3,240 results match your criteria coinfection hiv-positive

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Promotes Human Papillomavirus-Mediated Anal Squamous Carcinogenesis: An Immunologic and Pathobiologic Review.

Pathobiology 2021 Sep 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare gastrointestinal malignancy with rising incidence, both in the United States and internationally. The primary risk factor for anal SCC is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, there is a growing burden of disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HPV coinfection, with the incidence of anal SCC significantly increasing in this population. Read More

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September 2021

Epidemiological risk factors associated with primary infection by Epstein-Barr virus in HIV-1-positive subjects in the Brazilian Amazon region.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 16;11(1):18476. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Laboratory of Virology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

To identify the prevalence and risk factors for primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-positive adult treatment-naïve patients between January 2018 and December 2019 in a state of the Brazilian Amazon region. A total of 268 HIV-1 positive patients and 65 blood donors participated in the study. Epidemiological data were obtained from medical records and through a designed questionnaire. Read More

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September 2021

Seroprevalence of Human Herpesvirus Infections in Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Key Populations in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Int J Microbiol 2021 25;2021:4608549. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections can significantly increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and accelerate disease progression. In the population at high risk of HIV infection, also termed as key populations (female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who inject drugs (PWID)), and their sexual partners, HHV infections can potentially compromise the efforts to prevent and control HIV infection. Here, we investigated the seroprevalence of HHV infections among HIV-infected key populations in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Read More

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Spectrum of ocular manifestations and visual outcomes of neurosyphilis among 53 patients.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2021 07;79(7):584-589

Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa da Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte MG, Brazil.

Background: In the era of the re-emergence of syphilis, ocular syphilis has gained attention because its prevalence has increased and it can cause blindness and disability.

Objectives: To investigate the clinical presentation and prognosis of ocular syphilis.

Methods: Prospective study on 53 patients (90 eyes) with ocular syphilis diagnosed at the Santa Casa of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Read More

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Coinfection of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Cureus 2021 Jul 19;13(7):e16474. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Medicine, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, PAK.

Background Coinfection of viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon in Pakistan. Coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with HIV is associated with a poor prognosis. The current study evaluated the occurrence of coinfection of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Read More

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Persistent HBV replication and serological response during up to 15 years of tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients: a multicentre prospective cohort study.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, IPLESP, Paris F75012, France.

Objectives: To determine the extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppression and its association with seroclearance of hepatitis 'e' antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients undergoing long-term tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods: We prospectively followed 165 HIV/HBV-coinfected patients undergoing tenofovir-based ART. Serum HBV-DNA viral loads and HBeAg and HBsAg status were obtained at tenofovir initiation and every 6-12 months. Read More

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Epstein - Barr virus epidemiology in HIV infected transsexuals.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Aug;71(8):1984-1988

Department of Sport Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KP, Pakistan.

Objective: To molecularly characterise the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genotypes and Pashtun ethnicity.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to December 2019 after approval from the Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, and comprised blood samples from transgender sex workers who were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus-1 and seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus residing in two cities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and Islamabad, the federal capital. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE). Read More

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[Investigation of HTLV-I/II Seroprevalance of Patients with HIV Positivity being Monitored by Real-Time RT-PCR].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2021 Jul;55(3):426-434

Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Division of Medical Virology, Ankara, Turkey.

Human T-lymphotropic virus-I/II (HTLV-I/II) and human immun viruses (HIVs), that have similar genomic characteristics also share the same transmission routes and infect T lymphocytes. Regarding this epidemiological similarity, HIV and HTLV infections can be seen together. HIV and HTLV-I/II coinfection occurs with variable frequencies in different populations and geographic regions. Read More

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Validity of Self-Reported Hepatitis C Virus Status Among Criminal Justice-Involved Persons Living With HIV.

J Correct Health Care 2021 Sep 18;27(3):167-171. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Division, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among justice-involved persons is high. The validity of self-reported HCV status in this population has important public health implications, yet has not been studied. Justice-involved persons with HIV from Washington, DC, were enrolled in a study that investigated a mobile health intervention to support HIV treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Population in China: Results From the Third and Fourth Nationwide Molecular Epidemiologic Surveys.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Aug;73(4):642-649

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Changping District, Beijing, China.

Background: The transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) is similar in modes/routes and related risk factors. Understanding the long-term changing epidemiology of HIV, HBV, and HCV coinfection is important for evaluation of existing disease control policy and healthcare planning. We describe HBV and HCV coinfection based on the latest 2 nationwide molecular epidemiologic surveys of HIV infection in mainland China in 2007 and 2015. Read More

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Th22 Cells Are a Major Contributor to the Mycobacterial CD4 T Cell Response and Are Depleted During HIV Infection.

