12,171 results match your criteria cognitive profile

Is Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III Sensitive Enough to Detect Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Focal Cerebellar Lesions?

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate whether the available brief test of mental functions Addenbrooke's cognitive examination III (ACE III) detects cognitive impairment in patients with cerebellar damage. The second goal was to show the ACE III cognitive impairment profile of patients with focal cerebellar lesions.

Method: The study sample consisted of 31 patients with focal cerebellar lesions, 78 patients with supratentorial brain damage, and 31 subjects after spine surgery or with spine degeneration considered as control group, free of organic brain damage. Read More

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Clinical Efficacy and Safety Profile of Anterior Thalamic Stimulation for Intractable Epilepsy.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warszawa, Poland.

Introduction:  Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT DBS) is a neuromodulation therapy for patients with refractory partial seizures. The ANT is the structure of a limbic system with abundant neuronal connections to temporal and frontal brain regions that participate in seizure propagation circuitry.

State Of The Art:  We have performed a literature search regarding the clinical efficacy of ANT DBS. Read More

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Lesion loci of impaired affective prosody: A systematic review of evidence from stroke.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 9;152:105759. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States; Department of Cognitive Science, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States.

Affective prosody, or the changes in rate, rhythm, pitch, and loudness that convey emotion, has long been implicated as a function of the right hemisphere (RH), yet there is a dearth of literature identifying the specific neural regions associated with its processing. The current systematic review aimed to evaluate the evidence on affective prosody localization in the RH. One hundred and ninety articles from 1970 to February 2020 investigating affective prosody comprehension and production in patients with focal brain damage were identified via database searches. Read More

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"Turn-On" Quinoline-Based Fluorescent Probe for Selective Imaging of Tau Aggregates in Alzheimer's Disease: Rational Design, Synthesis, and Molecular Docking.

ACS Sens 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Neuro-Medicine, Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea.

Tau aggregation is believed to have a strong association with the level of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, optical brain imaging of tau aggregates has recently gained substantial attention as a promising tool for the early diagnosis of AD. However, selective imaging of tau aggregates is a major challenge due to sharing similar β-sheet structures with homologous Aβ fibrils. Read More

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Pushing or Pulling Your "Poison": Clinical Correlates of Alcohol Approach and Avoidance Bias Among Inpatients Undergoing Alcohol Withdrawal Treatment.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:663087. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia.

Alcohol approach bias, the tendency to automatically move toward alcohol cues, has been observed in people who drink heavily. However, surprisingly, some alcohol-dependent patients demonstrate an alcohol avoidance bias. This inconsistency could be explained by the clinical or demographic profile of the population studied, yet this has not been examined in approach bias modification (ABM) trials to date. Read More

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Schema modes and their associations with emotion regulation, mindfulness, and self-compassion among patients with personality disorders.

Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul 2021 Jun 10;8(1):19. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: The current study's goal was to examine the multivariate patterns of associations between schema modes and emotion regulation mechanisms in personality disorders. Schema modes are either integrated or dissociative states of mind, including intense emotional states, efforts to regulate emotions, or self-reflective evaluative thought processes. Exploring the multivariate patterns of a shared relationship between schema modes and emotion regulation strategies may lead to a better understanding of their associations and a deeper understanding of the latent personality profiles that organize their associations in a mixed personality disorder sample. Read More

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HTS-based discovery and optimization of novel positive allosteric modulators of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 29;222:113560. Epub 2021 May 29.

Pharmacological and Drug Safety Research, Gedeon Richter Plc., Budapest, Hungary.

