4,938 results match your criteria cognitive stability

Assessing the impact of dual-task reactive step practice in people with Parkinson's disease: A feasibility study.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 Sep 14;80:102876. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; Phoenix VA Health Care Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

Reactive stepping is impaired in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) but can be improved with training. However, it is unclear if reactive steps can be improved when performing a concurrent cognitive task, a common and fall-relevant circumstance. We assessed the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of dual-task reactive step training. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

'Fearful-place' coding in the amygdala-hippocampal network.

Elife 2021 Sep 17;10. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Psychology and Program in Neurobiology & Behavior, University of Washington, Seattle, United States.

Animals seeking survival needs must be able to assess different locations of threats in their habitat. However, the neural integration of spatial and risk information essential for guiding goal-directed behavior remains poorly understood. Thus, we investigated simultaneous activities of fear-responsive basal amygdala (BA) and place-responsive dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) neurons as rats left the safe nest to search for food in an exposed space and encountered a simulated 'predator'. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Stimulus-Driven and Spontaneous Dynamics in Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Sequence Representation.

Neural Comput 2021 Sep;33(10):2603-2645

Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A.

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have been widely used to model sequential neural dynamics ("neural sequences") of cortical circuits in cognitive and motor tasks. Efforts to incorporate biological constraints and Dale's principle will help elucidate the neural representations and mechanisms of underlying circuits. We trained an excitatory-inhibitory RNN to learn neural sequences in a supervised manner and studied the representations and dynamic attractors of the trained network. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Impossibility of Automating Ambiguity.

Abeba Birhane

Artif Life 2021 Jun;27(1):44-61

University College Dublin, School of Computer Science.

On the one hand, complexity science and enactive and embodied cognitive science approaches emphasize that people, as complex adaptive systems, are ambiguous, indeterminable, and inherently unpredictable. On the other, Machine Learning (ML) systems that claim to predict human behaviour are becoming ubiquitous in all spheres of social life. I contend that ubiquitous Artificial Intelligence (AI) and ML systems are close descendants of the Cartesian and Newtonian worldview in so far as they are tools that fundamentally sort, categorize, and classify the world, and forecast the future. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Perturbation-based balance assessment: Examining reactive balance control in older adults with mild cognitive impairments.

Physiol Int 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Physical Therapy, The University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (OAwMCI) present subtle balance and gait deficits along with subjective memory decline. Although these presentations might not affect activities of daily living (ADLs), they attribute to a two-folded increase in falls. While changes occurring in volitional balance control during ADLs have been extensively examined among OAwMCI, reactive balance control, required to recover from external perturbations, has received little attention. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Exploring Memory Care Clinics in Minnesota: A Qualitative Analysis.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2021 Sep 14:8919887211044752. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Objectives: We explored memory clinic care provision in Minnesota, examining diversity and similarities of services provided and challenges faced. We also considered how well their services and care philosophies aligned with national dementia care practice recommendations.

Methods: We created a 53-question interview guide and interviewed 11 memory clinics across Minnesota in late 2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Endothelin-1 Induced Global Ischemia in adult Zebrafish: A Model With Novel Entity of Stroke Research.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Sep 11:102025. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Pre-Clinical Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death in the general population, and it occurs three times more frequently in diabetic patients, necessitating extensive research into new therapeutics. The reproducibility, similarity, and technical limitations of current animal models are limited.

Methods: We developed a stroke induction model using pink zebra-Danio-rerio. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Social Determinants of Health and Delirium Occurrence and Duration in Critically Ill Adults.

Crit Care Explor 2021 Sep 7;3(9):e0532. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Intensive Care, Radboud Institute for Health Science, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, NL.

Social determinants of health may affect ICU outcome, but the association between social determinants of health and delirium remains unclear. We evaluated the association between three social determinants of health and delirium occurrence and duration in critically ill adults.

Design: Secondary, subgroup analysis of a cohort study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Gait Speed Modulations Are Proportional to Grades of Virtual Visual Slopes-A Virtual Reality Study.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:615242. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Center of Advanced Technologies in Rehabilitation, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Gait is a complex mechanism relying on integration of several sensory inputs such as vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual cues to maintain stability while walking. Often humans adapt their gait to changes in surface inclinations, and this is typically achieved by modulating walking speed according to the inclination in order to counteract the gravitational forces, either uphill (exertion effect) or downhill (braking effect). The contribution of vision to these speed modulations is not fully understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Influence of Actual Appraisals of Peers on the Self-Appraisals of Personality Traits for Chinese Late Adolescents: The Mediating Effect of Reflected Appraisals.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:687482. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Laboratory of Emotion and Mental Health, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, China.

Reflected appraisals refer to the perceptions of individuals of how they are perceived by others. Numerous studies in cultural psychology have revealed that individuals in the Eastern collectivist culture show an interdependent self-construal, which depends much on the social culture. Hence, the research on reflected appraisals in the Eastern culture can improve the understanding of how the social environment shapes the self-perception of an individual. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Association Between Internet Addiction and Anxiety in Nursing Students: A Network Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:723355. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health and Medicinal Administration, & Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, Macao, SAR China.

