvements early in practice with stabilization later, which is commonly modeled by exponential decay functions. However, retrospective analyses of our previously collected data challenge this theoretical model of motor skill acquisition, suggesting that a majority of individual learners actually demonstrate patterns of motor improvement different from this classical model. A convenience sample of young adults, older adults, and people with Parkinson disease trained on the same functional upper-extremity task. Read More

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Systematic approach to source-sink apportionment of copper in paddy fields: Experimental observation, dynamic modeling and prevention strategy.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 7;417:126045. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan, ROC.

The accumulation of heavy metals in paddy rice severely impacts the health of consumers and plants. In this study, a systematic approach to source-sink apportionment of copper in paddy fields was developed by considering all bioenvironmental interfaces. Experimental data from two experimental fields (namely Field A and Field B) in the first harvest period was collected. Read More

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Delay in Hip Fracture Repair in the Elderly: A Missed Opportunity Towards Achieving Better Outcomes.

J Surg Res 2021 May 11;266:142-147. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

Background: Hip fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) recommends surgical repair within 48 hours of admission, as this is associated with lower postoperative mortality and complications. This study demonstrates the association between patient demographics, level of care, and hospital region to delay in hip fracture repair in the elderly. Read More

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Can phthalates move into the eggs of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta? The case of the nests on the Linosa Island in the Mediterranean Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 12;168:112395. Epub 2021 May 12.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche, Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF), Università degli Studi di Palermo, 90100 Palermo, Italy. Electronic address:

During the monitoring of Caretta caretta nests on the island of Linosa, 30 unhatched eggs from four nests were collected to study the presence of phthalates in their three components (shell, yolk, and albumen). Four phthalates, namely diethyl (DEP), dibutyl (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP), and dioctyl (DOTP) phthalic acid esters (PAE), which are widely used as additives in plastics, were detected in all egg components. The most frequently found phthalate was DBP, followed by DEHP in eggshell and yolk. Read More

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Childhood trauma is linked to decreased temporal stability of functional brain networks in young adults.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 2;290:23-30. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Mental Health Institute of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; China National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Both childhood trauma and disruptions in brain functional networks are implicated in the development of psychiatric disorders in early adulthood. However, the relationships between these two factors remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether and how childhood trauma would relate to changes of functional network dynamics in young adults. Read More

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Effects of food and feeding regime on CO fluxes from mangrove consumers - Do marine benthos breathe what they eat?

Mar Environ Res 2021 May 6;169:105352. Epub 2021 May 6.

Simon F.S. Li Marine Science Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Intertidal benthos link tertiary predators and primary producers in marine food webs as well as directly contribute to sediment CO emission. However, current methods for studying food sources of marine benthos are time-consuming and does not allow direct estimates on feeding regime-related (including different diets, active versus dormant) CO production. We examined the food sources of mangrove crabs and gastropods as well as their corresponding CO production using cavity-ring down spectroscopy to measure the δC-CO respiration for consumers, considering the effects of feeding regime, benthos taxa, and dominant feeding habit. Read More

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Bacteriophage-host depth distribution patterns in soil are maintained after nutrient stimulation in vitro.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 12;787:147589. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Electronic address:

Previous research has revealed the ecological importance of viruses in different ecosystems. However, bacteriophage-host distribution patterns in soil depth profiles have not been investigated. Environmental factors such as nutrient availability and physiological stress can impact the mode (either lytic or lysogenic) of viral reproduction and subsequent influence of virus infection on ecological processes. Read More

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Mutagenicity risk prediction of PAH and derivative mixtures by in silico simulations oriented from CYP compound I-mediated metabolic activation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 7;787:147596. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166, PR China; School of Nursing, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166, PR China. Electronic address:

PAHs and their derivatives are the main sources of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in airborne particular matter and cause serious public health and environmental problems. Risk assessment is challenging due to the mixed nature and deficiency of toxicity data of most PAHs and their derivatives. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play important roles in PAH-induced carcinogenicity via metabolic activation, and CYP conformations with compound I structures strongly influence metabolic sites and metabolite species. Read More

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Occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, and ecological risks of organophosphate esters in the water of the Yellow River to the Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 6;787:147528. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Limited information is available on the spatiotemporal occurrence and ecological risks of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in coastal environments. 175 water samples were collected in Laizhou Bay (LZB) and its rivers and estuaries during spring and summer for the determination of 12 targeted OPEs. Total concentration of OPEs ranged from 234. Read More

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Trophic transfer and dietary exposure risk of mercury in aquatic organisms from urbanized coastal ecosystems.

