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Dairy foods, calcium, and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status: a pooled analysis of 21 cohort studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status.

Method: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Read More

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Post-diagnostic reliance on plant-compared with animal-based foods and all-cause mortality in omnivorous long-term colorectal cancer survivors.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Epidemiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Background: Plant-rich diets are associated with lower cardiometabolic risks and longer survival in the general population, but their association with mortality in cancer survivors is still unclear.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations of 3 postdiagnostic plant-based diet indices with all-cause mortality in omnivorous long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors.

Methods: Diet was assessed with FFQs at a median of 6 years after diagnosis in 1404 CRC survivors (56% male; median age, 69 years) in a Northern German prospective cohort study. Read More

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Genetic variants modify the associations of concentrations of methylmalonic acid, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate with bone mineral density.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine has been found to be associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis, especially hip and vertebral fractures. The plasma concentration of homocysteine is dependent on the activities of several B vitamin-dependent enzymes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS).

Objectives: We investigated whether genetic variants in some of the genes involved in 1 carbon metabolism modify the association of B vitamin-related measures with bone mineral density (BMD) and strength. Read More

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Dietary patterns and hip fracture in the Adventist Health Study 2: combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation mitigate increased hip fracture risk among vegans.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Adventist Health Study, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Background: Concerns regarding the adequacy of vegetarian diets with respect to fracture risk continue.

Objectives: We aimed to explore the influence of 5 previously defined dietary patterns on hip fracture risk and whether this association is modified by concomitant calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

Methods: The Adventist Health Study 2 is a prospective cohort study in which participants were enrolled during 2002-2007; proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate fracture risk. Read More

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COVID-19 infection in severe Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency: Looking for a rationale.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 30;183:106440. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Diagnosis of Inherited Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Genetics, Institute for Respiratory Disease, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are heterogeneous: 46.4% of patients admitted into hospital reported to have at least one comorbidity. Comorbidities such as COPD, diabetes, hypertension and malignancy predispose patients with Covid-19 to adverse clinical outcomes. Read More

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Fasting gallbladder volume is increased in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Apr 30;87:56-60. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 165, J220, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Introduction: Autonomic denervation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and isolated REM-sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) could impede gallbladder function leading to increased fasting gallbladder volume (fGBV) and higher risk of gallstones. We aimed to determine fGBV in patients with PD, iRBD, and healthy controls (HCs).

Methods: We included 189 subjects; 100 patients with PD, 21 with iRBD, and 68 HCs. Read More

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Comparison in detection of prodromal Parkinson's disease patients using original and updated MDS research criteria in two independent cohorts.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Apr 30;87:48-55. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurology, P. J. Safarik University, Trieda SNP 1, 04011, Kosice, Slovak Republic; Department of Neurology, University Hospital L. Pasteur, Rastislavova 43, 04190, Kosice, Slovak Republic.

Introduction: MDS research criteria for prodromal Parkinson's disease (pPD) were published in 2015 and updated in 2019. We aimed to determine the difference in pPD patient detection rates in two cohorts recruited via gastrointestinal symptoms (PARCAS study) and the presence of a probable REM sleep behaviour disorder (PDBIOM study) using the original and updated criteria.

Methods: We evaluated all risk and prodromal markers, except genetic testing, plasma urate and physical inactivity, in both cohorts and DaT scan, diabetes mellitus type II and cognitive deficit in the PARCAS cohort. Read More

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Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 positive individuals: Cohort study.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 9;154:106564. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research and Development Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Veterans Research & Education Foundation of Saint Louis, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Department of Medicine, Washington University in Saint Louis, 4921 Parkview Pl, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States; Nephrology Section, Medicine Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 915 N Grand Blvd, Saint Louis, MO 63106, United States; Institute for Public Health, Washington University in Saint Louis, 600 S Taylor Ave, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Ecologic analyses suggest that living in areas with higher levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM) is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Studies accounting for individual-level health characteristics are lacking.

Methods: We leveraged the breadth and depth of the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases and built a national cohort of 169,102 COVID-19 positive United States Veterans, enrolled between March 2, 2020 and January 31, 2021, and followed them through February 15, 2021. Read More

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Prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure alters children's cognitive control circuitry: A preliminary study.

Environ Int 2021 May 6;155:106516. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry, Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Background And Objectives: Prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with increased attention problems in children, however, the effects of such exposure on children's brain structure and function have not been studied. Herein, we probed effects of prenatal ETS on children's cognitive control circuitry and behavior.

Methods: Forty-one children (7-9 years) recruited from a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of non-smoking mothers completed structural and task-functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate effects of maternal ETS exposure, measured by maternal prenatal urinary cotinine. Read More

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Iatrogenic Ureteral Injury and Prophylactic Stent Use in Veterans Undergoing Colorectal.

J Surg Res 2021 May 5;265:272-277. Epub 2021 May 5.

