18,119 results match your criteria coat protein

Dynamic insulin-stimulated mTOR/GSK3 signaling in peripheral immune cells: Preliminary evidence for an association with lithium response in bipolar disorder.

Bipolar Disord 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Mayo Clinic Depression Center, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, United States.

Introduction: A key mechanism of lithium is the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), two contributors to insulin signaling. We explored the relationship between these markers and clinical response to lithium in bipolar disorder (BD).

Methods: Thirty-four subjects with BD who had been taking lithium for ≥ 2 years and had a maintenance lithium Alda score defined as either high (≥7; n=20) or low (≤2; n=14) were included in the study. Read More

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COPII collar defines the boundary between ER and ER exit site and does not coat cargo containers.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jun;220(6)

Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

COPII and COPI mediate the formation of membrane vesicles translocating in opposite directions within the secretory pathway. Live-cell and electron microscopy revealed a novel mode of function for COPII during cargo export from the ER. COPII is recruited to membranes defining the boundary between the ER and ER exit sites, facilitating selective cargo concentration. Read More

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Synaptic AP2 CCV life cycle regulation by the Eps15, ITSN1, Sgip1/AP2, synaptojanin1 interactome.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 13;11(1):8007. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Cellular Biochemistry, University Medical Center, Georg-August University Göttingen, Humboldtallee 23, 37073, Göttingen, Germany.

The AP1/σ1B knockout causes impaired synaptic vesicle recycling and enhanced protein sorting into endosomes, leading to severe intellectual disability. These disturbances in synaptic protein sorting induce as a secondary phenotype the upregulation of AP2 CCV mediated endocytosis. Synapses contain canonical AP2 CCV and AP2 CCV with a more stable coat and thus extended life time. Read More

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Changes in hepatic triglyceride content with the activation of ER stress and increased FGF21 secretion during pregnancy.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Apr 13;18(1):40. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, 544, Jing 4 Rd., Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China.

Background: To meet the needs of foetal growth and development, marked changes in lipid profiles occur during pregnancy. Abnormal lipid metabolism is often accompanied by adverse pregnancy outcomes, which seriously affect maternal and infant health. Further understanding of the mechanism of lipid metabolism during pregnancy would be helpful to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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The reduced ARF regulatory system in Giardia intestinalis pre-dates the transition to parasitism in the lineage Fornicata.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Institute of Parasitology Biology Centre, CAS v.v.i. Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Giardia intestinalis is an enteric pathogen with an extremely modified membrane trafficking system, lacking canonical compartments such as the Golgi, endosomes, and intermediate vesicle carriers. By comparison the fornicate relatives of Giardia possess comparatively greater endomembrane system complexity. In eukaryotes, the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase regulatory system proteins, which consist of the small GTPase ARF1, and its guanine exchange nucleotide factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), coordinate temporal and directional trafficking of cargo vesicles by recognizing and interacting with heterotetrameric coat complexes at pre-Golgi and post-Golgi interfaces. Read More

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Microencapsulation of Omeprazole by ATCC 4356 Surface Layer Protein and Evaluation of its Stability in Acidic Condition.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(4):240-254

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.

The present study introduces a novel method for encapsulation of the acid-labile drug called Omeprazole using ATCC 4356 S-layer protein. Before preparing the Omeprazole suspension, a series of preliminary studies were performed on the Omeprazole powder. For this purpose, some parameters such as melting point, IR spectrum, UV spectrum, and the particle size of Omeprazole powder were investigated. Read More

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January 2020

MicroRNA-315-5p promotes rice black-streaked dwarf virus infection by targeting a melatonin receptor in the small brown planthopper.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Plant Protection, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs, play key roles in various biological processes. Most plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors. However, little is known about the function of miRNAs on plant virus-insect host interaction. Read More

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Induction of resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus by RNA interference targeting coat protein gene silencing in transgenic sugarcane.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Center for Development of Advanced Science and Technology (CDAST), Jember University, Jln. Kalimantan 37, Jember, 68121, Indonesia.