Chemosphere 2021 May 10;281:130836. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China; Advanced Interdisciplinary Institute of Environment and Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Zhuhai, 519087, China.

In this study, 26 surface seawater samples, 26 surface sediment samples and 114 organisms were collected to study the trophic transfer and dietary exposure risk of mercury (Hg) in organisms from the Jiaozhou Bay, which is a typical semi-enclosed urbanized bay. The total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations did not exceed the threshold limits and performed as: fish > crustaceans > mollusks. The trophic level values (TLs) were less than 3 in all the groups, indicating simple structure of food chain. Read More

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Is the water disinfection by-product dichloroacetic acid biosynthesized in the edible mushroom Russula nigricans?

Chemosphere 2021 May 10;281:130819. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010, Graz, Austria.

We report the first halogen speciation analysis study by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS/MS) in the fruiting bodies of various mushroom species. Non-targeted speciation analysis revealed the occurrence of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) in the edible mushroom Russula nigricans. Multiple samples of this mushroom (n = 5) collected from different geographic non-industrial regions in two different countries confirmed the consistent presence of this species at a relatively narrow concentration range (23-37 mg kg), whereas no other chlorinated acetic acid (e. Read More

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Automated analysis of medial gastrocnemius muscle-tendon junction displacements in heathy young adults during isolated contractions and walking using deep neural networks.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 27;206:106120. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, UNC Chapel Hill & NC State University, Chapel Hill 27599, NC, USA.

Background And Objective: Direct measurement of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) position is important for understanding dynamic tendon behavior and muscle-tendon interaction in healthy and pathological populations. Traditionally, obtaining MTJ position during functional activities is accomplished by manually tracking the position of the MTJ in cine B-mode ultrasound images - a laborious and time-consuming process. Recent advances in deep learning have facilitated the availability of user-friendly open-source software packages for automated tracking. Read More

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Early trauma and associations with altruistic attitudes and behaviours among young adults.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 May 12;117:105091. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Matilda Centre for Research in Mental Health and Substance Use, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Childhood and adolescent traumas are exceptionally prevalent worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and substantial impact, little research has investigated the rates and specific types of early trauma by gender. It is also unknown whether the types of early trauma are differentially associated with heightened or hindered prosocial attitudes and behaviours. Read More

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Attitudes towards Kratom use, decriminalization and the development of a community-based Kratom control mechanism in Southern Thailand.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 May 12;95:103197. Epub 2021 May 12.

North Substance Abuse Center, Chiangmai University, Thailand.

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) is an indigenous plant of Southeast Asia, which has been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Despite local communities in Southern Thailand viewing Kratom as a traditional remedy and not as an illicit drug, Thailand criminalized Kratom in 1943 which has led to tensions between government authorities and local communities. Read More

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Exposure to legacy and novel perfluoroalkyl substance disturbs the metabolic homeostasis in pregnant women and fetuses: A metabolome-wide association study.

Environ Int 2021 May 12;156:106627. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) exist extensively and several of these have been verified to be toxic. Prenatal exposure to PFASs has attracted much attention. Metabolome-wide association analyses can be used to explore the toxicity mechanisms of PFASs by identifying associated biomarkers. Read More

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The effect of a mobile application on treatment adherence and symptom management in patients using oral anticancer agents: A randomized controlled trial.

