3,776 results match your criteria co-infected patients

Tuberculosis treatment outcome and associated factors among tuberculosis patients at Wolayta Sodo Teaching and Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: a retrospective study.

J Public Health Res 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), Addis Ababa.

Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem throughout the world particularly in resource limited countries. Measuring and reporting of TB treatment outcomes and identifying associated factors are fundamental part of TB treatment. The aim of this study was to assess TB treatment outcome and associated factors among TB patients in Wolayta Sodo Teaching and Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Naturally Occurring Resistance Associated Substitutions in Non-Cirrhotic, Treatment Naive HCV-HIV Co-Infected Patients Does Not Affect the Treatment Response for Anti-HCV Antiviral Therapy.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 12;14:1381-1387. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: Limited literature on the prevalence of baseline resistance associated substitutions (BL-RAS) among HCV-HIV co-infected patients and their association with treatment outcomes is available especially from India. Hence, the present study aimed to study naturally occurring RAS among non-cirrhotic HCV-HIV co-infected patients and their impact on the response to anti-HCV therapy.

Patients And Methods: In this retrospective study, archived blood samples of 80 HCV-HIV co-infected patients, before anti-HCV therapy initiation, were tested for substitutions at the drug acting sites (NS5a and NS5b) in the HCV genome by direct PCR sequencing. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide and its metabolites in patients co-infected with HIV - implications for individualized dosing.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Unit for Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Dept. Pharmacology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Pyrazinamide is a first-line drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis. High exposure of pyrazinamide and its metabolites may result in hepatotoxicity whereas low exposure of pyrazinamide has been correlated to treatment failure by first-line antitubercular therapy. The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of pyrazinamide in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Knowledge, stigma and health-seeking behavior of patients co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis in Jakarta.

Enferm Clin 2021 Apr;31 Suppl 2:S291-S295

Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia.

The purpose was to identify knowledge and TB stigma, as well as its relationship with health-seeking behavior in HIV and TB co-infection patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 115 HIV and TB co-infection patients who visited the VCT Polyclinic in five hospitals in Jakarta. This study was using instruments: Brief HIV-Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ-18), Knowledge TB survey Questionnaire, Berger HIV stigma Scale, Tuberculosis-Related Stigma Scale. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tuberculosis treatment outcome in a rural area of Senegal: a decade of experience from 2010 to 2019 by .

Future Microbiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Stop TB Italia, Milan, 20159, Italy.

Tuberculosis (TB) unevenly affects individuals across the globe, especially in rural areas of low-income countries. Aim of the study was to assess the impact of social protection to increase TB awareness on treatment outcomes among TB patients in a rural area of Senegal. The study, conducted in Fimela district (Senegal) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2019 and the intervention started from 31 January 2013, includes activities to increase awareness, active case finding, active follow-up and social protection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plasma Biomarkers of Risk of Tuberculosis Recurrence in HIV Co-Infected Patients From South Africa.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:631094. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa.

There is an urgent need to identify immunological markers of tuberculosis (TB) risk in HIV co-infected individuals. Previously we have shown that TB recurrence in HIV co-infected individuals on ART was associated with markers of systemic inflammation (IL-6, IL1β and IL-1Rα). Here we examined the effect of additional acute inflammation and microbial translocation marker expression on risk of TB recurrence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Co-infection of HIV in patients with Buruli ulcer disease in Central Ghana.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 8;21(1):331. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Medicine and Dentistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: Previous studies have reported that presence and severity of Buruli ulcer (BU) may reflect the underlying immunosuppression in HIV infected individuals by causing increased incidence of multiple, larger and ulcerated lesions. We report cases of BU-HIV coinfection and the accompanying programmatic challenges encountered in central Ghana.

Methods: Patients with PCR confirmed BU in central Ghana who were HIV positive were identified and their BU01 forms were retrieved and reviewed in further detail. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Enhanced IL-6 and IL-12B Gene Expression After SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Leprosy Patients May Increase the Risk of Neural Damage.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade Medicina, Universidade de Brasília (UnB) Brasília, Brazil.

Experts have called attention to the possible negative impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related cytokine storm syndrome on the progression of leprosy-related disabilities. We assessed the frequency of reactional states in patients co-infected with Mycobacterium leprae and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We consecutively included patients during the first peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and analyzed the expressions of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, and tumor necrosis factor-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical and etiological analysis of co-infections and secondary infections in COVID-19 patients: An observational study.

Clin Respir J 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Co-infections, secondary bacterial or fungal infections, are important risk factors for poor outcomes in viral infections. The prevalence of co-infection and secondary infection in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 is not well understood.

Aims: To investigate the role of co-infections and secondary infections in disease severity of hospitalized individuals with COVID-19. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

miRNA expression profiles in liver grafts of HCV and HIV/HCV infected recipients, six months after liver transplantation.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Liver-Kidney Transplant Unit - Department of Medicine, University of Udine. Udine, Italy.

Background: In HCV/HIV co-infected patients, HIV enhances HCV replication and liver damage. Several miRNAs, active in pro-fibrotic and inflammatory pathways, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this phenomenon. However, these miRNAs have been tested only in explanted cirrhotic livers, when the liver damage has become chronic and irreversible. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

GeneXpert Technology for the diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: Is scale-up worth it?

Open Life Sci 2020 30;15(1):458-465. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Punjab, 54590, Pakistan.