J Immunol 2021 09 13;207(5):1239-1249. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa;

HIV-1 infection substantially increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Mechanisms such as defects in the Th1 response to in HIV-infected persons have been widely reported. However, Th1-independent mechanisms also contribute to protection against TB. Read More

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September 2021

Bacterial infection, antibiotic use and COVID-19: Lessons from the intensive care unit.

S Afr Med J 2021 04 15;111(6):575-581. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently prescribed to patients with severe COVID-19, motivated by concern about bacterial coinfection. There is no evidence of benefit from such a strategy, while the dangers of inappropriate antibiotics are well described.

Objectives: To investigate the frequency, profile and related outcomes of infections by bacterial pathogens in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Read More

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Response to Penicillin for Presumed Neurosyphilis in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), a Normal CD4 Count, and an Undetectable Viral Load: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Aug 11;22:e932467. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA.

BACKGROUND Neurosyphilis is a bacterial infection of the brain and the spinal cord, caused by Treponema pallidum. Its nonspecific clinical presentation includes cognitive impairment and motor and/or sensory function compromise. Neurosyphilis infections in patients with HIV have increased over the past few years and many cases of neurosyphilis manifest in patients with HIV who have low CD4 T-cell counts and high viral loads (VL). Read More

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HIV-Associated Cancer Biomarkers: A Requirement for Early Diagnosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 29;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

SAMRC Precision Oncology Research Unit (PORU), Pan African Cancer Research Institute (PACRI), University of Pretoria, Hatfield 0028, South Africa.

Globally, HIV/AIDS and cancer are increasingly public health problems and continue to exist as comorbidities. The sub-Saharan African region has the largest number of HIV infections. Malignancies previously associated with HIV/AIDS, also known as the AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) have been documented to decrease, while the non-AIDS defining cancer (NADCs) are on the rise. Read More

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Encephalitis Due to Co-Infection with Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Aug 5;22:e931821. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Bronx Care Health System, Bronx, NY, USA.

BACKGROUND Opportunistic infections are commonly seen in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present an interesting case of a patient with poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who presented with multiple opportunistic infections. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old woman with medical history of HIV infection (CD4 <20 cells/µl, viral load 172 996 copies/ml), presented with symptoms of headache for 2 days and changes in mentation. Read More

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Simultaneous determination of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs and one metabolite of isoniazid by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-tuberculosis coinfection.

Heliyon 2021 Jul 9;7(7):e07532. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China.

The incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is 26 times higher than that in other patients. Patients with both infections require long-term combination therapy, which increases therapy complexity and might lead to serious adverse reactions and drug-drug interactions. To optimize therapy for patients with HIV and TB coinfection, we developed an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to simultaneously quantify four anti-tuberculosis drugs and one isoniazid (INH) metabolite. Read More

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Primary membranous glomerulonephritis with negative serum PLA2R in haemophilia A successfully managed with rituximab - case report and review of the literature.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Jul 22;22(1):268. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause a wide range of glomerular pathologies. In people with haemophilia, transfusion-associated infections with these viruses are common and definitive pathological diagnosis in this population is complicated by the difficulty of safely obtaining a renal biopsy. Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of adult onset nephrotic syndrome occurring in both primary and secondary forms. Read More

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Contribution of Schistosoma mansoni to systemic inflammation and microbial translocation among people with HIV in Zambia.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Tropical Gastroenterology & Nutrition Group, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Nationalist Road, Lusaka, Zambia.

Background: Schistosoma mansoni is hyperendemic in many rural areas of Zambia where up to 77% of people are positive for infection via serologic evaluation. Zambia also has a high prevalence of HIV infection. Individually, S. Read More

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Khat Chewing and Clinical Conditions Determine the Epidemiology of Primary Drug Resistance Tuberculosis in Amhara Region of Ethiopia: A Multicenter Study.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 30;14:2449-2460. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences and Specialized Comprehensive Hospitals, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Rifampicin and/or multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (RR/MDR-TB) remains an uncontrolled public health emergency that has been synergized by the recently increased person-to-person transmission in the community as primary RR/MDR-TB, which is defined as RR/MDR-TB in new TB patients with no prior exposure to anti-TB treatment for more than one month. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and associated factors of primary drug-resistance among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients, as evidenced by the Amhara region treatment initiating centers.

Methods: An institutional-based multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2010 to December 2017, among 580 RR/MDR-TB patients on the second-line anti-TB drug in the Amhara regional state. Read More

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Prevalence and correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among patients attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Guangdong, China: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jul 5;21(1):649. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Dermatology Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urogenital tract infections and is associated with reproductive morbidity. Although MG has been reported across many regions and population groups, it is not yet routinely tested for in China. Our study contributes to current research by reporting the prevalence and correlates of MG infection in patients attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Guangdong from Jan 2017-May 2018. Read More

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Severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection in HIV-infected individuals: Preliminary findings from Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2021 10;35:33. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Iranian Research Center of HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Higher mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is reported among some immunocompromised patients; however, the relation between immunosuppression due to HIV infection and severity of COVID-19 infection remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection in HIV-infected patients. This was a retrospective cohort study on all COVID-19 suspected and confirmed cases hospitlized in Iran between Febuary 19 (epidemic onset date) and April 8, 2020, whose data were recorded in the national database for Medical Care Monitoring Center. Read More

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The global and regional prevalence of hepatitis C and B co-infections among prisoners living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Jul 1;10(1):93. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are common among individuals with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide. In this study, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to estimate the global and regional prevalence of HCV, HBV and HIV coinfections among HIV-positive prisoners.