Eur J Oncol Nurs 2021 May 4;52:101969. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Nursing, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Purpose: The use of mobile health technologies in the management of oral anticancer agents (OAA) can be beneficial in terms of treatment adherence and symptom management. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a mobile application developed for patients using OAA on treatment adherence and symptom management.

Method: The study was conducted using a randomized controlled trial design, and it was carried out on 77 patients. Read More

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Microbiological investigation of samples collected from healthy middle ears during cochlear implant surgery.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 12;100(4):115390. Epub 2021 May 12.

Central Research and Application Center, Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the bacteriome in microscopically healthy middle ear mucosa using Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. A total of 60 middle ear washing fluids of pediatric and adult were obtained from 47 patients (35 children and 12 adults). Both children and adults with normal middle ears harbored diverse bacteriome. Read More

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Functions of the GABAergic system on serum LH concentrations in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 12;229:106764. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal Production and Health, Sao Paulo State University, Aracatuba, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to evaluate the luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion pattern after gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist to determine the effects of the GABAergic system on LH secretion during reproductive maturation in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers. Nellore heifers (n = 10) were administered a picrotoxin injection of 0.18 mg/kg, i. Read More

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Even Mists Have Silver Linings: Promoting LGBTQ+ Acceptance and Solidarity through Community-Based Theatre in India.

Public Health 2021 May 12;194:252-259. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Objectives: This project aimed to assess the effectiveness of a community-based theatre intervention to improve attitudes towards and increase knowledge about LGBTQ+ communities among audiences in Mumbai, India.

Study Design: This study was a program evaluation using pre- and post-show surveys that incorporated an adapted version of The Riddle Scale: Attitudes Towards Difference and questions assessing self-reported knowledge about LGBTQ+-related issues to assess changes in attitudes and knowledge after viewing the theatre intervention.

Methods: An original 90-min devised play was created by a company of Indian, American, and Canadian theatre artists using Participatory Action Research methods and was designed to bring audiences to a deeper understanding of LGBTQ+ identity. Read More

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Rapid quantification of fecal indicator bacteria in water using the most probable number - loop-mediated isothermal amplification (MPN-LAMP) approach on a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microchip.

Water Res 2021 Apr 26;199:117172. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E2-04-07, No.1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576, Singapore. Electronic address:

Fecal contamination of water and its associated pathogens are a major public health concern in both developing and industrialized areas. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are commonly used to assess microbial water quality, but they require a relatively long period of incubation time. Currently, molecular techniques have been applied to rapidly detect FIB. Read More

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Influence of age on treatment and prognosis of invasive cervical cancer.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 May 1;262:68-72. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Pathology, Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Invasive cervical cancer is considered a young women's disease, however up to 20 % of cases develop cervical cancer at advanced ages. The aim was to characterize invasive cervical cancer in women aged 65 and older assessing age-specific survival differences.

Study Design: A retrospective study including cervical cancer patients was conducted at Hospital del Mar Barcelona from July-2007 to December-2016. Read More

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Extrinsic foot muscle forces and joint contact forces in flexible flatfoot adult with foot orthosis: A parametric study of tibialis posterior muscle weakness.

Gait Posture 2021 May 10;88:54-59. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Background: The posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is typically associated with progressive flatfoot deformity, which could be alleviated with foot orthosis. However, the evaluation of tibialis posterior (TP) weakness on lower limb mechanics of flatfoot adults with foot orthoses is scarce and requires further investigation.

Research Question: This study aimed to examine the effects of TP weakness on lower limb mechanics in flatfoot adults with foot orthosis through gait analysis and musculoskeletal modelling. Read More

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[Return rate to the Primary Care Emergency Service for elderly patients over 65 years old and their assistance requirements].

Aten Primaria 2021 May 12;53(8):102084. Epub 2021 May 12.

Grupo de Investigación Salud, Bienestar y Sostenibilidad Sociosanitaria (SALBIS), Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y de Sistemas y Automática, Universidad de León , León, España.

Objective: To determine the unexpected return rate to the Primary Care Emergency Service of elderly patients over 65 years old within the following 72h of a previous visit, as well as to determine the clinical and assistance requirements of these patients.

