77,481 results match your criteria cognitive social


Ecology, Cognition and the Hippocampus: A Tale of Two Frogs.

Brain Behav Evol 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

The underlying hypothesis that motivates research into the relationship between ecology, cognition, and the hippocampus is that selection to solve problems in nature shapes cognition through changes in the hippocampus. This hypothesis has been explored almost exclusively in mammals and birds. However, if one is interested in the principles that shape the evolution of vertebrate cognition, work in amphibians is essential. Read More

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January 2022

Multi-level effects driving cognitive and behavioral variability among prairie voles: Insights into reproductive decision-making from biological levels of organization.

Brain Behav Evol 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Behavioral phenotypes play an active role in maximizing fitness and shaping the evolutionary trajectory of species by offsetting the ecological and social environmental factors individuals experience. How these phenotypes evolve and how they are expressed is still a major question in ethology today. In recent years, an increased focus on the mechanisms that regulate the interactions between an individual and its environment has offered novel insights into the expression of alternative phenotypes. Read More

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January 2022

A bagging ensemble machine learning framework to predict overall cognitive function of schizophrenia patients with cognitive domains and tests.

Asian J Psychiatr 2022 Jan 14;69:103008. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Brain Disease Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: It has been indicated that the interplay between functional outcomes and cognitive functions in schizophrenia is arbitrated by clinical symptoms, where cognitive functions are evaluated by cognitive domains and cognitive tests.

Methods: To determine which single cognitive domain or test can best predict the overall cognitive function of schizophrenia, we established a bagging ensemble framework resulting from the analysis of factors such as 7 cognitive domain scores and 11 cognitive test scores of 302 schizophrenia patients in the Taiwanese population. We compared our bagging ensemble framework with other state-of-the-art algorithms such as multilayer feedforward neural networks, linear regression, support vector machine, and random forests. Read More

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January 2022

Effect of a multi-domain lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk in older people: the FINGER trial.

Eur Heart J 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Public Health and Welfare, Population Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Aims: Joint prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and dementia could reduce the burden of both conditions. The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) demonstrated a beneficial effect on cognition (primary outcome) and we assessed the effect of this lifestyle intervention on incident CVD (pre-specified secondary outcome).

Methods And Results: FINGER enrolled 1259 individuals aged 60-77 years (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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January 2022

Adaptive Empathy: A Model for Learning Empathic Responses in Response to Feedback.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2022 Jan 20:17456916211031926. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Integrated Brain and Behavior Research Center (IBBRC), University of Haifa.

Empathy is usually deployed in social interactions. Nevertheless, common measures and examinations of empathy study this construct in isolation from the person in distress. In this article we seek to extend the field of examination to include both empathizer and target to determine whether and how empathic responses are affected by feedback and learned through interaction. Read More

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January 2022

Improving Spanish translations of tobacco dependence measures using cognitive interviewing.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2022 Jan 20:1-9. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Psychological, Health and Learning Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Cognitive interviewing is the practice of systematically collecting feedback about survey items from members of the priority population, with the goal of identifying and rectifying problems to increase the comprehensibility of the survey. Evidence is limited on the extent to which this method of pretesting improves survey items.

Objective: The current study examined the utility of incorporating cognitive interviewing to improve the Spanish translations of two measures of tobacco dependence. Read More

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January 2022

Early concepts of intimacy: Young humans use saliva sharing to infer close relationships.

Science 2022 Jan 20;375(6578):311-315. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Across human societies, people form "thick" relationships characterized by strong attachments, obligations, and mutual responsiveness. People in thick relationships share food utensils, kiss, or engage in other distinctive interactions that involve sharing saliva. We found that children, toddlers, and infants infer that dyads who share saliva (as opposed to other positive social interactions) have a distinct relationship. Read More

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January 2022

Malnutrition matters: Association of stunting and underweight with early childhood development indicators in Nepal.