Methods: We searched PubMed via MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and Web of science (ISI) to identify studies that reported the prevalence of HBV and HCV among prisoners living with HIV. Read More

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Assessing the differential impact of chronic CMV and treated HIV infection on CD8+ T-cell differentiation in a matched cohort study: is CMV the key?

AIDS Res Ther 2021 06 30;18(1):37. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the main driving forces of T-cell senescence in the general population, whereas its differential impact in people living with HIV (PLWH) is less well characterized. The study explores the effect of latent CMV infection on T-cell subsets, monocyte/macrophages activation markers, and CRP in PLWH on long-term ART.

Methods: Cross-sectional cohort study including PLWH on long-term suppressive ART. Read More

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Concurrent pulmonary tuberculosis and lepromatous leprosy in a newly diagnosed HIV positive patient: a case report.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Jun 30;21(1):207. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Dermatology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Private Bag X7, Congella, Durban, 4013, South Africa.

Background: The leprosy-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is rarely reported in recent times. However, this dual comorbidity is associated with high mortality and major morbidity. Unrecognised leprosy-TB co-infection may predispose affected patients to rifampicin monotherapy and subsequent drug resistance. Read More

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Diversity and Within-Host Evolution of Leishmania donovani from Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients with and without HIV Coinfection in Northern Ethiopia.

mBio 2021 06 29;12(3):e0097121. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease and a growing public health problem in East Africa, where Ethiopia has one of the highest VL burdens. The largest focus of VL in Ethiopia is driven by high prevalence in migrant agricultural workers and associated with a high rate of coinfection with HIV. This coinfection makes VL more difficult to treat successfully and is associated with a high rate of relapse, with VL/HIV patients frequently experiencing many relapses of VL before succumbing to this infection. Read More

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Outcomes of an HCV elimination program targeting the Viennese MSM population.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Jul 28;133(13-14):635-640. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background And Aims: Recent reports suggest an increasing incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among MSM (men-who-have-sex-with-men). Early treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) achieves high cure rates and prevents further HCV transmission. We offered barrier-free HCV screening in the Viennese MSM population and immediate access to DAA treatment. Read More

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HIV/HBV coinfection: temporal trends and patient characteristics, Spain, 2002 to 2018.

Euro Surveill 2021 06;26(25)

The members of the GeSIDA 8514 Study Group have been listed under Investigators.

BackgroundRecent and reliable estimates on the prevalence of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Europe are lacking.AimLeveraged on a study designed to assess HIV/HCV coinfection prevalence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection in Spain in 2018 and compared the results with five similar studies performed since 2002.MethodsThis cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in 43 centres, and patients were selected using simple random sampling. Read More

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Localised cervical lymphadenopathy: a rare presenting sign of syphilis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 24;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Internal Medicine, Amphia Ziekenhuis Locatie Molengracht, Breda, The Netherlands

Recognising syphilis can be challenging due to enormous variability in disease presentation. We present a case of 56-year-old female patient, without any medical history, with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and night sweats since 3 weeks. Initial differential diagnosis consisted of infectious disease, lymphoproliferative disease and autoimmune disease. Read More

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Is hepatitis delta underestimated?

Liver Int 2021 06;41 Suppl 1:38-44

Department of Gastroenterology, Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General Hospital of Athens "Laiko", Athens, Greece.

Hepatitis D virus may be underestimated because it is a significant problem in HBsAg-positive patients, especially those who inject drugs, have HIV or HCV co-infections and/or live in certain endemic regions. In the past few decades, the prevalence of HDV was expected to have decreased as a result of improvements in public healthcare policies and universal HBV vaccination programs. However, HDV has continued to spread in low-income countries, with local outbreaks and migration to less endemic areas, so that its prevalence has remained stable or even increased in certain regions. Read More

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Examining the dynamics of Epstein-Barr virus shedding in the tonsils and the impact of HIV-1 coinfection on daily saliva viral loads.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 21;17(6):e1009072. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Département de Microbiologie, Infectiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is transmitted by saliva and is a major cause of cancer, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. Here, we describe the frequency and quantity of EBV detection in the saliva of Ugandan adults with and without HIV-1 infection and use these data to develop a novel mathematical model of EBV infection in the tonsils. Eligible cohort participants were not taking antiviral medications, and those with HIV-1 infection had a CD4 count >200 cells/mm3. Read More

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