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a serious disease of monocotyledonous plants, including sugarcane, causing deterioration in both growth and productivity. RNA interference (RNAi) inhibits gene expression through RNA-mediated sequence-specific interactions and is considered an effective approach to control viral infection in plants. In this study, the SCMVCp gene encoding the coat protein (CP) was inserted into the pGreen-0179 plasmid in both sense and antisense orientations. Read More

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Negative modulation of SA-signaling components by the capsid protein of Tobacco Mosaic Virus is required for viral long-distance movement.

Plant J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Instituto de Agrobiotecnología y Biología Molecular (IABIMO), CICVyA, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), De los Reseros y N. Repetto s/n, Hurlingham, B1686IGC, Argentina.

An important aspect of plant-virus interaction is the way viruses dynamically move over long distances and how plant immunity modulates viral systemic movement. Salicylic acid (SA), a well-characterized hormone responsible for immune responses against virus, is activated through different transcription factors including TGA and WRKY. In Tobamoviruses, evidences suggest that capsid protein (CP) is required for long-distance movement, although its precise role has not been fully characterized yet. Read More

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HIV-1 gp120-Induced Endolysosome de-Acidification Leads to Efflux of Endolysosome Iron, and Increases in Mitochondrial Iron and Reactive Oxygen Species.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 504 Hamline Street, Room #110, Grand Forks, ND, 58203, USA.

The HIV-1 coat protein gp120 continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND); a condition known to affect ~50% of people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). Autopsy brain tissues of HAND individuals display morphological changes to mitochondria and endolysosomes, and HIV-1 gp120 causes mitochondrial dysfunction including increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and de-acidification of endolysosomes. Ferrous iron is linked directly to ROS production, ferrous iron is contained in and released from endolysosomes, and PLWH have elevated iron and ROS levels. Read More

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Single molecule network analysis identifies structural changes to caveolae and scaffolds due to mutation of the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7810. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Life Sciences Institute, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Caveolin-1 (CAV1), the caveolae coat protein, also associates with non-caveolar scaffold domains. Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) network analysis distinguishes caveolae and three scaffold domains, hemispherical S2 scaffolds and smaller S1B and S1A scaffolds. The caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD) is a highly conserved hydrophobic region that mediates interaction of CAV1 with multiple effector molecules. Read More

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Pollen PCP-B peptides unlock a stigma peptide-receptor kinase gating mechanism for pollination.

Science 2021 04;372(6538):171-175

School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Sexual reproduction in angiosperms relies on precise communications between the pollen and pistil. The molecular mechanisms underlying these communications remain elusive. We established that in , a stigmatic gatekeeper, the ANJEA-FERONIA (ANJ-FER) receptor kinase complex, perceives the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR peptides RALF23 and RALF33 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the stigma papillae, whereas pollination reduces stigmatic ROS, allowing pollen hydration. Read More

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The Structure of the Potato Virus A Particles Elucidated by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering and Complementary Techniques.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Feb;86(2):230-240

Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre "Crystallography and Photonics" of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333, Russia.

Potato virus A (PVA) protein coat contains on its surface partially unstructured N-terminal domain of the viral coat protein (CP), whose structural and functional characteristics are important for understanding the mechanism of plant infection with this virus. In this work, we investigated the properties and the structure of intact PVA and partially trypsinized PVAΔ32 virions using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and complimentary methods. It was shown that after the removal of 32 N-terminal amino acids of the CP, the virion did not disintegrate and remained compact, but the helical pitch of the CP packing changed. Read More

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February 2021

Structural basis for the initiation of COPII vesicle biogenesis.

Structure 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. Electronic address:

The first stage of the eukaryotic secretory pathway is the packaging of cargo proteins into coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles exiting the ER. The cytoplasmic COPII vesicle coat machinery is recruited to the ER membrane by the activated, GTP-bound, form of the conserved Sar1 GTPase. Activation of Sar1 on the surface of the ER by Sec12, a membrane-anchored GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor), is therefore the initiating step of the secretory pathway. Read More

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A novel tepovirus, Agave virus T, identified by the analysis of the transcriptome data of blue agave (Agave tequilana).

