1,897 results match your criteria colder environments

Warming homogenizes apparent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 9;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Warming-induced carbon loss through terrestrial ecosystem respiration () is likely getting stronger in high latitudes and cold regions because of the more rapid warming and higher temperature sensitivity of (). However, it is not known whether the spatial relationship between and temperature also holds temporally under a future warmer climate. Here, we analyzed apparent values derived from multiyear observations at 74 FLUXNET sites spanning diverse climates and biomes. Read More

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Agency, communion, and pubertal status: Separating between- and within-person associations to examine social goals development.

J Pers 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.

Objectives: Agentic (status/independence) and communal (acceptance/connectedness) social goals are thought to shape how adolescents transact with their social environments. Despite their theoretical importance, little work has focused on the development of these higher-order personality dimensions. Informed by developmental neuroscience and evolutionary psychology theoretical frameworks, the current study examined associations between pubertal status, a person's level of pubertal development at a single point in time, and agentic and communal social goals across early to middle adolescence. Read More

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A reciprocal egg-swap experiment reveals sources of variation in developmental success among populations of a desert lizard.

Oecologia 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in life history traits among populations has been well-studied at the post-embryonic stage but rarely at the embryonic stage. To reveal these sources of variation in the developmental success of embryos, we measured the physical characteristics of nest environments and conducted reciprocal egg-swap experiments in two populations of the toad-headed agamid lizard (Phrynocephalus przewalskii), isolated from each other by a mountain range. We determined the effects of population origin and nest environment on embryonic and offspring traits related to developmental success, including incubation period, hatching success, and offspring growth and survival. Read More

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Divergent morphological responses to millennia of climate change in two species of bats from Hall's Cave, Texas, USA.

PeerJ 2021 15;9:e10856. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States of America.

How species will respond to ongoing and future climate change is one of the most important questions facing biodiversity scientists today. The fossil record provides unparalleled insight into past ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change, but the resource remains virtually untapped for many organisms. We use geometric morphometrics and a 25,000 year fossil record to quantify changes in body size and mandible shape through time and across climate regimes for two bat species present in Quaternary paleontological deposits of central Texas: , a bat distributed throughout the Southwestern US and Mexico that is still found in central Texas today, and , a bat widely distributed throughout North America that has been extirpated in central Texas. Read More

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Early Childhood Risk and Protective Factors Predicting Resilience against Adolescent Substance Use.

Advers Resil Sci 2020 Jun 16;1(2):107-119. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Clinical & Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York,1021 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14203, USA.

We examined associations between early childhood (first 3 years of life) risk and protective factors and resilience against adolescent substance use in a prospective sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic families. We defined resilience as low or no substance use in the context of adversity (having a father with alcohol problems). The sample included 227 families recruited from birth records when children were 12 months old and followed longitudinally to 15-17 years of child ages (n = 182). Read More

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Developmental and biophysical determinants of grass leaf size worldwide.

Nature 2021 Apr 24;592(7853):242-247. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

One of the most notable ecological trends-described more than 2,300  years ago by Theophrastus-is the association of small leaves with dry and cold climates, which has recently been recognized for eudicotyledonous plants at a global scale. For eudicotyledons, this pattern has been attributed to the fact that small leaves have a thinner boundary layer that helps to avoid extreme leaf temperatures and their leaf development results in vein traits that improve water transport under cold or dry climates. However, the global distribution of leaf size and its adaptive basis have not been tested in the grasses, which represent a diverse lineage that is distinct in leaf morphology and that contributes 33% of terrestrial primary productivity (including the bulk of crop production). Read More

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Climate affects neighbour-induced changes in leaf chemical defences and tree diversity-herbivory relationships.

Funct Ecol 2021 Jan 14;35(1):67-81. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

INRAE, UMR 1202 BIOGECO, Cestas, France.

Associational resistance theory predicts that insect herbivory decreases with increasing tree diversity in forest ecosystems. However, the generality of this effect and its underlying mechanisms are still debated, particularly since evidence has accumulated that climate may influence the direction and strength of the relationship between diversity and herbivory.We quantified insect leaf herbivory and leaf chemical defences (phenolic compounds) of silver birch in pure and mixed plots with different tree species composition across 12 tree diversity experiments in different climates. Read More

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January 2021

Understanding spatial and temporal variability of N leaching reduction by winter cover crops under climate change.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 27;771:144770. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

The Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany.