Matern Child Nutr 2022 Jan 20:e13321. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

FHI 360 Asia Pacific Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand.

Malnutrition is a threat to optimal child development, with its occurrence during foetal and infancy stages associated with poor cognitive, motor and socio-emotional skills. However, information on the effects of various types of malnutrition on early childhood development (ECD) is limited in Nepal. To assess the association of stunting, wasting and underweight (three prominent forms of malnutrition) with the four domains of the ECD index (literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional and learning development) among children 36-59 months of age, we conducted an adjusted logistic regression using Nepal's national household Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2019 data set. Read More

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January 2022

Evaluation of Substantial Reduction in Elective Radiotherapy Dose and Field in Patients With Human Papillomavirus-Associated Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Definitive Chemoradiotherapy.

JAMA Oncol 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Importance: Several de-escalation strategies for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) have focused on deintensifying gross disease treatment. Reduction of radiotherapy dose and target volume to subclinical regions may achieve good clinical outcomes with favorable patient quality of life (QOL).

Objective: To determine outcomes from a systematic approach of reducing radiotherapy dose and target volume to the elective treatment regions in patients with HPV-associated OPC undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Read More

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January 2022

The Impacts of Emotional Intelligence on Students' Study Habits in Blended Learning Environments: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Engagement during COVID-19.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2022 Jan 13;12(1). Epub 2022 Jan 13.

School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Emotional intelligence is a main area in educational psychology and a key factor in the academic life of students. It deals with deviant behavior through self-awareness and self-motivation, regulates emotional and social skills, and converts emotional energy into positive energy. This study examined direct and indirect relationships between emotional intelligence and study habits in blended learning environments. Read More

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January 2022

Personality Traits, Cognitive Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown on Healthy Youngsters.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2021 Dec 24;12(1). Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain.

The objective of the present study was to explore possible changes in the psychological wellbeing of young healthy students during the initial 14 days of the COVID-19 general lockdown that occurred in March of 2020, and if there was any relation with specific personality traits (neuroticism, psychoticism, and extraversion), cognitive styles (internal and external locus of control and intolerance of uncertainty), and coping strategies. One hundred twenty-two university students aged from 18 to 29 years participated in the study. The dispositional factors were assessed at the beginning of the study, while measures of psychological adjustment (anxiety, depression, and self-perceived health) were taken in three different assessment stages, employing validated questionnaires and scales. Read More

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December 2021

Comparison of frontostriatal circuits in adolescent nicotine addiction and internet gaming disorder.

J Behav Addict 2022 Jan 19. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

1 School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071, Peoples R China.

Background: Recently, there has been significantly increased participation in online gaming and other addictive behaviors particularly in adolescents. Tendencies to avoid social interaction and become more involved in technology-based activities pose the danger of creating unhealthy addictions. Thus, the presence of relatively immature cognitive control and high risk-taking properties makes adolescence a period of major changes leading to an increased rate of emotional disorders and addiction. Read More

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January 2022

Impact of the COVID-19 confinement on cognition and mental health and technology use among socially vulnerable older people: a retrospective cohort study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Mental Health, Regional University Hospital of Málaga, Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), Plaza del Hospital Civil s/n, Málaga, ES.

Background: COVID-19 forced the implementation of restrictive measures in Spain, such as lockdown, home confinement, social distancing and isolation. It is necessary to study if limited access to basic services, and decreased family and social support could have deleterious effects on cognition, quality of life and mental health in vulnerable older people.

Objective: To explore the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on cognition on older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia as the main outcome and quality of life, perceived health status and depression as secondary outcomes. Read More

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December 2021

Groups 4 Health versus cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression and loneliness in young people: randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial with 12-month follow-up.

Br J Psychiatry 2021 Sep 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Depression treatments are typically less effective for young people than for adults. However, treatments rarely target loneliness, which is a key risk factor in the onset, maintenance and development of depression.