Michael and Marian Ilitch Department of Surgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine / Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan; John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Iatrogenic ureteral injury (IUI) is an uncommon complication in colorectal surgery. Prophylactic ureteral stenting (PUS) gained acceptance to aid in intraoperative identification of the ureter. Despite its use, the benefit of pus to avoid IUI remains debatable. Read More

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Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes in embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes: A decade long experience from a tertiary care centre in North India.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 Apr 19;53:151745. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Departments of Histopathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) are a heterogenous group clinically, pathologically and topographically. Due to limited cases, data regarding its molecular genetics, pathology and prognostic factors is evolving. We retrospectively analysed our cohort of ETMR over last decade in order to study their clinicopathological characteristics and outcome. Read More

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Generalization of memory-related brain function in asymptomatic older women with a family history of late onset Alzheimer's Disease: Results from the PREVENT-AD Cohort.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Apr 1;104:42-56. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre for Cerebral Imaging, Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women compared to men. Episodic memory decline is one of the earliest and most pronounced deficits observed in AD. However, it remains unclear whether sex influences episodic memory-related brain function in cognitively intact older adults at risk of developing AD. Read More

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Preoperative embolization of renal cell carcinoma prior to partial nephrectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Imaging 2021 May 3;76:205-212. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Ave. MSB F-560, Newark, NJ 07103, United States of America. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative renal artery embolization of renal cell carcinoma in reducing intraoperative blood loss during subsequent partial nephrectomy through a systematic review and meta-analysis of current literature.

Materials And Methods: The PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1970 to 2018 describing patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent partial nephrectomy with and without preoperative embolization of the tumor. Demographic data, procedural techniques, and surgical outcomes were obtained when available. Read More

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Microwave ablation of cT1a renal cell carcinoma: oncologic and functional outcomes at a single center.

Clin Imaging 2021 May 3;76:199-204. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medicine/New York Presbyterian, NY, New York, USA; Department of Interventional Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine/New York Presbyterian, NY, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Percutaneous ablation is an established alternative to surgical intervention for small renal masses. Radiofrequency and cryoablation have been studied extensively in the literature. To date, series assessing the efficacy and safety of microwave ablation (MWA) are limited. Read More

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Examining potential risk factors for early age of nicotine vaping initiation in a sample of Florida youth.

Addict Behav 2021 Apr 26;120:106962. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, United States.

Previous research has examined risk factors for nicotine vaping in young adults and older adolescents. Even so, significantly less research has examined risk factors for initiating nicotine vaping in early adolescence. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by examining risk factors for initiating nicotine vaping in a sample of middle- and high-school students. Read More

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Alpelisib in combination with everolimus ± exemestane in solid tumours: Phase Ib randomised, open-label, multicentre study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 5;151:49-62. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background And Purpose: Combined mTORC1 inhibition with everolimus (EVE) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit p110α blockade with alpelisib (ALP) has demonstrated synergistic efficacy in preclinical models and supports testing the combination of ALP and EVE in the clinical setting. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD)/recommended dose for expansion (RDE) of ALP in combination with EVE and in combination with EVE and exemestane (EXE) and subsequently assess safety, preliminary efficacy and effect of ALP on the pharmacokinetics of EVE and determine the magnitude of the drug-drug interaction.

Patients And Methods: Dose escalation phases were conducted in patients with advanced solid tumours and in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC). Read More

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Multiple metal exposure and obesity: A prospective cohort study of adults living along the Yangtze River, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 30;285:117150. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China; Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China. Electronic address:

Association between long-term exposure to multiple metals and obesity remains inconclusive, and prospective evidence on the region along the Yangtze River was limited. Thus, our study aimed to examine the association of multiple metal exposure and obesity. We measured baseline urine levels of 22 metals of 982 adults living along the Yangtze River, incidence of obesity was calculated from body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measured at follow-up survey. Read More

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EMS blood collection from patients with acute chest pain reduces emergency department length of stay.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 26;47:248-252. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, USA.

Background: Expediting the measurement of serum troponin by leveraging EMS blood collection could reduce the diagnostic time for patients with acute chest pain and help address Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding. However, this practice has not been examined among an ED chest pain patient population in the United States.

Methods: A prospective observational cohort study of adults with non-traumatic chest pain without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was conducted in three EMS agencies between 12/2016-4/2018. Read More

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Risk factors for dementia development, frailty, and mortality in older adults with epilepsy - A population-based analysis.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 5;120:108006. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, North Tower, 1403-29 St NW, Calgary, AB T2N 2T9, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3D10 - 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 1A10 - 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada; Alberta Health Services, Foothills Medical Centre, 1403-29 St. NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 2T9, Canada; O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, 3rd Floor TRW Building, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Although the prevalence of comorbid epilepsy and dementia is expected to increase, the impact is not well understood. Our objectives were to examine risk factors associated with incident dementia and the impact of frailty and dementia on mortality in older adults with epilepsy.

Methods: The CALIBER scientific platform was used. Read More

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Differential risks of changes in seizure frequency with transitions between hormonal and non-hormonal contraception in women with epilepsy: A prospective cohort study.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 5;120:108011. Epub 2021 May 5.