Winter cover crops are sown in between main spring crops (e.g. cash and forage crops) to provide a range of benefits, including the reduction of nitrogen (N) leaching losses to groundwater. Read More

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Late glacial (17,060-13,400 cal yr BP) sedimentary and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Sekhokong Range (Drakensberg), southern Africa.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(3):e0246821. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Southern Africa sits at the junction of tropical and temperate systems, leading to the formation of seasonal precipitation zones. Understanding late Quaternary paleoclimatic change in this vulnerable region is hampered by a lack of available, reliably-dated records. Here we present a sequence from a well-stratified sedimentary infill occupying a lower slope basin which covers 17,060 to 13,400 cal yr BP with the aim to reconstruct paleoclimatic variability in the high Drakensberg during the Late Glacial. Read More

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Rapid changes in mucociliary transport in the tracheal epithelium caused by unconditioned room air or nebulized hypertonic saline and mannitol are not determined by frequency of beating cilia.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2021 Mar 17;9(1). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Limited, 15 Maurice Paykel Place, East Tamaki, 2013, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Inspired air is heated and humidified in the nose before it reaches lower airways. This mechanism is bypassed during tracheostomy, directly exposing the airways to colder and drier air from the environment, known to negatively affect mucociliary transport; however, little is known about how quickly mucociliary transport deteriorates. This study determines the short-term effect of flowing room air and nebulized hypertonic saline and mannitol on mucociliary transport in the trachea. Read More

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Link between COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality in continental France administrative areas and weather: an ecological study.

BMJ Open 2021 03 11;11(3):e043269. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Public Health, Hospital of Valenciennes, Hospital Centre Valenciennes, Valenciennes, Hauts-de-France, France.

Objective: To assess the effect of a weather index on in-hospital COVID-19-linked deaths.

Design: Ecological study.

Setting: Continental France administrative areas (; henceforth counties). Read More

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Effect of ambient temperature on respiratory tract cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 viral mimicking nanospheres-An experimental study.

Biointerphases 2021 01 28;16(1):011006. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712.

The novel coronavirus caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached more than 160 countries and has been declared a pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) surface receptor via the spike (S) receptor-binding protein (RBD) on the virus envelope. Global data on a similar infectious disease spread by SARS-CoV-1 in 2002 indicated improved stability of the virus at lower temperatures facilitating its high transmission in the community during colder months (December-February). Read More

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January 2021

The home environment in a nationwide sample of multi-family buildings in Sweden: associations with ocular, nasal, throat and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue among adults.

Indoor Air 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Risk factors at home for ocular, nasal, throat and dermal symptoms, headache, and fatigue were studied in a nationwide questionnaire survey in Sweden, the BETSI study in 2006. Totally, 5775 adults from a stratified random sample of multi-family buildings participated. Associations between home environment factors and weekly symptoms were analyzed by multi-level logistic regression. Read More

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Effect of Polyoxymethylene (POM-H Delrin) offgassing within Pandora head sensor on direct sun and multi-axis formaldehyde column measurements in 2016 - 2019.

Atmos Meas Tech 2021 ;14(1):647-663

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.

Analysis of formaldehyde measurements by the Pandora spectrometer systems between 2016 and 2019 suggested that there was a temperature dependent process inside Pandora head sensor that emitted formaldehyde. Some parts in the head sensor were manufactured from thermal plastic polyoxymethylene homopolimer (E.I. Read More

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January 2021

Thermoregulation and heat exchange in ospreys (Pandion haliaetus).

J Therm Biol 2021 Feb 20;96:102857. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Evolution and Optics of Nanostructures Group, Department of Biology, University of Ghent, K. L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is a cosmopolitan and long-distant migrant, found at all thermal extremes ranging from polar to tropical climates. Since ospreys may have an unusually flexible thermal physiology due to their migration over, and use of, a wide range of habitats, they represent an interesting study system to explore thermoregulatory adaptations in a raptor. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of heat exchange between body and environment in ospreys using micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), infrared thermography and behavioral observations. Read More

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February 2021

The role of seasonality in the spread of COVID-19 pandemic.