HTS campaign of the corporate compound collection resulted in a novel, oxalic acid diamide scaffold of α7 nACh receptor positive allosteric modulators. During the hit expansion, several derivatives, such as 4, 11, 17 demonstrated not only high in vitro potency, but also in vivo efficacy in the mouse place recognition test. The advanced hit molecule 11 was further optimized by the elimination of the putatively mutagenic aromatic-amine building block that resulted in a novel, aminomethylindole compound family. Read More

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Swimming exercise improves short- and long-term memories: Time-course changes.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14851

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

The beneficial effects of exercise training on memory formation are well documented. However, the memory enhancement profile following the time-course of exercise training remains unknown. In this investigation, changes in the spatial hippocampal memory following a time-course of swimming exercise training were examined. Read More

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Executive function as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-2: children and adolescents with Williams syndrome.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background: Difficulties with executive functions (EF) are very common among individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). To characterise the pattern of relative strengths and weaknesses in EF for children and adolescents with WS, we considered the performance of a large sample on the parent version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-2 (BRIEF-2). Associations between distinct components of EF and adaptive behaviour, behaviour problems and intellectual ability were investigated. Read More

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FNS allows efficient event-driven spiking neural network simulations based on a neuron model supporting spike latency.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12160. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience (Center for Biomedical Technology), Technical University of Madrid & Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Neural modelling tools are increasingly employed to describe, explain, and predict the human brain's behavior. Among them, spiking neural networks (SNNs) make possible the simulation of neural activity at the level of single neurons, but their use is often threatened by the resources needed in terms of processing capabilities and memory. Emerging applications where a low energy burden is required (e. Read More

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Menopause impacts human brain structure, connectivity, energy metabolism, and amyloid-beta deposition.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):10867. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

All women undergo the menopause transition (MT), a neuro-endocrinological process that impacts aging trajectories of multiple organ systems including brain. The MT occurs over time and is characterized by clinically defined stages with specific neurological symptoms. Yet, little is known of how this process impacts the human brain. Read More

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Estimated Prevalence of Functional Hearing Difficulties in Blast-Exposed Service Members With Normal to Near-Normal-Hearing Thresholds.

Ear Hear 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Audiology and Speech Pathology Center, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Rehabilitation Research & Development Services, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington DC, USA 2GaRi Solutions INC, Aguada, Puerto Rico.

Objectives: Over the past decade, U.S. Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs audiologists have reported large numbers of relatively young adult patients who have normal to near-normal audiometric thresholds but who report difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments. Read More

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Elucidation of the relationship between sensory processing and white matter using diffusion tensor imaging tractography in young adults.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12088. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Japan.

Sensory processing and behaviors are altered during the development of connectivity between the sensory cortices and multiple brain regions in an experience-dependent manner. To reveal the relationship between sensory processing and brain white matter, we investigated the association between the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) and neural connectivity in the white matter tracts of 84 healthy young adults using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We observed a positive relationship between AASP scores (i. Read More

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Beneficial Effects of Choline Alphoscerate on Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in an In vitro Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive impairment, which represents an urgent public health concern. Given the worldwide impact of AD, there is a compelling need for effective therapies to slow down or halt this disorder.

Objective: Choline alphoscerate (α-GPC) represents a potentially effective cholinergic neurotrans- mission enhancing agent with an interesting clinical profile in cognitive dysfunctions improve- ment, although only scanty data are available about the mechanisms underlying such beneficial ef- fects. Read More

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Impact of sex and ε4 on age-related cerebral perfusion trajectories in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged and older adults: A longitudinal study.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jun 8:271678X211021313. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.

Cerebral hypoperfusion is thought to contribute to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, but the natural trajectory of cerebral perfusion in cognitively healthy adults has not been well-studied. This longitudinal study is consisted of 950 participants (40-89 years), who were cognitively unimpaired at their first visit. We investigated the age-related changes in cerebral perfusion, and their associations with genotype, biological sex, and cardiometabolic measurements. Read More

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Intranasal Insulin Reduces White Matter Hyperintensity Progression in Association with Improvements in Cognition and CSF Biomarker Profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;8(3):240-248

Suzanne Craft, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Wake Forest School of Medicine, One Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157,

Background: Intranasally administered insulin has shown promise in both rodent and human studies in Alzheimer's disease; however, both effects and mechanisms require elucidation.