Aims: This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel loneliness intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), relative to the best-practice treatment of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing loneliness and depression over a 12-month period (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12618000440224). Read More

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September 2021

The Power of Population Effect in Ant House-Hunting: A Computational Modeling Approach.

J Comput Biol 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

The decentralized cognition of animal groups is both a challenging biological problem and a potential basis for bioinspired design. In this study, we investigated the house-hunting algorithm used by emigrating colonies of ants to reach consensus on a new nest. We developed a tractable model that encodes accurate individual behavior rules, and estimated our parameter values by matching simulated behaviors with observed ones on both the individual and group levels. Read More

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January 2022

The fear of COVID-19 scale: Its structure and measurement invariance across 48 countries.

Psychol Assess 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Institute of Psychology.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been a source of fear around the world. We asked whether the measurement of this fear is trustworthy and comparable across countries. In particular, we explored the measurement invariance and cross-cultural replicability of the widely used Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19S), testing community samples from 48 countries (N = 14,558). Read More

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January 2022

Positive Peer Perception, Social Anxiety and Classroom Social Adjustment as Risk Factors in Peer Victimization: A Multilevel Study.

Psicothema 2022 Feb;34(1):110-116

Universidad de Córdoba.

Objective: Individual risks factors of peer victimization have been widely identified in children and adolescents. However, little is known about how the classroom context may increase or decrease the frequency of victimization. The present short-term prospective longitudinal study used a a person-by-environment approach to examine whether peer perception and social anxiety, along with class social adjustment levels as a moderator, affect the likelihood of peer victimization over time. Read More

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February 2022

Unravelling the contribution of complex trauma to psychopathology and cognitive deficits: a cohort study.

Br J Psychiatry 2021 Aug;219(2):448-455

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK; Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK; and National and Specialist CAMHS Clinic for Trauma, Anxiety, and Depression, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Background: Complex traumas are traumatic experiences that involve multiple interpersonal threats during childhood or adolescence, such as repeated abuse. These traumas are hypothesised to cause more severe psychopathology and poorer cognitive function than other non-complex traumas. However, empirical testing has been limited to clinical/convenience samples and cross-sectional designs. Read More

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Relationships between global functioning and neuropsychological predictors in subjects at high risk of psychosis or with a recent onset of depression.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2022 Jan 20:1-9. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Psychotic disorders are frequently associated with decline in functioning and cognitive difficulties are observed in subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. In this work, we applied automatic approaches to neurocognitive and functioning measures, with the aim of investigating the link between global, social and occupational functioning, and cognition.

Methods: 102 CHR subjects and 110 patients with recent onset depression (ROD) were recruited. Read More

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January 2022

Intact fluency in autism? A comprehensive approach of verbal fluency task including word imageability and concreteness.

Autism Res 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

Verbal fluency is a cognitive function reflecting executive functions and the ability to retrieve the appropriate information from memory quickly. Previous studies reported conflicting results-impaired and intact verbal fluency-in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most studies concentrate on overall word productivity, errors, perseverations, clustering, or switching. Read More

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January 2022

Barriers and facilitators to implementation of Cognitive Adaptation Training in long-term inpatient facilities for people diagnosed with severe mental illness: A nursing perspective.

J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Lentis Psychiatric Institute, Department of Rehabilitation, Zuidlaren, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Evidence-based interventions in psychiatry often fail to reach clinical practice. Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) is an evidence-based psychosocial intervention that aims to improve daily functioning of people diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Implementation of CAT remains challenging, despite demonstrated effectiveness. Read More

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January 2022

Moving beyond emotions in Parkinson's disease.