Environ Res 2021 04 19;195:110874. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

It has been reported that the transmission of COVID-19 can be influenced by the variation of environmental factors due to the seasonal cycle. However, its underlying mechanism in the current and onward transmission pattern remains unclear owing to the limited data and difficulties in separating the impacts of social distancing. Understanding the role of seasonality in the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is imperative in formulating public health interventions. Read More

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Cultivation and Photophysiological Characteristics of Desmids in Moderately Saline Aquaculture Wastewater.

J Phycol 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 461, SE40530, Göteborg, Sweden.

Although desmids typically inhabit freshwater environments characterized by low amounts of nutrients and low salinity, several desmid species have been recorded in eutrophic waters, indicating their adaptation to elevated pollution and conductivity. This study aimed to determine whether desmids could be used for remediation of moderately saline aquaculture wastewater (AWW) from a fish farm situated in the southeast of Sweden. Fourteen desmid strains isolated from different climates (tropical to polar) and trophic conditions (oligotrophic to eutrophic) were cultivated in diluted AWW and we estimated their growth rates, biomass, nutrient removal efficiency, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and cellular C, N and P quotas. Read More

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February 2021

The short-term impacts of coronavirus quarantine in São Paulo: The health-economy trade-offs.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(2):e0245011. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Center for Applied Economics, Agriculture and the Environment, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

We analyze the trade-offs between health and the economy during the period of social distancing in São Paulo, the state hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. We use longitudinal data with municipal-level information and check the robustness of our estimates to several sources of bias, including spatial dependence, reverse causality, and time-variant omitted variables. We use exogenous climate shocks as instruments for social distancing since people are more likely to stay home in wetter and colder periods. Read More

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Evidence and magnitude of the effects of meteorological changes on SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(2):e0246167. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Christina Lee Brown Envirome Institute, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America.

Importance: Intensity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, and planning required to balance concerns of saving lives and avoiding economic collapse, could depend significantly on whether SARS-CoV-2 transmission is sensitive to seasonal changes.

Objective: Hypothesis is that increasing temperature results in reduced SARS CoV-2 transmission and may help slow the increase of cases over time.

Setting: Fifty representative Northern Hemisphere countries meeting specific criteria had sufficient COVID-19 case and meteorological data for analysis. Read More

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Fine-root functional trait responses to experimental warming: a global meta-analysis.

New Phytol 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Whether and how warming alters functional traits of absorptive plant roots remains to be answered across the globe. Tackling this question is crucial to better understanding terrestrial responses to climate change as fine-root traits drive many ecosystem processes. We carried out a detailed synthesis of fine-root trait responses to experimental warming by performing a meta-analysis of 964 paired observations from 177 publications. Read More

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February 2021

Regularities in species' niches reveal the world's climate regions.

Elife 2021 Feb 8;10. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Integrated Science Lab, Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Climate regions form the basis of many ecological, evolutionary, and conservation studies. However, our understanding of climate regions is limited to how they shape vegetation: they do not account for the distribution of animals. Here, we develop a network-based framework to identify important climates worldwide based on regularities in realized niches of about 26,000 tetrapods. Read More

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February 2021

Ecological adaptation drives wood frog population divergence in life history traits.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

Phenotypic variation among populations is thought to be generated from spatial heterogeneity in environments that exert selection pressures that overcome the effects of gene flow and genetic drift. Here, we tested for evidence of isolation by distance or by ecology (i.e. Read More

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February 2021

Sex-specific responses to cold in a very cold-tolerant, northern Drosophila species.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 Apr 28;126(4):695-705. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Organisms can plastically alter resource allocation in response to changing environmental factors. For example, in harsh conditions, organisms are expected to shift investment from reproduction toward survival; however, the factors and mechanisms that govern the magnitude of such shifts are relatively poorly studied. Here we compared the impact of cold on males and females of the highly cold-tolerant species Drosophila montana at the phenotypic and transcriptomic levels. Read More

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Geographic patterns in colonial reproductive strategy in Myrmecina nipponica: Links between biogeography and a key polymorphism in ants.

J Evol Biol 2020 09 20;33(9):1192-1202. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Japan.