Objective: We assessed the effects of intranasally administered insulin on white matter health and its association with cognition and cerebral spinal fluid biomarker profiles in adults with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease in secondary analyses from a prior phase 2 clinical trial (NCT01767909).

Design: A randomized (1:1) double-blind clinical trial. Read More

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January 2021

Cohort study of ageing from Bagé (SIGa-Bagé), Brazil: profile and methodology.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 7;21(1):1089. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Post-Graduate Programme in Nursing, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.

Background: The Bagé Cohort Study of Ageing is a population-based cohort study that has recently completed the first follow-up of a representative sample of older adults from Bagé, a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This is one of the first longitudinal studies to assess the impact of primary health care coverage on health conditions and inequalities. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence, incidence and trends of risk factors, health behaviours, social relationships, non-communicable diseases, geriatric diseases and disorders, hospitalisation, self-perceived health, and all-cause and specific-cause mortality. Read More

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New insights into human prefrontal cortex aging with a lipidomics approach.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2021 Jun 18:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Lleida-Lleida Biomedical Research Institute (Udl-irblleida), Lleida, Spain.

Introduction: Human prefrontal cortex (hPFC) is a recent evolutionarily developed brain region involved in cognitive functions. Human cognitive functions decline during aging. Yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the functional deterioration of the neural cells of this brain region still remain to be fully described. Read More

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Resting-state electroencephalographic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 May 29;31:102711. Epub 2021 May 29.

Neurology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy; Neurophysiology Service, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy; Neurorehabilitation Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy; Neuroimaging Research Unit, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: We evaluated the value of resting-state EEG source biomarkers to characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with an Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile and to track neurodegeneration throughout the AD continuum. We further applied a resting-state functional MRI (fMRI)-driven model of source reconstruction and tested its advantage in terms of AD diagnostic accuracy.

Methods: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with AD dementia (ADD), 86 amnestic MCI, and 33 healthy subjects enter the EEG study. Read More

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Cognitive profile of young children with Williams syndrome.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Psychology Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: There is very little research on the cognitive profile of young children with Williams syndrome (WS).

Method: The present study utilised the Differential Ability Scales - Second Edition to examine the early cognitive abilities of 22 young children with WS (aged 3.98 to 7. Read More

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Intepirdine as adjunctive therapy to donepezil for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease: A randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial (MINDSET).

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2021 31;7(1):e12136. Epub 2021 May 31.

Chambers-Grundy Center for Transformative Neuroscience Department of Brain Health, School of Integrated Health Sciences University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Las Vegas Nevada USA.

Introduction: A previous phase 2b study supported the use of the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist intepirdine as adjunctive therapy to donepezil for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. A phase 3 study, MINDSET, was performed to test this hypothesis.

Methods: MINDSET was a global, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 1315 mild-to-moderate AD dementia patients on stable donepezil. Read More

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Spatio-spectral relationships between pathological neural dynamics and cognitive impairment along the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 31;13(1):e12200. Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute for Human Neuroscience Boys Town National Research Hospital Omaha Nebraska USA.

Introduction: Numerous studies have described aberrant patterns of rhythmic neural activity in patients along the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum, yet the relationships between these pathological features and cognitive decline are uncertain.

Methods: We acquired magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from 38 amyloid-PET biomarker-confirmed patients on the AD spectrum and a comparison group of biomarker-negative cognitively normal (CN) healthy adults, alongside an extensive neuropsychological battery.

Results: By modeling whole-brain rhythmic neural activity with an extensive neuropsychological profile in patients on the AD spectrum, we show that the spectral and spatial features of deviations from healthy adults in neural population-level activity inform their relevance to domain-specific neurocognitive declines. Read More

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Sweat the Fall Stuff: Physical Activity Moderates the Association of White Matter Hyperintensities With Falls Risk in Older Adults.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 21;15:671464. Epub 2021 May 21.

