Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Apr;85(5):1017-1037
Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan.
In response to environmental stress, microorganisms adapt to drastic changes while exerting cellular functions by controlling gene expression, metabolic pathways, enzyme activities, and protein-protein interactions. Microbial cells that undergo a fermentation process are subjected to stresses, such as high temperature, freezing, drying, changes in pH and osmotic pressure, and organic solvents. Combinations of these stresses that continue over long terms often inhibit cells' growth and lead to their death, markedly limiting the useful functions of microorganisms (eg their fermentation ability). Read More