Acta Virol 2021 ;65(1):68-71

The genome sequence of a novel RNA virus was identified by analyzing transcriptome data obtained from the stem sample of a blue agave (Agave tequilana) plant. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that the RNA virus, Agave virus T (AgVT), was a new member of the genus Tepovirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. AgVT genome had three open reading frames: a 1605-amino acid (aa) replicase (REP), 355-aa movement protein (MP), and 220-aa coat protein (CP). Read More

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January 2021

First report of squash vein yellowing virus naturally infecting butternut squash () in Texas.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Texas A&M University, Department of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, 2401 E. Bus. Hwy. 83, Weslaco, Texas, United States, 78596.

Virus diseases are major constraints to the production of cucurbits in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley. In September 2020, a ~8.1 ha butternut squash () field in Hidalgo County, Texas, was observed with virus-like symptoms of vein yellowing, leaf curl, mosaic, and foliar chlorosis. Read More

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Coordinated Activation of ARF1 GTPases by ARF-GEF GNOM Dimers Is Essential for Vesicle Trafficking in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2020 Aug;32(8):2491-2507

Center for Plant Molecular Biology, Developmental Genetics, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Membrane trafficking maintains the organization of the eukaryotic cell and delivers cargo proteins to their subcellular destinations, such as sites of action or degradation. The formation of membrane vesicles requires the activation of the ADP-ribosylation factor ARF GTPase by the SEC7 domain of ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), resulting in the recruitment of coat proteins by GTP-bound ARFs. In vitro exchange assays were done with monomeric proteins, although ARF-GEFs form dimers in vivo. Read More

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Bacteriophage-mediated therapy of chondrosarcoma by selective delivery of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) gene.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21487

Cancer Phage Therapy Group, Department of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Chondrosarcoma is a cartilage-forming bone tumor, well known for intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We have designed a targeted chondrosarcoma gene therapy using a bacteriophage (phage) particle to deliver therapeutic genes. Phage has no tropism for mammalian cells, allowing engineered phage to be targeted to specific cell surface receptors in cancer. Read More

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Epitope Mapping of the Diphtheria Toxin and Development of an ELISA-Specific Diagnostic Assay.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Center for Technological Development in Health (CDTS), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), National Institute of Science and Technology for Innovation in Neglected Diseases Populations (INCT-IDNP), Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil.

The diphtheria toxoid antigen is a major component in pediatric and booster combination vaccines and is known to raise a protective humoral immune response upon vaccination. Although antibodies are considered critical for diphtheria protection, little is known about the antigenic determinants that maintain humoral immunity. One-hundred and twelve 15 mer peptides covering the entire sequence of diphtheria toxin (DTx) protein were prepared by SPOT synthesis. Read More

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New Insights into the Mammalian Egg Zona Pellucida.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 23;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum and IMIB-Arrixaca, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Mammalian oocytes are surrounded by an extracellular coat called the zona pellucida (ZP), which, from an evolutionary point of view, is the most ancient of the coats that envelope vertebrate oocytes and conceptuses. This matrix separates the oocyte from cumulus cells and is responsible for species-specific recognition between gametes, preventing polyspermy and protecting the preimplantation embryo. The ZP is a dynamic structure that shows different properties before and after fertilization. Read More

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Stable Display of Artificially Long Foreign Antigens on Chimeric Particles.

Viruses 2021 Mar 29;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.

Plant viruses can be genetically modified to generate chimeric virus particles (CVPs) carrying heterologous peptides fused on the surface of coat protein (CP) subunits as vaccine candidates. However, some factors may be especially significant in determining the properties of chimeras. In this study, peptides from various sources and of various lengths were inserted into the Bamboo mosaic virusbased (BaMV) vector CP N-terminus to examine the chimeras infecting and accumulating in plants. Read More

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Olea Europaea Geminivirus: A Novel Bipartite Geminivirid Infecting Olive Trees.

Viruses 2021 Mar 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, CNR, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari, Italy.

In 2014, high-throughput sequencing of libraries of total DNA from olive trees allowed the identification of two geminivirus-like contigs. After conventional resequencing of the two genomic DNAs, their analysis revealed they belonged to the same viral entity, for which the provisional name of Olea europaea geminivirus (OEGV) was proposed. Although DNA-A showed a genome organization similar to that of New World begomoviruses, DNA-B had a peculiar ORF arrangement, consisting of a movement protein (MP) in the virion sense and a protein with unknown function on the complementary sense. Read More

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Uniqueness of RNA Coliphage Qβ Display System in Directed Evolutionary Biotechnology.

