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Association of phthalate exposure with autistic traits in children.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 24;157:106775. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Phthalates are synthetic chemicals with endocrine-disrupting properties. They are reportedly associated with various neurotoxic outcomes. Studies on exposure to phthalates and children's autistic traits have shown inconsistent results with respect to sex and susceptible time periods. Read More

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Associations between endocrine-disrupting heavy metals in maternal hair and gestational diabetes mellitus: A nested case-control study in China.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 24;157:106770. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/ Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100191, PR China; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, PR China.

Background: Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) may lead to abnormal glucose metabolism and, potentially, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Objective: We investigated the association between five endocrine-disrupting heavy metals (EDHMs), i.e. Read More

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Effect of physical activity and BMI SDS on bone metabolism in children and adolescents.

Bone 2021 Jul 24:116131. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Children with obesity are known to have reduced bone density and are at a higher risk for fractures. This may be caused by decreased physical activity or a metabolic phenomenon. In this study, we evaluated associations of physical activity with bone metabolism in children and adolescents with and without obesity. Read More

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Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Injurious Behaviors Among Justice-Involved Youth.

J Correct Health Care 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, San Francisco, California, USA.

An estimated one in five adolescents exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB), which poses serious public health concerns. The present analysis aims to describe the prevalence and correlates of lifetime SIB among first-time offending court-involved nonincarcerated youth. Baseline data from 412 youth enrolled in Epidemiological Project Involving Children in the Court (EPICC), a longitudinal cohort study, were analyzed to identify the prevalence and correlates of lifetime SIB. Read More

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The psychological impact of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: a prospective observational multicentre cohort study.

BJOG 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Objective: To evaluate the short-term psychological consequences of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD).

Design: A prospective observational multicentre cohort study.

Setting: Nationwide in the Netherlands POPULATION: GTD patients. Read More

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A comparison of children's diet and movement behaviour patterns derived from three unsupervised multivariate methods.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0255203. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Behavioural patterns are typically derived using unsupervised multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), latent profile analysis (LPA) and cluster analysis (CA). Comparability and congruence between the patterns derived from these methods has not been previously investigated, thus it's unclear whether patterns from studies using different methods are directly comparable. This study aimed to compare behavioural patterns derived across diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep domains, using PCA, LPA and CA in a single dataset. Read More

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Associations Between Human Milk Oligosaccharides at One Month and Infant Development Throughout the First Year of Life in a Brazilian Cohort.

J Nutr 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Nutritional Epidemiology Observatory, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro Federal University. Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho 373/CCS, bloco J, 2º andar, sala 29. Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-902, Brazil.

Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are unconjugated glycans associated with infant health and development.

Objective: To investigate the associations between HMO concentrations at one month and infant development throughout the first year of life.

Methods: A prospective cohort of Brazilian women between 18-40 years of age and their infants was studied from baseline (between 28-35 gestational weeks) and followed at one (n = 73), six (n = 51), and twelve months (n = 45). Read More

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Clinical and genetic characteristics in patients under 30 years with sporadic pituitary adenomas.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

L Castaño, Research into the genetics and control of diabetes and other endocrine disorders, Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Pediatric Endocrinology Department, Cruces University Hospital, UPV-EHU, CIBERER, CIBERDEM, Endo-ERN, Barakaldo, Spain.

Objective: Pituitary adenomas (PA) are rare in young patients and additional studies are needed to fully understand their pathogenesis in this population. We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of apparently sporadic PA in a cohort of young patients.

Design: Clinical and molecular analysis of 235 patients (age ≤30 years) with a PA. Read More

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Effectiveness of standard urotherapy (basic bladder advice) and combination therapies in managing bladder dysfunction in children with treated behavioral disorders: Results of a prospective cohort (DABBED) study.

Low Urin Tract Symptoms 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

John Hunter Children's Hospital, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia.

Aims: We evaluated the efficacy of standard urotherapy and combination therapies in treatment of bladder dysfunction in children with treated behavioral disorders.

Methods: Prospective study of children (6-16 years) with bladder dysfunction and behavioral disorders was conducted between March 2018-2020. Eligible children were initially offered standard urotherapy and those with no response at 3 months were offered combination therapies. Read More

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Pediatric third liver transplantation-A single-center experience.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Jul 27:e14092. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, Australia.

Background: Pediatric retransplantation is an accepted practice for graft failure and complications in Australasia. As 15% of children require a third transplant, this is a growing cohort with limited data in the literature.

Methods: We review nine patients from the commencement of our transplantation program in 1986 up to 2020 assessing demographics, prognosis, and outcome measures. Read More

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Relationship of sperm motility with clinical outcome of percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration-intracytoplasmic sperm injection in infertile males with congenital domestic absence of vas deferens: a retrospective study.

Zygote 2021 Jul 27:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Infertility, Jiangsu Huaian Maternity and Children Hospital, Huaian, China.

Congenital domestic absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is a common factor in male infertility, and percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a primary clinical treatment, but the effect of the sperm obtained on pregnancy outcome remains to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sperm motility with clinical outcome of PESA-ICSI in infertile males with CBAVD. A cohort of 110 couples was enrolled. Read More

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Poverty, social exclusion, and mental health: the role of the family context in children aged 7-11 years INMA mother-and-child cohort study.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Joint Research Unit in Epidemiology, Environment and Health FISABIO-University of Valencia - Universitat Jaume I, Valencia, Spain.