The ability to express different phenotypes can help define species distributions by allowing access to, and exploitation of, new environments. Social insects employ two markedly different reproductive strategies with contrasting cost/benefit characteristics: independent colony foundation (ICF), which is associated with high dispersal range and high risk, and dependent colony foundation (DCF), characterized by low risk but low dispersal. The ant Myrmecina nipponica employs both of these strategies, with the frequency of each apparently varying between populations. Read More

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September 2020

Temperature driven hibernation site use in the Western barbastelle Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774).

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 14;11(1):1464. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Vertebrate Ecology and Paleontology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland.

In temperate regions, winter is characterized by cold temperatures and low food availability. Heterothermic animals can bridge this period by entering a state of torpor characterized by decreased body temperature and reduced metabolic rate. Hibernation site choice is crucial since temperature conditions in the hibernaculum will impact torpor. Read More

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January 2021

Annual phytoplankton dynamics in coastal waters from Fildes Bay, Western Antarctic Peninsula.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 14;11(1):1368. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.

Year-round reports of phytoplankton dynamics in the West Antarctic Peninsula are rare and mainly limited to microscopy and/or pigment-based studies. We analyzed the phytoplankton community from coastal waters of Fildes Bay in the West Antarctic Peninsula between January 2014 and 2015 using metabarcoding of the nuclear and plastidial 18/16S rRNA gene from both size-fractionated and flow cytometry sorted samples. Overall 14 classes of photosynthetic eukaryotes were present in our samples with the following dominating: Bacillariophyta (diatoms), Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae for division Ochrophyta, Mamiellophyceae and Pyramimonadophyceae for division Chlorophyta, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Read More

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January 2021

Southward spreading of the Changjiang Diluted Water in the La Niña spring of 2008.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 11;11(1):307. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, 310012, China.

The La Niña of 2007/2008 was particularly strong, so was the southward flow of the cold, nutrient-rich Changjiang (Yangtze River) Diluted Water (CDW) when the winter monsoon started to blow in the fall. Here we use shipboard data in 2008 in two transects, one in the southwestern East China Sea and one in the southern Taiwan Strait, to show that as late as April in 2008 the CDW was still clearly identifiable when the winter monsoon had weakened. Waters as cold as 16 °C with a salinity lower than 30 still occupied the southwestern East China Sea. Read More

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January 2021

Oyster Calcifying Fluid Harbors Persistent and Dynamic Autochthonous Bacterial Populations That May Aid in Shell Formation.

Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2020 Oct;653:57-75

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19711.

The eastern oyster () is a keystone species in estuarine environments but faces threats to shell formation associated with warming temperatures and acidification. Extrapallial fluid (EF), which is responsible for shell formation, harbors diverse and abundant microbial communities. Commensal microbial communities are vital to host health and fitness, yet long-term studies investigating temporal responses of the EF microbiome and its function in oyster fitness are lacking. Read More

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October 2020

Uncoupling growth from phosphorus uptake in : Implications for use of duckweed in wastewater remediation and P recovery in temperate climates.

Food Energy Secur 2020 Nov 30;9(4):e244. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Centre for Plant Sciences School of Molecular and Cellular Biology Faculty of Biological Sciences University of Leeds Leeds UK.

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for crop growth and the second most limiting after N. Current supplies rely on P-rich rocks that are unevenly distributed globally and exploited unsustainably, leading to concerns about future availability and therefore food security. Duckweeds (Lemnaceae) are aquatic macrophytes used in wastewater remediation with the potential for nutrient recycling as feed or fertilizer. Read More

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November 2020

Temperature dependence of population responses to competition and metabolic stress: An agent-based model to inform ecological risk assessment in a changing climate.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 16;763:144096. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Understanding the interactions among multiple stressors is a crucial issue for ecological risk assessment and ecosystem management. However, it is often impractical, or impossible, to collect empirical data concerning all the interactions at any scale because the type of interaction differs across species and levels of biological organization. We applied an agent-based model to simulate the effects of a hypothetical chemical stressor and inter-specific competition (both alone and together) on greenback cutthroat trout (GCT), a listed species under the US Endangered Species Act, in two temperature scenarios. Read More

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