Viruses 2021 Mar 27;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Phage display technology involves the surface genetic engineering of phages to expose desirable proteins or peptides whose gene sequences are packaged within phage genomes, thereby rendering direct linkage between genotype with phenotype feasible. This has resulted in phage display systems becoming invaluable components of directed evolutionary biotechnology. The M13 is a DNA phage display system which dominates this technology and usually involves selected proteins or peptides being displayed through surface engineering of its minor coat proteins. Read More

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Variability, Functions and Interactions of Plant Virus Movement Proteins: What Do We Know So Far?

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 27;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021, India.

Of the various proteins encoded by plant viruses, one of the most interesting is the movement protein (MP). MPs are unique to plant viruses and show surprising structural and functional variability while maintaining their core function, which is to facilitate the intercellular transport of viruses or viral nucleoprotein complexes. MPs interact with components of the intercellular channels, the plasmodesmata (PD), modifying their size exclusion limits and thus allowing larger particles, including virions, to pass through. Read More

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Protective Activity and Underlying Mechanism of Ginseng Seeds against UVB-Induced Damage in Human Fibroblasts.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea.

Ginseng seeds are rich in phytosterols, ginsenosides, and fatty acids, and can therefore be used in skincare to delay the aging process. Ginseng seed embryo (GSE) and ginseng seed coat (GSC) were separated from ginseng seeds (Panax ginseng Meyer). This study evaluated the protective activity and underlying mechanism of GSE and GSC on UVB irradiation-induced skin photoaging using Hs68 cells. Read More

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Structure of the complete, membrane-assembled COPII coat reveals a complex interaction network.

Nat Commun 2021 04 1;12(1):2034. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, London, UK.

COPII mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum to Golgi trafficking of thousands of cargoes. Five essential proteins assemble into a two-layer architecture, with the inner layer thought to regulate coat assembly and cargo recruitment, and the outer coat forming cages assumed to scaffold membrane curvature. Here we visualise the complete, membrane-assembled COPII coat by cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, revealing the full network of interactions within and between coat layers. Read More

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Computational epitope map of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 04 1;17(4):e1008790. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Theoretical Biophysics, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

The primary immunological target of COVID-19 vaccines is the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. S is exposed on the viral surface and mediates viral entry into the host cell. To identify possible antibody binding sites, we performed multi-microsecond molecular dynamics simulations of a 4. Read More

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Mechanism of NanR gene repression and allosteric induction of bacterial sialic acid metabolism.

Nat Commun 2021 03 31;12(1):1988. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biomolecular Interaction Centre and School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Bacteria respond to environmental changes by inducing transcription of some genes and repressing others. Sialic acids, which coat human cell surfaces, are a nutrient source for pathogenic and commensal bacteria. The Escherichia coli GntR-type transcriptional repressor, NanR, regulates sialic acid metabolism, but the mechanism is unclear. Read More

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Near-atomic structure of an atadenovirus reveals a conserved capsid-binding motif and intergenera variations in cementing proteins.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 31;7(14). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Departamento de Estructura de Macromoléculas, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Darwin 3, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Of five known adenovirus genera, high-resolution structures are available only for mammalian-infecting mastadenoviruses. We present the first high-resolution structure of an adenovirus with nonmammalian host: lizard atadenovirus LAdV-2. We find a large conformational difference in the internal vertex protein IIIa between mast- and atadenoviruses, induced by the presence of an extended polypeptide. Read More

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Rapid and visual detection of tomato spotted wilt virus using recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral flow strips.

Mol Cell Probes 2021 Mar 28;57:101727. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Applied Biology, Institute of Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61185, South Korea. Electronic address:

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is economically important in Korea as it causes significant losses to a wide range of important ornamental and vegetable crops. Therefore, a rapid detection method is imperative for TSWV diagnosis. Specific primers and probes were designed based on the conserved sequences of the TSWV coat protein gene. Read More

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