Mental health problems are common in childhood and tend to be more frequent in populations at risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE). The family environment can play a role in reducing the impact of economic hardship on these problems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of multidimensional poverty on the mental health of children aged 7-11 years and the role of the family environment in two areas of Spain. Read More

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Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and adolescents with rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases: data from the National Paediatric Rheumatology Database in Germany.

RMD Open 2021 Jul;7(2)

Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Immunology and Critical Care Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the clinical manifestations, course and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adolescents with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). Due to their underlying disease as well due to therapeutic immunosuppression, these patients may be at risk for a severe course of COVID-19 or for a flare of the underlying disease triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: Demographic, clinical and treatment data from juvenile patients with RMD as well as data about SARS-CoV-2 infection like test date and method, clinical characteristics, disease course, outcome and impact on the disease activity of the RMD were documented on a specific SARS-CoV-2 questionnaire implemented in the National Paediatric Rheumatology Database (NPRD) in Germany. Read More

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Variation in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence across districts, schools and classes: baseline measurements from a cohort of primary and secondary school children in Switzerland.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 26;11(7):e047483. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI), University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Objectives: To determine the variation in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in school children and the relationship with self-reported symptoms.

Design: Baseline measurements of a longitudinal cohort study () from June to July 2020.

Setting: 55 schools stratified by district in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Read More

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Underdevelopment of the gut microbiota and bacteria species as non-invasive markers of prediction in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Gut 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Centre for Gut Microbiota Research, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Objective: The gut microbiota has been suggested to play a role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We postulate that children with ASD harbour an altered developmental profile of the gut microbiota distinct from that of typically developing (TD) children. Here, we aimed to characterise compositional and functional alterations in gut microbiome in association with age in children with ASD and to identify novel faecal bacterial markers for predicting ASD. Read More

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Portable Acquisition of Auditory ERPs: A Pilot Study of Premature Infants.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Background: Prior work suggests that event-related potential (ERP) studies in infancy may help predict developmental outcome.

Methods: As part of a longitudinal study of early child development, we used the auditory oddball stimulus paradigm with a portable electroencephalography system to obtain ERP data from two-month-old infants (32 term, six preterm) in Sri Lanka. The mismatch negativity was calculated between 200 and 350 milliseconds after stimulus presentation. Read More

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Optimizing the number of cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma: A propensity-score matching analysis.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Woman, Child and Public Health, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery are now widely offered in ovarian cancer patients unsuitable for surgery; the number of preoperative NACT cycles to be given is still an issue. Our aim was to compare survival outcomes of patients with advanced ovarian cancer treated with ≤4 or more NACT cycles.

Methods: A cohort of AEOC patients with stage III-IV epithelial OC who underwent NACT followed by IDS was identified. Read More

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Nasolabial appearance of bilateral cleft lip repair at five years of age. Comparing techniques of modified advancement-rotation (Delaire) with Manchester repair: a retrospective cohort study.

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The Welsh Centre for Cleft Lip & Palate, Morriston Hospital Swansea, UK.

The techniques used to repair bilateral cleft lip have evolved over time, yet little data exist to compare outcomes using the various techniques. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate and compare the aesthetic outcomes of two types of complete bilateral cleft repair: advancement rotation and a historic cohort repaired with the Manchester technique. A total of 32 consecutive patients who had complete repair of bilateral cleft lips were identified retrospectively from our centre using inpatient records. Read More

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Tri-SNP polymorphism in the intron of HLA-DRA1 affects type 1 diabetes susceptibility in the Finnish population.

Hum Immunol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Immunogenetics Laboratory, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Genes in the HLA class II region include the most important inherited risk factors for type 1 diabetes (T1D) although also polymorphisms outside the HLA region modulate the predisposition to T1D. This study set out to confirm a recent observation in which a novel expression quantitative trait locus was formed by three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the intron of HLA-DRA1 in DR3-DQ2 haplotypes. The SNPs significantly increased the risk for T1D in DR3-DQ2 homozygous individuals and we intended to further explore this association, in the Finnish population, by comparing two DR3-DQ2 positive genotypes. Read More

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The association between maternal complications and small for gestational age in twin pregnancies using singleton and twin birth weight references.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jul 26:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Prenatal Diagnosis Department, The International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: In singleton pregnancies, maternal complications, such as preeclampsia and thyroid dysfunction are associated with small for gestational age (SGA). However, data on the association between SGA and maternal complications in twin pregnancies are limited and conflicting. Small sample size and the application of singleton birth weight reference (SBWR) to define SGA in twins may be reasons for the inconsistent conclusions. Read More

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Temporal changes in the probability of live birth among female survivors of childhood cancer: A Population-Based Adult Life After Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS) study in five Nordic countries.

Cancer 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Childhood Cancer Research Group, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: During the past 4 decades, there has been a growing focus on preserving the fertility of patients with childhood cancer; however, no large studies have been conducted of live births across treatment decades during this period. Therefore, the authors estimated the potential birth deficit in female childhood cancer survivors and the probability of live births.