Nursing students who suffer from co-occurring anxiety experience added difficulties when communicating and interacting with others in a healthy, positive, and meaningful way. Previous studies have found strong positive correlations between Internet addiction (IA) and anxiety, suggesting that nursing students who report severe IA are susceptible to debilitating anxiety as well. To date, however, network analysis (NA) studies exploring the nature of association between individual symptoms of IA and anxiety have not been published. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Decline in executive function in patients with white matter hyperintensities from the static and dynamic perspectives of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Cognitive impairments are characteristics of patients with white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and hypoperfusion is currently a relatively recognized mechanism of WMHs. Brain activity is closely coupled to the regulation of local blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the abnormal local brain activity of patients with WMHs from the viewpoint of the static amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (sALFF) and dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (dALFF). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Influence of Different Dual-Task Conditions During Straight or Curved Walking on Gait Performance of Physically Active Older Women With Cognitive Decline.

J Aging Phys Act 2021 Sep 11:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul,Brazil.

Real-world walking requires shifting attention from different cognitive demands to adapt gait. This study aims to evaluate the effect of dual tasking on spatiotemporal gait parameters of older adults. Participants were asked to perform a primary complex single-walking task, consisting of a fast-paced linear and a curved gait. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Early Social Cognition Inventory (ESCI): An examination of its psychometric properties from birth to 47 months.

Behav Res Methods 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Social cognition refers to a broad range of cognitive processes and skills that allow individuals to interact with and understand others, including a variety of skills from infancy through preschool and beyond, e.g., joint attention, imitation, and belief understanding. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Interleukin-6: A Novel Target for Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:745061. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Institute of Clinical Research, Affiliated Nanhua Hospital, Hengyang Medical College, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease is a collective term for cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease, being a serious threat to human health. A growing number of studies have proved that the content of inflammatory factors or mediators determines the stability of vascular plaque and the incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular event, and involves in the process of Cardio-Cerebrovascular Diseases. Interleukin-6 is a widely used cytokine that causes inflammation and oxidative stress, which would further result in cardiac and cerebral injury. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vitamin D Fortification of Consumption Cow's Milk: Health, Nutritional and Technological Aspects. A Multidisciplinary Lecture of the Recent Scientific Evidence.

Molecules 2021 Aug 31;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Vitamin D is essential in assuring bone health at all stages of life, but its non-skeletal effects are also essential: This vitamin impacts the physiology of the immune system, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue, glucose metabolism, skin, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, neuro-cognitive functions and cell division. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency is widespread worldwide, at any age, in young and healthy subjects, as well as in pregnant women and the elderly population, due to several factors, including inadequate sunlight exposure, skin pigmentation and coverage, adiposity, lifestyle and low dietary intakes. To overcome this problem, the fortification of foods that are consumed on a daily basis, such as milk, is strongly advisable. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors associated with employment stability following traumatic brain injury, in a sample who have received comprehensive vocational rehabilitation.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Sep 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: To quantify employment stability of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received comprehensive vocational rehabilitation (VR) using different measures to identify difficulties experienced and factors associated with employment stability.

Materials And Methods: 72 individuals with predominantly moderate-severe TBI were interviewed. Neuropsychological assessment scores were collected. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

The Brain Structure and Intrinsic Characters of Falsification Thinking in Conditional Proposition Testing.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 23;15:684470. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Psychology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Wason's selection task (WST) as a representative of the field of conditional proposition testing has been explored by multiple disciplines for more than 50 years, but the neural basis of its key falsification thinking remains unclear. Considering that the accuracy of individuals in WST has stability over time, we believe that falsification thinking has a specific brain structural basis and intrinsic neural characteristics. To test this hypothesis, we studied individuals who were able to complete the WST using T1-weighted MRI (using voxel-based morphology (VBM) analysis) and resting electroencephalogram (EEG) (using microstate analysis, which can reflect stable cognitive characteristics of individuals) techniques. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Serum proBDNF Is Associated With Changes in the Ketone Body β-Hydroxybutyrate and Shows Superior Repeatability Over Mature BDNF: Secondary Outcomes From a Cross-Over Trial in Healthy Older Adults.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 20;13:716594. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) can upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice, but little is known about the associations between BHB and BDNF in humans. The primary aim here was to investigate whether ketosis (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Network analysis of depressive symptoms in Hong Kong residents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 09 6;11(1):460. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health and Medicinal Administration, Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

In network theory depression is conceptualized as a complex network of individual symptoms that influence each other, and central symptoms in the network have the greatest impact on other symptoms. Clinical features of depression are largely determined by sociocultural context. No previous study examined the network structure of depressive symptoms in Hong Kong residents. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Acute Effects of a Perturbation-Based Balance Training on Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 16;3:688519. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

Aging is accompanied by an alteration in the capacity to ambulate, react to external balance perturbations, and resolve cognitive tasks. Perturbation-based balance training has been used to induce adaptations of gait stability and reduce fall risk. The compensatory reactions generated in response to external perturbations depend on the activation of specific neural structures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Postural Control, Dual Task Performance and Executive Function Following an Ultramarathon.