Harvard Neuroendocrine Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.

This prospective, observational, cohort study of 101 women with epilepsy (WWE) assesses the seizure safety of systemic hormonal contraception (HC) versus non-HC (NHC). It reports risks of changes in seizure frequency associated with transition from NHC to HC relative to HC to NHC for (1) proportions of WWE with ≥50% increase and decrease in seizure frequency, (2) changes in seizure frequency, (3) changes in seizure severity, and 4) changes in AED regimen during the study. In comparing NHC to HC versus HC to NHC, NHC to HC had greater risk of ≥50% increase in seizure frequency: RR = 1. Read More

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Staples and locking plates provide comparable outcomes for fixation of first metatarsal dorsiflexion osteotomies in pes cavovarus.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Apr 18;47:101815. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Foot and Ankle Unit, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, UK. Electronic address:

Background: One commonly encountered deformity within the cavovarus foot is plantarflexion of the first metatarsal which may be a primary or secondary deformity. Correcting the plantarflexion may be achieved through a dorsiflexion osteotomy although the optimal fixation device for this osteotomy has not been determined. This clinical study compared the outcomes using staples and locking plates. Read More

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Differential DNA Methylation is associated with Hippocampal Abnormalities in Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, The Netherlands; De Bascule, Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Recent findings in neuroimaging and epigenetics offer important insights into brain structures and biological pathways of altered gene expression associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown to what extent epigenetic mechanisms are associated with PTSD and its neurobiology in youth.

Methods: In this study we combined a methylome-wide association study and structural neuroimaging measures in a Dutch cohort of youth with PTSD (ages 8-18 years). Read More

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Micronutrient status influences clinical outcomes of paediatric cancer patients during treatment: A prospective cohort study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 20;40(5):2923-2935. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Child Life and Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 1UW, UK; Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, EH9 1LF, UK.

Background: Research reporting plasma micronutrient status and its impact on clinical outcomes in paediatric cancer is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of plasma micronutrient abnormalities and their impact on clinical outcomes and treatment complications.

Methods: A multicentre prospective-cohort study of children aged <18 years diagnosed with cancer was performed between Aug 2010-Jan 2014. Read More

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Association of Early White Blood Cell Trend with Outcomes in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.

Background: An increasing white blood cell (WBC) count in early course of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can indicate a systemic inflammatory state triggered by the initial insult. We sought to determine the significance of the early WBC trend as a potential predictor of outcomes.

Methods: We analyzed a cohort of consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and overall survival prognostic nomogram for oligodendroglioma: a SEER population-based analysis.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of medicine, TaikangXianlin Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210046, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate demographics, outcomes, and prognostic factors of all oligodendroglioma cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and to build a clinical prognosis model for the prediction of survival time for oligodendroglioma patients.

Methods: Cases diagnosed between 1975 and 2016 were selected from the SEER Program. Age, sex, race, insurance, year of diagnosis, marital status, tumor location, tumor size, summary stage, surgery method, and use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy were evaluated with respect to overall survival by univariate and multivariate analysis. Read More

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Comparison of clinical outcomes after transforaminal interbody fusion using cortical bone trajectory versus percutaneous pedicle screw fixation.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Mukogawa-cho 1-1, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan.

Objective: The study aim was to compare clinical outcomes between patients undergoing transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) using percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) and cortical bone trajectory (CBT) by a single surgeon.

Methods: This was a retrospective matched-cohort study of 77 patients (mean age: 71.7 years, 56% female) who underwent TLIF using CBT or PPS. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and outcome of bacteremia caused by Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella aerogenes: more similarities than differences.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Clinical Unit of Infectious Diseases, Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS), University of Seville/CSIC/ Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Seville, Spain.

Introduction: The genus Enterobacter is a common cause of nosocomial infections. Historically, the most frequent Enterobacter species were those of the Enterobacter cloacae complex and Enterobacter aerogenes. In 2019, E. Read More

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Surgical management of urinary tract endometriosis: a one-year longitudinal multicenter pilot study in 31 French hospitals (by the FRIENDS group).

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hôpital Universitaire de la Croix Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, France.

Study Objectives: To describe the surgical management and the risks of postoperative complications of patients suffering from urinary tract endometriosis (UTE) in France in 2017.

Design: Multicentric retrospective cohort pilot study.

Setting: Department of Gynecology in 31 expert endometriosis centers. Read More

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Outcomes of Posterior Labral Repair with or without Concomitant High-Grade Glenohumeral Chondral Pathology: a retrospective cohort with minimum 2-year follow-up.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Carolinas Medical Center, Atrium Musculoskeletal Institute, 1025 Morehead Medical Dr., Suite #300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of patients who underwent posterior labral repair with and without concomitant glenohumeral chondral pathology.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed on patients ≥ 18 years of age who underwent primary posterior labral repair over 5 years. Charts were reviewed to determine the presence and location of high-grade (Outerbridge Grade III/IV) pathology. Read More

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