Methods: In total, 8886 women were identified in the 5 Nordic cancer registries in whom a childhood cancer had been diagnosed during 1954 through 2006. Read More

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Impact of Parenteral Nutrition Guideline Implementation on Growth of Very Low Birth Weight Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Neonatologist, AHMG Neonatology at Central Florida, AdventHealth for Children, 601 East Rollins Street, Orlando, FL, 32803.

Background: In preterm neonates, parenteral nutrition (PN) is utilized to provide adequate calories and maintain the expected growth rate of a fetus. To optimize growth, our institution implemented comprehensive guidelines for writing PN. This study compared the effect of this change on growth outcomes of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at 28 days post-natal age (PNA). Read More

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Associations Between Adolescent Depression and Self-Harm Behaviors and Screen Media Use in a Nationally Representative Time-Diary Study.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.

Screen media use is associated with mental health problems among adolescents. However, few studies have examined screen media use using contemporaneous time diaries (rather than retrospective reports), compared associations across specific screen media activities or by gender, or examined associations with self-harm behaviors. Participants were 13- to 15-year-old adolescents completing time diaries (n = 4,252) for one weekday and one weekend day in the 2015 administration of the Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative birth cohort study of UK adolescents. Read More

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The impact of a needs-oriented dental prophylaxis program on bacteremia after toothbrushing and systemic inflammation in children, adolescents, and young adults with chronic kidney disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) still leads to high mortality rates, mainly due to cardiovascular disease. One important influencing factor is persisting low-grade chronic inflammation partly maintained by gingivitis that favors transient bacteremia during daily activities such as toothbrushing.

Methods: To examine whether intensive dental prophylaxis can restore oral health, reduce the prevalence of bacteremia and degree of systemic inflammation indicated by CRP levels, we conducted this pilot study examining 30 CKD patients aged 6-26 years, 15 receiving intensive prophylaxis (IP), 15 receiving treatment as usual (TAU) serving as control group. Read More

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The effects of malaria in pregnancy on neurocognitive development in children at one and six years of age in Benin: a prospective mother-child cohort.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique (EHESP), Rennes, France.

Background: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) contributes significantly to infant mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and has consequences on survivors, such as pre-term birth and low birth weight. However, its impact on long-term neurocognitive development in children remains unknown.

Methods: Our prospective cohort included pregnant women and their live-born singletons from the Malaria in Pregnancy Preventive Alternative Drugs clinical trial. Read More

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Impact of asymptomatic infection on the risk of subsequent symptomatic malaria in a longitudinal cohort in Kenya.

Elife 2021 Jul 23;10. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, United States.

Asymptomatic infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but their effect on subsequent symptomaticity is incompletely understood.

In a 29-month cohort of 268 people in Western Kenya, we investigated the association between asymptomatic and subsequent symptomatic malaria with frailty Cox models.

Compared to being uninfected, asymptomatic infections were associated with an increased 1-month likelihood of symptomatic malaria [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR):2. Read More

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Short midline catheters: High success rates for antibiotic therapy in children with cystic fibrosis.

J Vasc Access 2021 Jul 23:11297298211035310. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Anaesthesia and Pain Management, The Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Objective: Short midline catheter use in paediatric populations appears to be increasing, however data on success rates and efficacy are sparse. This study aims to describe the success rate when midline venous catheters are employed as a single device for intravenous antibiotic therapy in paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed in a single institution, retrieving electronic medical record data from July 2017 through March 2020. Read More

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Exosomal miR-101-3p and miR-423-5p inhibit medulloblastoma tumorigenesis through targeting FOXP4 and EZH2.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, and the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, International Co-laboratory of Medical Epigenetics and Metabolism, Ministry of Science and Technology, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the development and progression of a variety of tumors; however, whether they contribute to medulloblastoma (MB) tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated. To address this, we first characterized the miRNA profiles of circulating exosomes by miRNA sequencing to identify miRNAs differentially expressed between children with MB and healthy controls. Then, we conducted in vitro and in vivo functional assays with the identified miRNAs and their predicted targets. Read More

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Association between off-hour admission of critically ill children to intensive care units and mortality in a Japanese registry.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):14988. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Limited information exists regarding the effect of off-hour admission among critically ill children. To evaluate whether children admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in off-hour have worse outcomes, we conducted a cohort study in 2013-2018 in a multicenter registry in Japan. Pediatric (age < 16 years) unplanned ICU admissions were divided into regular-hour (daytime on business days) or off-hour (others). Read More

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Persistence of Gender Bias Over Four Decades of Surgical Training.

J Surg Educ 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Surgery, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Objective: Female surgeons face gender-specific obstacles during residency training, yet longitudinal data on gender bias experienced by female surgery residents are lacking. We aimed to investigate the evolution of gender bias, identify obstacles experienced by female general surgery residents, and discuss approaches to supporting female surgeons during residency training.

Methods: Between August 2019 and January 2021, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using structured telephone interviews of female graduates of the UCLA General Surgery Residency training program. Read More

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