Aging, Mobility, and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Falls in older adults are a major public health problem. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are highly prevalent in older adults and are a risk factor for falls. In the absence of a cure for WMHs, identifying potential strategies to counteract the risk of WMHs on falls are of great importance. Read More

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The Cardiovascular Conundrum in Ethnic and Sexual Minorities: A Potential Biomarker of Constant Coping With Discrimination.

Front Neurosci 2021 19;15:619171. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

A paradoxical profile of greater elevated sympathetic vasoconstriction (increased total peripheral resistance, TPR) and increased vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) -the so-called Cardiovascular Conundrum- has been reported in African Americans (AAs) both at rest and in response to orthostasis. Whereas some authors have attributed this pattern to genetic factors, others have pointed to the potential role of coping with repeated racial discrimination. To disentangle between these alternative explanations, we have examined the hemodynamic profile of another population that is likely to be exposed to episodes of discrimination, i. Read More

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Global Cardiovascular Risk Profile and Cerebrovascular Abnormalities in Presymptomatic Individuals with CADASIL or Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Cardiovascular risk factors increase the risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

Objective: Studying individuals with autosomal dominant mutations leading to the early onset of dementia, this study examines the effect of the global cardiovascular risk profile on early cognitive and neuroimaging features of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

Methods: We studied 85 non-demented and stroke-free individuals, including 20 subjects with Presenilin1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation leading to the early onset of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD), 20 subjects with NOTCH3 mutations leading to cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and to the early onset of vascular dementia, and 45 non-affected family members (non-carriers). Read More

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Cariprazine, A Broad-Spectrum Antipsychotic for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Pharmacology, Efficacy, and Safety.

Adv Ther 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Medical Division, Gedeon Richter Plc., Gyömrői út 19-21, 1103, Budapest, Hungary.

Schizophrenia is characterized by positive, negative, cognitive, and affective symptoms. Antipsychotic medications, which work by blocking the dopamine D receptor, are the foundation of pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia to control positive symptoms. Cariprazine is a dopamine D receptor-preferring D/D partial agonist antipsychotic that is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia (USA and European Union [EU]) and manic and depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (USA). Read More

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Working memory, attention and planning abilities in NKX2.1-related chorea.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 May 27;88:24-27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology Unit, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Viale San Paolo 15, 00146, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Although NKX 2.1 related chorea has been considered benign due to the favourable course of motor phenotype during life, the neurological condition is not limited to chorea, including non-motor symptoms in the developmental, cognitive and psychiatric domain. Aim of our study was to test working memory, attention and planning abilities of a cohort of NKX2. Read More

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Disruption of the blood-brain barrier and its close environment following adult exposure to low doses of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate alone or in an environmental phthalate mixture in male mice.

Chemosphere 2021 May 31;282:131013. Epub 2021 May 31.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INSERM, Neuroscience Paris-Seine, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

We have previously shown that adult male mice exposure to low doses of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) alters neural function and behaviour. Whether such exposure also affects the integrity and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remained to be explored. The impact of adult exposure to low doses of DEHP alone or in an environmental phthalate mixture on the BBB integrity and surrounding parenchyma was studied in male mice. Read More

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When one size does not fit all: A latent profile analysis of low-income preschoolers' math skills.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Sep 2;209:105156. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

On average, preschoolers from lower-income households perform worse on symbolic numerical tasks than preschoolers from middle- and upper-income households. Although many recent studies have developed and tested mathematics interventions for low-income preschoolers, the variability within this population has received less attention. The goal of the current study was to describe the variability in low-income children's math skills using a person-centered analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Simulation-based biomechanical assessment of unpowered exoskeletons for running.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 4;11(1):11846. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Cognitive Systems Laboratory, Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence (CIPCE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Due to the complexity and high degrees of freedom, the detailed assessment of human biomechanics is necessary for the design and optimization of an effective exoskeleton. In this paper, we present full kinematics, dynamics, and biomechanics assessment of unpowered exoskeleton augmentation for human running gait. To do so, the considered case study is the assistive torque profile of I-RUN. Read More

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