54,383 results match your criteria cognitive dysfunction


Neurological Complications of Cardiac Procedures.

Semin Neurol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Neurological complications after cardiac surgery and percutaneous cardiac interventions are not uncommon. These include periprocedural stroke, postoperative cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery, contrast-induced encephalopathy after percutaneous interventions, and seizures. In this article, we review the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of these complications. Read More

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Nutritional Risk at intensive care unit admission and outcomes in survivors of critical illness.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 11;40(6):3868-3874. Epub 2021 May 11.

Critical Illness, Brain Dysfunction, and Survivorship (CIBS) Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus OH, USA; Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Risk factors for poor outcomes after critical illness are incompletely understood. While nutritional risk is associated with mortality in critically ill patients, its association with disability, cognitive, and health-related quality of life is unclear in survivors of critical illness. This study's objective was to determine whether greater nutritional risk at ICU admission is associated with greater disability, worse cognition, and worse HRQOL at 3 and 12-month follow-up. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic study of Ninjin'yoeito: Absorption and brain distribution of Ninjin'yoeito ingredients in mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 12:114332. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Anatomy, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan; Preppers Co. Ltd., 1-23-17 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo, 140-0001, Japan; International Mass Imaging Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan; Department of Systems Molecular Anatomy, Institute for Medical Photonics Research, Preeminent Medical Photonics Education & Research Center, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ninjin'yoeito (NYT), a Japanese traditional Kampo medicine, has been reported to exert various clinical benefits such as relief from fatigue, malaise, anorexia, frailty, sarcopenia, and cognitive dysfunction. Recently, some review articles described the pharmacological effects of NYT and additionally indicated the possibility that multiple ingredients in NYT contribute to these effects. However, pharmacokinetic data on the ingredients are essential in addition to data on their pharmacological activities to accurately determine the active ingredients in NYT. Read More

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The potential role of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes-related Alzheimer's disease.

Authors:
Ling He Yi Sun

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, 211198, China.

Kelch-like ECH associated-protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway is thought to be the key regulatory process defensing oxidative stress in multiple organs. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both serious global health problems with high prevalence. A growing number of literatures have suggested a possible link between Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway and the pathological changes of T2DM, AD as well as T2DM-related AD. Read More

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Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: A Review.

JAMA 2021 Jun;325(23):2381-2391

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a challenging condition that affects an estimated 26% of the world's female population. Chronic pelvic pain accounts for 40% of laparoscopies and 12% of hysterectomies in the US annually even though the origin of CPP is not gynecologic in 80% of patients. Both patients and clinicians are often frustrated by a perceived lack of treatments. Read More

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Effectiveness of Personalized Cognitive Stimulation in Older Adults with Mild Possible Cognitive Impairment: A 12-month Follow-up Cognitive Stimulation in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Clin Gerontol 2021 Jun 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Departamento de Fisiatría y Enfermería, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

: The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term effects of a personalized cognitive stimulation (PCS) program on the global cognition, cognitive aspects, activities of daily living (ADLs), anxiety, and depression in older adults with possible mild cognitive impairment (MCI).: A 12-month follow-up analysis was carried out in a single-blind, randomized clinical trial to research the long-term effects of a 10-week PCS program evaluating the cognitive level, depression, and anxiety of older adults with possible MCI.: Fifty older adults were assessed 12 months after the CS program, 23 in the intervention group and 27 in the control group. Read More

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The medical therapy for cerebellar mutism syndrome: a case report and literature review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neurosurgery and Functional Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Meyer Children's Hospital Florence, Viale Gaetano Pieraccini, 24, 50139, Florence, Italy.

Purpose: Cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) represents a major complication affecting many children that undergo surgery for posterior fossa lesions. Etiology and pathophysiology are still not fully understood. CMS deeply influences quality of life and recovery of these patients. Read More

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Is Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III Sensitive Enough to Detect Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Focal Cerebellar Lesions?

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate whether the available brief test of mental functions Addenbrooke's cognitive examination III (ACE III) detects cognitive impairment in patients with cerebellar damage. The second goal was to show the ACE III cognitive impairment profile of patients with focal cerebellar lesions.

Method: The study sample consisted of 31 patients with focal cerebellar lesions, 78 patients with supratentorial brain damage, and 31 subjects after spine surgery or with spine degeneration considered as control group, free of organic brain damage. Read More

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Hypertension-induced cognitive impairment: from pathophysiology to public health.

Nat Rev Nephrol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Hypertension affects two-thirds of people aged >60 years and significantly increases the risk of both vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Hypertension compromises the structural and functional integrity of the cerebral microcirculation, promoting microvascular rarefaction, cerebromicrovascular endothelial dysfunction and neurovascular uncoupling, which impair cerebral blood supply. In addition, hypertension disrupts the blood-brain barrier, promoting neuroinflammation and exacerbation of amyloid pathologies. Read More

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Olive leaf extract prevents obesity, cognitive decline, and depression and improves exercise capacity in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12495. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Nutrition Act. Co. Ltd., Tokyo, 104-0061, Japan.

Obesity is a risk factor for development of metabolic diseases and cognitive decline; therefore, obesity prevention is of paramount importance. Neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress is an important mechanism underlying cognitive decline. Olive leaf extract contains large amounts of oleanolic acid, a transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) agonist, and oleuropein, an antioxidant. Read More

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Improving Executive Function of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Cycling Skill Acquisition.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1417-1424

Department of Health and Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Ting Kok, HONG KONG.

Purpose: Executive dysfunction has been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although studies have clearly documented the cognitive benefits of physical exercise on cognition in children, similar studies in children with ASD are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cognitively engaging exercise and noncognitively engaging exercise on executive function in children with ASD. Read More

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Othello Syndrome: Delusional Disorder - Jealous Type ≠ Violence.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):160-161

University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Othello syndrome, also known as morbid jealousy, pathological jealousy, and conjugal paranoia, is a rare delusional disorder related to partner's infidelity. There are no large scale or comprehensive studies on delusional jealousy, and only few case reports and cases series leave delusional disorder jealous type (DDJT) largely unknown. Herein, we report a case of DDJT, its possible etiology and describe its characteristics, comorbidities, and interventions. Read More

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Parkinson's disease-associated VPS35 mutant reduces mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 Jun 15;10(1):19. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and several genes linked to familial PD, including PINK1 (encoding PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 [PINK1]) and PARK2 (encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin), are directly involved in processes such as mitophagy that maintain mitochondrial health. The dominant p.D620N variant of vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene is also associated with familial PD but has not been functionally connected to PINK1 and PARK2. Read More

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Reversible GABAergic dysfunction involved in hippocampal hyperactivity predicts early-stage Alzheimer disease in a mouse model.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;13(1):114. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disorders of the Ministry of Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: Neuronal hyperactivity related to β-amyloid (Aβ) is considered an early warning sign of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although increasing evidence supports this opinion, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown.

Methods: Here, we recorded whole-cell synaptic currents and membrane potentials using patch clamping of acute hippocampal slices from human amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 transgenic (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type littermates. Read More

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Clinical significance of self-descriptive apathy assessment in patients with neurological form of Wilson's disease.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sobieskiego 9, 02-957, Warsaw, Poland.

Background And Aim: Apathy is one of the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Wilson's disease (WD) which typically affects the brain's fronto-basal circuits. Lack of agreed diagnostic criteria and common use of self-description assessment tools lead to underestimation of this clinical phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate whether subjective and informant-based clinical features of apathy in patients with WD enable clinicians to make a valid diagnosis. Read More

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Neurologic Manifestations of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome - an Update.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 14;21(8):41. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neurology, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-028, Lisbon, Portugal.

Purpose Of Review: In recent years, the spectrum of neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been growing. We provide a critical review of the literature with special emphasis on presentation, proposed mechanisms of disease, and treatment of neurological involvement in APS.

Recent Findings: Although stroke is the most common cause of neurological manifestations in patients with APS, other neurological disorders have been increasingly associated with the disease, including cognitive dysfunction, headache, and epilepsy. Read More

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An International Study Exploring the Experience of Survivors of Critical Illness as Volunteers Within ICU Recovery Services.

Crit Care Explor 2020 Nov 19;2(11):e0273. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

Many clinicians have implemented follow-up and aftercare to support patients following ICU. Some of this care is supported and facilitated by peer volunteers. There is limited contemporary work that has explicitly explored volunteer roles within ICU recovery services or the experience of volunteers undertaking these roles. Read More

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November 2020

Natural Phytochemicals as Novel Therapeutic Strategies to Prevent and Treat Parkinson's Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 25;2021:6680935. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Applied Life Science, Graduate School, BK21 Program, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Republic of Korea.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative chronic disease affecting both cognitive performance and motor functions in aged people. Yet despite the prevalence of this disease, the current therapeutic options for the management of PD can only alleviate motor symptoms. Research has explored novel substances for naturally derived antioxidant phytochemicals with potential therapeutic benefits for PD patients through their neuroprotective mechanism, targeting oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, abnormal protein accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, neurotrophic factor deficit, and apoptosis. Read More

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Right Frontoinsular Cortex: A Potential Imaging Biomarker to Evaluate T2DM-Induced Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 28;13:674288. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of MRI, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the intrinsic brain network. The salience network (SN) is a neurocognitive network that maintains normal cognitive function, but it has received little attention in T2DM. We explored SN changes in patients with T2DM with normal cognitive function (DMCN) and in patients with T2DM with mild cognitive impairment (DMCI). Read More

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Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Alleviates Behavioral and Cognitive Symptoms Via Modulating Mitochondrial Dynamics in the A53T-α-Synuclein Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:647266. Epub 2021 May 28.

Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Health, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Aggregation and neurotoxicity of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein and the progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons are believed to be the key hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). A53T mutant α-synuclein causes early onset PD and more severe manifestations. A growing body of evidence shows that misfolding or deposition of α-synuclein is linked to the maintenance of mitochondrial dynamics, which has been proven to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. Read More

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Participation of Mind Bomb-2 in Sevoflurane Anesthesia Induces Cognitive Impairment in Aged Mice via Modulating Ferroptosis.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330006, China.

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a complication of the central nervous system (CNS) often occurred after surgery or anesthesia in the elder patients. Mind bomb-2 (MIB2) has been reported to modulate neuronal functions. Here, we aimed to study whether MIB2 exerts roles in the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on mice hippocampal neurons and function, and how. Read More

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Ventral Tegmental Area Disconnection Contributes Two Years Early to Correctly Classify Patients Converted to Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Treatment.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

'Rita Levi Montalcini' Department of Neuroscience University of Torino, Turin, Italy.

Background: Recent cross-sectional studies highlighted the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as an early pathophysiological event in Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Objective: In this study, we longitudinally investigated by resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) a cohort of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD to evaluate the impact of VTA disconnection in predicting the conversion to AD.

Methods: A cohort of 35 patients with MCI due to AD were recruited and followed-up for 24 months. Read More

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[Chronic traumatic encephalopathy].

Ugeskr Laeger 2021 Jun;183(23)

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is associated with a history of repetitive head impacts, such as those sustained through contact sports. Post-mortem assessment has revealed specific neuropathological characteristics related to the condition. The symptoms of CTE typically present several years after exposure and can include mood/behavioural changes, cognitive dysfunction and motor symptoms. Read More

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SENP1 modulates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation toward intermittent hypoxia-induced cognitive decline through the de-SUMOylation of NEMO.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced cognition decline is related to the neuroinflammation in microglia. SUMOylation is associated with multiple human diseases, which can be reversed by sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases 1 (SENP1). Herein, we investigated the role of SENP1 in IH-induced inflammation and cognition decline. Read More

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ApoE4-positive multiple sclerosis patients are more likely to have cognitive impairment: a cross-sectional study.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166614756, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with a wide variety of symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies in terms of the possible function of the ApoE4 allele as a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in MS patients were associated with conflicting results. The role of the ε4 isoform of apolipoprotein (ApoE4) was investigated in this study as a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in MS patients. Read More

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Serotoninergic brain dysfunction in neuroendocrine tumor patients: A scoping review.

Compr Psychiatry 2021 May 19;109:152244. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Orbassano (TO), Regione Gonzole, 10, 10043 Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Introduction: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare and malignant neoplasms characterized by their potential to produce metabolically active substances with the capacity to bring about clinical syndromes. The clinical expression of serotonin-producing NETs is known as carcinoid syndrome (CS). The synthesis of serotonin in the brain is dependent on tryptophan availability. Read More

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Post-stroke epileptogenesis is associated with altered intrinsic properties of hippocampal pyramidal neurons leading to increased theta resonance.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jun 10:105425. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Grass Laboratory, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA; Carl-Ludwig-Institute for Physiology, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Brain insults like stroke, trauma or infections often lead to blood-brain barrier-dysfunction (BBBd) frequently resulting into epileptogenesis. Affected patients suffer from seizures and cognitive comorbidities that are potentially linked to altered network oscillations. It has been shown that a hippocampal BBBd in rats leads to in vivo seizures and increased power at theta (3-8 Hz), an important type of network oscillations. Read More

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Early maternal deprivation impairs learning and memory and alters hippocampal gene expression in adult male rats.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2021 Jun 10:107479. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an 710061, P. R. China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Ministry of Education of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Maternal deprivation (MD) in early life severely disrupts hippocampal development, leading to persistent cognitive and behavior deficits. The current study uncovered that early MD (P1-P21) impaired spatial learning and memory capacity detected by Morris water maze (MWM) tests from juvenile (P31) to adult (P81) rats compared to age-matched controls. And the protein expression in hippocampus were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) before MWM, respectively. Read More

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Are clinical trial eligibility criteria representative of older patients with lung cancer? A population-based data linkage study.

J Geriatr Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney,Levels 4-6 Medical Foundation Building, 92-94 Parramatta Rd, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.

Objectives: Older adults constitute the majority of patients with lung cancer. However, they are under-represented in clinical trials as eligibility criteria often restrict enrolment based on comorbidities that are common with aging. We aimed to describe comorbidities relating to trial exclusion criteria in older adults with lung cancer, determine the proportion that would typically be excluded from trials, and examine the impact on treatment uptake. Read More

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Significance of serum neuron-specific enolase in transient global amnesia.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 29;89:15-19. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a glycolytic enzyme, which is associated with neuronal cell dysfunction in the brain. This study evaluated the role of serum NSE levels of patients with transient global amnesia (TGA). In addition, the relationship between serum NSE levels and the clinical features of TGA was explored. Read More

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