Br J Clin Psychol 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Neurology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: Emotion recognition is a fundamental neurocognitive capacity that is a critical predictor of interpersonal function and, in turn, mental health. Although people with Parkinson's disease (PD) often exhibit difficulties recognizing emotions, almost all studies to date have focused on basic emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust), with little consideration of how more cognitively complex self-conscious emotions such as contempt, embarrassment, and pride might also be affected. Further, the few studies that have considered self-conscious emotions have relied on high intensity, static stimuli. Read More

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January 2022

Early treatment with Ataluren of a 2-year-old boy with nonsense mutation Duchenne dystrophy.

Acta Myol 2021 Dec 31;40(4):184-186. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Pediatric Neurology, Santobono-Pausilipon Children's Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked myopathy caused by mutations, in most cases deletions and duplications, in the dystrophin gene. Point mutations account for 13% and stop codon mutations are even rarer. Ataluren was approved for the treatment of DMD caused by nonsense mutations in 2014, and several clinical trials documented its efficacy and safety. Read More

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December 2021

Testing the Associations Between Body Image, Social Support, and Physical Activity Among Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed With Cancer.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:800314. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Physical activity (PA) is important for managing the side effects and long-term outcomes of cancer treatment, yet many adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer (AYAs) are not meeting PA guidelines. Body image and social support are two factors that can influence PA behavior and require further attention in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between body image, social support, and PA among AYAs. Read More

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January 2022

When Fathers Feel Socially Constrained to Assume a Role: A Negative Predictor of the Coparental Relationship in Switzerland.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:752805. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Role distribution is a central issue for parents in the transition to parenthood, but little is known about the motivations in fathers to assume a specific role. Differences in work-family balance in each parent may be motivated by an individual choice mutually shared by both partners; however, in many couples, the parents may feel forced to adopt a traditional role distribution, either for financial reasons, or to comply with social expectations about what men and women should do when they are parents. This feeling of being socially constrained to adopt a role distribution that is not congruent with intrinsic motivations can generate dissatisfaction and may jeopardize the development of the interparental relationship. Read More

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January 2022

Therapeutic Alliance in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Child and Adolescent Mental Health-Current Trends and Future Challenges.

Authors:
Hazel Fernandes

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:610874. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Health Service Executive, Dublin, Ireland.

This extended literature review proposes to present the trends in the therapeutic alliance, outcomes, and measures in the last decade within the premises of individual cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and its innovations, used as an interventional measure in the context of child and adolescent mental health setting. A brief background of the rationale for conducting this literature search is presented at the start. This is followed by the methodology and design which incorporates the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the basis for the same. Read More

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January 2022

Precision Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease: Investigating Comorbid Common Biological Substrates in the Rat Model of Amyloid Beta-Induced Toxicity.

Front Pharmacol 2021 3;12:799561. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most widespread neurodegenerative disorder, is a fatal global burden for the elder population. Although many efforts have been made, the search of a curative therapy is still ongoing. Individuating phenotypic traits that might help in investigating treatment response is of growing interest in AD research. Read More

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January 2022

Negative observational learning might play a limited role in the cultural evolution of technology.

Sci Rep 2022 Jan 19;12(1):970. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

School of Economics and Management, Kochi University of Technology, Kochi, 780-8515, Japan.

Theoretical and empirical studies of the cultural evolution in technology have often focused on positive observational learning, i.e., copying a successful individual. Read More

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January 2022

[Role of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment(CGA)in Elderly Cancer Treatment].

Authors:
Madoka Yanagawa

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2022 Jan;49(1):24-27

Dept. of Community Healthcare and Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

In the treatment of diverse elderly cancer patients, not only cancer progression and general condition but also social factors, comorbidities, and cognitive function have a great influence. Therefore chronological age and performance status(PS) alone, there is a possibility that under treatment that inappropriately lowers the treatment intensity and over treatment that performs the same treatment as young people without considering the risk of chemotherapy may be performed. Comprehensive geriatric assessment(CGA)evaluates individual health conditions such as physical function, comorbidities, cognitive function, psychological status, social support system, and nutritional status of the elderly from various aspects, and selects treatment. Read More

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January 2022