Percept Mot Skills 2021 Sep 2:315125211044351. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Kinesiology, 1098Albion College, Albion College, Albion, Michigan, United States.

As research into the postural and cognitive effects of ultramarathon running is sparse and still needed, we investigated the effect of ultramarathon running on runners' postural control, dual task postural control and a measure of executive function-the flanker test, expecting fatigue-related deterioration on each measure. We used a pre- and post-test research design with 14 runners who completed (a) postural assessment with eyes open and closed, on a flat surface and on foam during (b) a two-choice reaction time dual task postural assessment, and (c) an executive function modified flanker task. With regard to postural stability, we observed, after running, increased anterior-posterior (AP) path length and AP root mean square (RMS) and reductions in both mediolateral (ML) RMS and ML median frequency. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Experiences of Student Circus Arts Performers Undertaking a Shoulder Rehabilitation Program Via Telehealth Consultation During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Med Probl Perform Art 2021 Sep;36(3):163-175

Dep. of Nursing and Allied Health, Swinburne University, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia.

Objective: To explore the subjective experiences of student circus arts performers with atraumatic shoulder instability undertaking a 12-week shoulder rehabilitation program during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, in Melbourne, Australia.

Methods: Using a qualitative design, 14 circus arts students from the National Institute of Circus Arts (Australia) were individually interviewed via teleconsultation. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Single-chain Fragment variable antibody targeting cholecystokinin-B receptor for pain reduction.

Neurobiol Pain 2021 Aug-Dec;10:100067. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

The cholecystokinin B receptor and its neuropeptide ligand are upregulated in chronic neuropathic pain models. Single-chain Fragment variable antibodies were generated as preferred non-opioid targeting therapy blocking the cholecystokinin B receptor to inhibit chronic neuropathic pain models and . Engineered antibodies of this type feature binding activity similar to monoclonal antibodies but with stronger affinity and increased tissue penetrability due to their smaller size. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Children With Congenital Heart Disease: A Cohort Study From Infancy to Preschool Age.

J Pediatr 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; Clinique d'Investigation Neuro-Cardiaque (CINC), Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To characterize the neuropsychological outcome of children with CHD at age 5; the stability of cognitive and language abilities across childhood; and to identify early neurodevelopmental markers of neuropsychological outcomes in these children.

Study Design: Five-year-old children (n=55) with complex CHD were assessed using standardized and comprehensive neuropsychological measures. Stability of language and cognitive performance was assessed by comparing standardized scores between ages 1, 2 and 5 years old. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Disconnectome of the migraine brain: a "connectopathy" model.

J Headache Pain 2021 Aug 28;22(1):102. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Headache Center, Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Background: In the past decades a plethora of studies has been conducted to explore resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) of the brain networks in migraine with conflicting results probably due to the variability and susceptibility of signal fluctuations across the course of RS-FC scan. On the other hand, the structural substrates enabling the functional communications among the brain connectome, characterized by higher stability and reproducibility, have not been widely investigated in migraine by means of graph analysis approach. We hypothesize a rearrangement of the brain connectome with an increase of both strength and density of connections between cortical areas specifically involved in pain perception, processing and modulation in migraine patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reliability and Correlations Between Overall Severity, Roughness and Breathiness in the Perception of Dysphonic Voices: Investigating Cognitive Aspects.

J Voice 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LPL, Aix-en-Provence, France; Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Conception University Hospital, Marseille, France.

Objectives: this study concerns the subjective perception of the quality of the voice, more particularly in the case of dysphonia. Our general objective is to study the perceptual mechanisms, which constitute Hirano's GRBAS multidimensional perceptual rating scale.

Material And Methods: We tested the reliability of the GRB perceptual scale both in terms of test-retest reliability (intra-listener stability) and in terms of inter-listener agreement. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of gait in patients with fibromyalgia during motor and cognitive dual task walking: a cross-sectional study.

Adv Rheumatol 2021 08 26;61(1):53. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotića 4, 11129, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: The aim of the study was to assess gait pattern of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) while performing demanding motor and/or cognitive dual tasks while walking. Further, idea was to explore possible correlations of dual task gait pattern alterations to patients' functional status and presence or absence of clinical symptoms associated with FM.

Methods: Twenty-four female FM patients and 24 healthy female subjects performed a basic walking task, a dual motor, a dual mental (cognitive) and a combined, dual motor and cognitive task simultaneously. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plant Adaptogens-History and Future Perspectives.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 20;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University-Plovdiv, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Adaptogens are synthetic compounds (bromantane, levamisole, aphobazole, bemethyl, etc.) or plant extracts that have the ability to enhance the body's stability against physical loads without increasing oxygen consumption. Extracts from , , , , and are considered to be naturally occurring adaptogens and, in particular, plant adaptogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mobile Phone Use during Gait: The Role of Perceived Prioritization and Executive Control.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 16;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel.

(1) Background: Mobile phone use during gait is associated with adverse health outcomes, namely increased risk of pedestrian injury. Healthy individuals can voluntarily prioritize concurrent task performance, but the factors underlying the impact of phone use during walking remain largely unknown. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between subjective (perceived) prioritization, cognitive flexibility and dual-task performance when using a mobile phone during walking. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF