81,992 results match your criteria cognitive decline


Neurological Complications of Cardiac Procedures.

Semin Neurol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Neurological complications after cardiac surgery and percutaneous cardiac interventions are not uncommon. These include periprocedural stroke, postoperative cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery, contrast-induced encephalopathy after percutaneous interventions, and seizures. In this article, we review the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of these complications. Read More

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Early detection of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease with a novel eye tracking test.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 3;427:117529. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan. Electronic address:

Due to an increasing number of dementia patients, the development of a rapid and sensitive method for cognitive assessment is awaited. Here, we examined the usefulness of a novel and short (3 min) eye tracking device to evaluate the cognitive function of normal control (NC, n = 52), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 52), and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 70) subjects. Eye tracking total score declined significantly in MCI (**p < 0. Read More

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Nutritional Risk at intensive care unit admission and outcomes in survivors of critical illness.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 11;40(6):3868-3874. Epub 2021 May 11.

Critical Illness, Brain Dysfunction, and Survivorship (CIBS) Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus OH, USA; Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Risk factors for poor outcomes after critical illness are incompletely understood. While nutritional risk is associated with mortality in critically ill patients, its association with disability, cognitive, and health-related quality of life is unclear in survivors of critical illness. This study's objective was to determine whether greater nutritional risk at ICU admission is associated with greater disability, worse cognition, and worse HRQOL at 3 and 12-month follow-up. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic study of Ninjin'yoeito: Absorption and brain distribution of Ninjin'yoeito ingredients in mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 12:114332. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Anatomy, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan; Preppers Co. Ltd., 1-23-17 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa Ward, Tokyo, 140-0001, Japan; International Mass Imaging Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan; Department of Systems Molecular Anatomy, Institute for Medical Photonics Research, Preeminent Medical Photonics Education & Research Center, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 431-3192, Japan. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ninjin'yoeito (NYT), a Japanese traditional Kampo medicine, has been reported to exert various clinical benefits such as relief from fatigue, malaise, anorexia, frailty, sarcopenia, and cognitive dysfunction. Recently, some review articles described the pharmacological effects of NYT and additionally indicated the possibility that multiple ingredients in NYT contribute to these effects. However, pharmacokinetic data on the ingredients are essential in addition to data on their pharmacological activities to accurately determine the active ingredients in NYT. Read More

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Saponins from Panax japonicus alleviate HFD-induced impaired behaviors through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome to upregulate AMPA receptors.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jun 12:105098. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China; New Medicine Innovation and Development Institute, Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China. Electronic address:

Obesity is characterized by a condition of low-grade chronic inflammation that facilitates development of numerous comorbidities and dysregulation of brain homeostasis. It is reported that obesity can lead to behavioral alterations such as cognitive decline and depression-like behaviors both in humans and rodents. Saponins from panax japonicus (SPJ) have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory action in mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Read More

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Multi-cohort profiling reveals elevated CSF levels of brain-enriched proteins in Alzheimer's disease.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Affinity Proteomics, Department of Protein Science, SciLifeLab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Decreased amyloid beta (Aβ) 42 together with increased tau and phospho-tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular pathophysiology underlying the slowly progressive cognitive decline observed in AD is not fully understood and it is not known what other CSF biomarkers may be altered in early disease stages.

Methods: We utilized an antibody-based suspension bead array to analyze levels of 216 proteins in CSF from AD patients, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls from two independent cohorts collected within the AETIONOMY consortium. Read More

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The potential role of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes-related Alzheimer's disease.

Authors:
Ling He Yi Sun

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, 211198, China.

Kelch-like ECH associated-protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway is thought to be the key regulatory process defensing oxidative stress in multiple organs. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both serious global health problems with high prevalence. A growing number of literatures have suggested a possible link between Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway and the pathological changes of T2DM, AD as well as T2DM-related AD. Read More

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Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: A Review.

JAMA 2021 Jun;325(23):2381-2391

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a challenging condition that affects an estimated 26% of the world's female population. Chronic pelvic pain accounts for 40% of laparoscopies and 12% of hysterectomies in the US annually even though the origin of CPP is not gynecologic in 80% of patients. Both patients and clinicians are often frustrated by a perceived lack of treatments. Read More

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What Is the Risk of Intraoperative Cerebral Oxygen Desaturation in Patients Undergoing Shoulder Surgery in the Beach Chair Position?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Previous studies have shown that intraoperative cerebral desaturation in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position varies widely, from 0% to 80%. To our knowledge, the risk of intraoperative cerebral desaturation is not known after all identified intraoperative modifiable physiologic parameters that influence cerebral blood flow have been controlled for.

Questions/purposes: (1) What is the risk of intraoperative cerebral desaturation during shoulder surgery with the patient in the beach chair position when patients received combined general anesthesia and an interscalene block, and what other factors associated with intraoperative cerebral desaturation can be identified? (2) Is intraoperative cerebral desaturation associated with 24-hour cognitive decline? (3) What factors are associated with intraoperative hypotension?

Methods: Between April and December 2020, 51 patients underwent elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position at one center. Read More

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Effectiveness of Personalized Cognitive Stimulation in Older Adults with Mild Possible Cognitive Impairment: A 12-month Follow-up Cognitive Stimulation in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Clin Gerontol 2021 Jun 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Departamento de Fisiatría y Enfermería, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

: The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term effects of a personalized cognitive stimulation (PCS) program on the global cognition, cognitive aspects, activities of daily living (ADLs), anxiety, and depression in older adults with possible mild cognitive impairment (MCI).: A 12-month follow-up analysis was carried out in a single-blind, randomized clinical trial to research the long-term effects of a 10-week PCS program evaluating the cognitive level, depression, and anxiety of older adults with possible MCI.: Fifty older adults were assessed 12 months after the CS program, 23 in the intervention group and 27 in the control group. Read More

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Similarities between Cognitive Models of Language Production and Everyday Functioning: Implications for Development of Interventions for Functional Difficulties.

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychology, Temple University.

The loss of the ability to independently complete activities of daily living, such as meal preparation and household chores, is a defining characteristic of clinical dementia; however, minor difficulties in completing everyday activities emerge in the mild cognitive impairment stage, and even healthy older adults exhibit subtle functional difficulties compared to younger adults. These functional difficulties are associated with an array of negative outcomes, including decreased quality of life, higher costs of care, and increased frustration, depression, caregiver burden, and institutionalization. While cognitive models have been proposed to explain the functional deficits seen in dementia and subtler forms of cognitive decline, in contrast to other cognitive disorders such as aphasia, there are essentially no theoretically motivated interventions to address difficulties in everyday functioning. Read More

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Enhanced NRF2 expression mitigates the decline in neural stem cell function during aging.

Aging Cell 2021 Jun 15:e13385. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Although it is known that aging affects neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) biology in fundamental ways, the underlying dynamics of this process are not fully understood. Our previous work identified a specific critical period (CP) of decline in NSPC activity and function during middle age (13-15 months), and revealed the reduced expression of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, NRF2, as a key mediator of this process. Here, we investigated whether augmenting NRF2 expression could potentially mitigate the NSPC decline across the identified CP. Read More

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The medical therapy for cerebellar mutism syndrome: a case report and literature review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neurosurgery and Functional Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Meyer Children's Hospital Florence, Viale Gaetano Pieraccini, 24, 50139, Florence, Italy.

Purpose: Cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) represents a major complication affecting many children that undergo surgery for posterior fossa lesions. Etiology and pathophysiology are still not fully understood. CMS deeply influences quality of life and recovery of these patients. Read More

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Is Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III Sensitive Enough to Detect Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Focal Cerebellar Lesions?

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate whether the available brief test of mental functions Addenbrooke's cognitive examination III (ACE III) detects cognitive impairment in patients with cerebellar damage. The second goal was to show the ACE III cognitive impairment profile of patients with focal cerebellar lesions.

Method: The study sample consisted of 31 patients with focal cerebellar lesions, 78 patients with supratentorial brain damage, and 31 subjects after spine surgery or with spine degeneration considered as control group, free of organic brain damage. Read More

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Hypertension-induced cognitive impairment: from pathophysiology to public health.

Nat Rev Nephrol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration Program, Center for Geroscience and Healthy Brain Aging, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Hypertension affects two-thirds of people aged >60 years and significantly increases the risk of both vascular cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Hypertension compromises the structural and functional integrity of the cerebral microcirculation, promoting microvascular rarefaction, cerebromicrovascular endothelial dysfunction and neurovascular uncoupling, which impair cerebral blood supply. In addition, hypertension disrupts the blood-brain barrier, promoting neuroinflammation and exacerbation of amyloid pathologies. Read More

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Olive leaf extract prevents obesity, cognitive decline, and depression and improves exercise capacity in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12495. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Nutrition Act. Co. Ltd., Tokyo, 104-0061, Japan.

Obesity is a risk factor for development of metabolic diseases and cognitive decline; therefore, obesity prevention is of paramount importance. Neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress is an important mechanism underlying cognitive decline. Olive leaf extract contains large amounts of oleanolic acid, a transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) agonist, and oleuropein, an antioxidant. Read More

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Improving Executive Function of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Cycling Skill Acquisition.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1417-1424

Department of Health and Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Ting Kok, HONG KONG.

Purpose: Executive dysfunction has been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although studies have clearly documented the cognitive benefits of physical exercise on cognition in children, similar studies in children with ASD are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cognitively engaging exercise and noncognitively engaging exercise on executive function in children with ASD. Read More

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Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA escape symptomatology.

AIDS 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Mildmay Hospital, London, UK Unit of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy Section of Retrovirology, Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Department of HIV Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Unit of Neuroradiology, ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy University of Bari, Bari, Italy Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Department of Neurology, St. Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Neurosciences, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK Grahame Hayton Unit, I&I and Neurology Department, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.

Objective: To characterise the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of persons with HIV (PWH) presenting with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA escape.

Design: Retrospective case review of PWH presenting with symptomatic CSF HIV RNA escape at seven tertiary HIV clinical sites in UK and Italy.

Method: PWH with symptomatic CSF HIV RNA escape episodes were identified and data obtained from medical records. Read More

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Does "one size fit all" in subjective cognitive decline?

Int Psychogeriatr 2021 Jun 15:1-3. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Padova Neuroscience Center, University of Padova, Italy.

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Othello Syndrome: Delusional Disorder - Jealous Type ≠ Violence.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):160-161

University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Othello syndrome, also known as morbid jealousy, pathological jealousy, and conjugal paranoia, is a rare delusional disorder related to partner's infidelity. There are no large scale or comprehensive studies on delusional jealousy, and only few case reports and cases series leave delusional disorder jealous type (DDJT) largely unknown. Herein, we report a case of DDJT, its possible etiology and describe its characteristics, comorbidities, and interventions. Read More

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Mood symptoms Associated with CADASIL Syndrome: A Case Report.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):144

Resident.

Objective: To discuss the psychiatric symptoms that are associated with CADASIL syndrome Abstract Cerebral:Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare type of hereditary disease involving the small cerebral vessels. The clinical symptoms are various and include recurrent ischemic strokes, migraine with aura, seizures with epilepsy, psychiatric problems such as mood disturbances, and progressive cognitive decline leading to dementia. This disease needs awareness amongst the psychiatrists even though it is discussed much more in neurology literature. Read More

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The Challenge of Managing Patients Suffering from TBI: The Utility of Multiparametric MRI.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):178-179

Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex phenomenon affecting multiple areas of the brain in multiple ways. Both right and left hemispheres are affected as well as supratentorial and infratentorial compartments. These multifocal injuries are caused by many factors including acute mechanical injury, focal intracranial hemorrhage, blunt and rotational forces, epidural and subdural hematoma, hypoxemia, hypotension, edema, axonal damage, neuronal death, gliosis and blood brain barrier disruption. Read More

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Differential effects of risk factors on the cognitive trajectory of early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;13(1):113. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although few studies have shown that risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with cognitive decline in AD, not much is known whether the impact of risk factors differs between early-onset AD (EOAD, symptom onset < 65 years of age) versus late-onset AD (LOAD). Therefore, we evaluated whether the impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors on cognitive trajectories differ in EOAD and LOAD.

Methods: We followed-up 193 EOAD and 476 LOAD patients without known autosomal dominant AD mutation for 32. Read More

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Parkinson's disease-associated VPS35 mutant reduces mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 Jun 15;10(1):19. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and several genes linked to familial PD, including PINK1 (encoding PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 [PINK1]) and PARK2 (encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin), are directly involved in processes such as mitophagy that maintain mitochondrial health. The dominant p.D620N variant of vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene is also associated with familial PD but has not been functionally connected to PINK1 and PARK2. Read More

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Reversible GABAergic dysfunction involved in hippocampal hyperactivity predicts early-stage Alzheimer disease in a mouse model.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;13(1):114. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disorders of the Ministry of Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: Neuronal hyperactivity related to β-amyloid (Aβ) is considered an early warning sign of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although increasing evidence supports this opinion, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown.

Methods: Here, we recorded whole-cell synaptic currents and membrane potentials using patch clamping of acute hippocampal slices from human amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 transgenic (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type littermates. Read More

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Older Adults' Subjective Cognitive Decline Correlated with Subjective but Not Objective Sleep: A Mediator Role of Depression.

Int J Aging Hum Dev 2021 Jun 14:914150211024186. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

26463 Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

This study examined the relationship between older adults' subjective versus objective sleep and subjective cognitive decline (SCD), and explored the role of depression on this association. One hundred and four community-dwelling older adults underwent a week of actigraphic sleep monitoring, and completed a series of neuropsychological screeners. Older adults'SCD score was positively correlated with subjective insomnia, but not with objective sleep parameters. Read More

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Online Tool (Brain Assessment) for the Detection of Cognitive Function Changes during Aging.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2021 Jun 14:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Research Institute of Brain Activation, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: It is well-known that cognitive function declines with age. In order to detect changes in cognitive function, cognitive tests should be performed repeatedly. Currently existing cognitive tests come in only a single version, so the subject is likely to remember the contents with repeated testing. Read More

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Clinical significance of self-descriptive apathy assessment in patients with neurological form of Wilson's disease.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sobieskiego 9, 02-957, Warsaw, Poland.

Background And Aim: Apathy is one of the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Wilson's disease (WD) which typically affects the brain's fronto-basal circuits. Lack of agreed diagnostic criteria and common use of self-description assessment tools lead to underestimation of this clinical phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate whether subjective and informant-based clinical features of apathy in patients with WD enable clinicians to make a valid diagnosis. Read More

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Neurologic Manifestations of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome - an Update.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 14;21(8):41. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neurology, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-028, Lisbon, Portugal.

Purpose Of Review: In recent years, the spectrum of neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been growing. We provide a critical review of the literature with special emphasis on presentation, proposed mechanisms of disease, and treatment of neurological involvement in APS.

Recent Findings: Although stroke is the most common cause of neurological manifestations in patients with APS, other neurological disorders have been increasingly associated with the disease, including cognitive dysfunction, headache, and epilepsy. Read More

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Vigorous physical activity and cognitive trajectory later in life: prospective association and interaction by apolipoprotein E e4 in the Nurses' Health Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

MGEN Foundation for Public Health, Paris, France.

Background: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is a well-established genetic risk factor of brain ageing. Vigorous physical activity may be particularly important in APOE-e4 carriers, but data have been inconsistent, likely due to differences in the timing of the physical activity assessment, definition of cognitive decline and/or sample size.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated the association between vigorous physical activity and cognition assessed at least 9 years later, according to APOE-e4 carrier status. Read More

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