Chemosphere 2021 Sep 31;278:130429. Epub 2021 Mar 31.
School of Geography Earth and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Electronic address:
Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 24 n-alkanes, 7 hopanes, 2 cholestanes, inorganic ions, elements and carbon fractions were analyzed in real-world source samples of PM (fine particulate matter) from traffic emissions (gasoline vehicles-TGV, diesel vehicles-TDV, diesel ship-TDS, and heavy oil ships-THOS), coal combustion (coal-fired industrial boilers-CIB, power plants-CPP, and residential stoves-CRS), industrial process emissions (cement industry-IPCI, and steel industry-IPSI), and dust (soil dust-DSD, road dust-DRD, and construction dust-DCD). High molecular weight (sum of five to seven rings) PAHs accounted for higher fractions for TGV (80%) and THS (61%) than for TDV, TDS and coal combustion sources (31%-47%). Hopane ratios (C29αβ/C30αβ) in coal related sources were mostly higher than 1, whereas that of traffic emissions was lower than 1. Read More