Procedure: Retrospective and observational epidemiologic study.

Location: Cotolino's Primary Care Emergency Service in Cantabria, Spain. Read More

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The effect of lower airway inflammation on inflammatory cytokine gene expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and whole blood in racing Thoroughbreds.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 May 9;237:110266. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of mild to moderate equine asthma (MEA) are not completely understood. There are limited data on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood inflammatory cytokine profiles in racehorses with MEA, and the effect of racing on inflammatory cytokines is unknown.

Hypothesis/objectives: We hypothesized that inflammatory cytokine gene expression in BALF and resting blood would be higher in racehorses with lower airway inflammation compared to healthy controls, and that gene expression in blood collected immediately post-race would be increased compared to resting blood in racehorses with lower airway inflammation. Read More

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Quality of life in multiple sclerosis is dominated by fatigue, disability and self-efficacy.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 9;426:117437. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Quality of life in multiple sclerosis (MS) reflects complex relationships between symptoms (fatigue, spasticity pain, and bladder or vision dysfunction), disability, health perceptions, and self-efficacy.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-report questionnaire pack of patient reported outcome measures was collected from 5695 people with MS (pwMS) alongside clinical data from their neurologists. Each patient reported outcome measure was converted to interval-scaled estimates following fit to the Rasch model. Read More

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Use of the angiogenic biomarker profile to risk stratify patients with fetal growth restriction.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 May 12:100394. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Novel angiogenic biomarker profiles have demonstrated emerging evidence for predicting preeclampsia onset, severity, and adverse outcomes. Limited data exists in screening patients with fetal growth restriction for preeclampsia development using angiogenic biomarkers.

Objective: The objective of this study was to risk stratify patients with fetal growth restriction using a soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio. Read More

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Spreading of a new SARS-CoV-2 N501Y spike variant in a new lineage.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

IHU Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Univ., Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), MEPHI, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: Our surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 genomic epidemiology led us to detect several variants since summer 2020. We report the recent spread of a new SARS-CoV-2 spike 501Y variant.

Methods: SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained from human nasopharyngeal samples by Illumina next-generation sequencing were analyzed using Nextclade and an in-house Python script and compared using BLASTn to the GISAID database. Read More

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Brazilian Red Propolis shows antifungal and immunomodulatory activities against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 12:114181. Epub 2021 May 12.

Federal University of Alfenas - UNIFAL. Alfenas, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis with high prevalence in South America and especially in Brazil with severe clinical consequences that need broadened therapeutic options. Propolis is a natural resin from bees used in folk medicine for centuries with the first report in the ancient history of Egypt by Eberly papyrus, in Middle-Ages used to wash the newborn's umbilical cord and World War II as antiseptic or antibiotics. Nowadays it is a natural product worldwide consumed as food and traditionally used for oral and systemic diseases as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, and other diseases. Read More

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Comparison of the intubation success rate between the intubating catheter and videolaryngoscope in difficult airways: a prospective randomized trial.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Selcuk University Medical Faculty, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Konya, Turkey.

Background: Several devices and algorithms have already been examined and compared for difficult airway management. However, there is no existing study comparing the success of the Intubating Catheter (IC) and the Videolaryngoscope (VL) in patients who are difficult to intubate. We aimed to compare Frova IC and McGrath VL in terms of intubation success rates in patients with difficult intubation. Read More

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Dynamics of B cell repertoires and emergence of cross-reactive responses in patients with different severities of COVID-19.

Cell Rep 2021 May 9:109173. Epub 2021 May 9.

HKU-Pasteur Research Pole, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China; The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Individuals with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) show varying severity of the disease, ranging from asymptomatic to requiring intensive care. Although monoclonal antibodies specific to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified, we still lack an understanding of the overall landscape of B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires in individuals with COVID-19. We use high-throughput sequencing of bulk and plasma B cells collected at multiple time points during infection to characterize signatures of the B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 in 19 individuals. Read More

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