Recent evaluations of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for the simultaneous detection of and drug resistance in less than 2 h have stimulated tremendous enthusiasm. This is the breakthrough that tuberculosis (TB) control has been waiting for. In this (retrospective review) case study, sputum samples from strongly suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients were collected and assessed for the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosing TB and drug resistance in comparison with other tests, including Ziehl-Neelsen smear and Löwenstein-Jensen test. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HIV-Associated Disseminated Histoplasmosis and Rare Adrenal Involvement: Evidence of Absence or Absence of Evidence.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 15;11:619459. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Département Formation Recherche (DFR) Santé, Université de Guyane, Cayenne, French Guiana.

Adrenal histoplasmosis and primary adrenal insufficiency are mostly described in immunocompetent patients. This particular tropism is attributed to the presence of cortisol within the adrenal gland, a privileged niche for growth. In French Guiana, disseminated histoplasmosis is the main opportunistic infection in HIV patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Classical complement and inflammasome activation converge in CD14highCD16- monocytes in HIV associated TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 31;17(3):e1009435. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

HIV Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Inflammasome-derived cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and complement cascade have been independently implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB)-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), a complication affecting HIV+ individuals starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although sublytic deposition of the membrane attack complex (MAC) has been shown to promote NLRP3 inflammasome activation, it is unknown whether these pathways may cooperatively contribute to TB-IRIS. To evaluate the activation of inflammasome, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-TB co-infected patients prior to ART and at the IRIS or equivalent timepoint were incubated with a probe used to assess active caspase-1/4/5 followed by screening of ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain) specks as a readout of inflammasome activation by imaging flow cytometry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Visceral Leishmaniasis-HIV Coinfection as a Predictor of Increased Transmission at the Village Level in Bihar, India.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 11;11:604117. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is on the verge of being eliminated as a public health problem in the Indian subcontinent. Although Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is recognized as an important reservoir of transmission, we hypothesized that VL patients co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) may also be important reservoirs of sustained leishmania transmission. We therefore investigated to what extent cases of PKDL or VL-HIV are associated with VL incidence at the village level in Bihar, India. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Patients with -positive gastric cancer with human cytomegalovirus infection have a low tendency of advanced lymphatic metastasis in a Chinese population.

Oncol Lett 2021 May 19;21(5):402. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, School of Basic Medical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, P.R. China.

Recognized as a group I carcinogen for gastric cancer (GC) and a factor involved in the development of GC, serves a major part in GC research. However, most studies have focused on itself, ignoring the complicated pathogenic microbiological environment of GC and neglecting the synergistic or antagonistic effects of with other pathogenic microorganisms. Increasing evidence has revealed that the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is present in several types of tumors and serves an important role in the neoplastic process of certain human malignant tumors, including GC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Failure to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection is more frequent among HIV-positive patients.

HIV Med 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Saint Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Objectives: Helicobacter pylori is a worldwide infection, but little is known about the efficacy of treatment for H. pylori infection in HIV-positive patients. The goal of this work was to evaluate outcomes after first-line H. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Treatment outcomes and predictive factors for multidrug-resistant TB and HIV coinfection in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2021 Apr;25(4):292-298

Academic Tuberculosis Program, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Brazil ranks 14 worldwide in the number of TB cases and 19 in terms of TB-HIV co-infected cases. This study aims at identifying clinical and demographic factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (loss to follow-up, treatment failure and death) of HIV-positive patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. This was a retrospective cohort study of MDR-TB cases notified from 2000 to 2016 in RJ. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular epidemiology of in adult Filipino TB-HIV co-infected patients.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2021 Apr;25(4):285-291

College of Medicine, University of the Philippines, Manila.

TB is the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease, particularly among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Molecular epidemiology provides information on prevalent genotypes of and disease transmission dynamics, which aid in TB control. Identification of mutations that confer drug resistance is essential for the rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant TB, especially in high TB burden settings, like the Philippines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection and Associated Factors at Debre Markos Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Four-Year Retrospective Study.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 15;13:293-299. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) are the principal global causes of death among patients with communicable diseases. Because of shared immune defense mechanisms, they are the primary cause of morbidity worldwide. However, little information was found regarding the magnitude of TB/HIV co-infection in the study area, in Northwest Ethiopia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antiretroviral Treatment-Induced Decrease in Immune Activation Contributes to Reduced Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in HIV-1/Mtb Co-infected Persons.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:645446. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Tuberculosis Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom.

Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-1 co-infected persons. In order to understand host immune responses during ART in the context of (Mtb) sensitization, we performed RNAseq analysis of whole blood-derived RNA from individuals with latent TB infection coinfected with HIV-1, during the first 6 months of ART. A significant fall in RNA sequence abundance of the Hallmark IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling, and inflammatory response pathway genes indicated reduced immune activation and inflammation at 6 months of ART compared to day 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genotype Mixtures, Viral Load, and Liver Damage in HBV Patients Co-infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Front Microbiol 2021 3;12:640889. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Molecular Biology in Medicine, Civil Hospital of Guadalajara, "Fray Antonio Alcalde," Guadalajara, Mexico.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is possible in patients who are positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since both share similar transmission routes. Furthermore, through the continuous risk of exposure, they potentially can be infected by mixtures of distinct HBV genotypes which can result in the presence of two or more genotypes in a single patient. This study aimed to specify the frequency of mixtures of HBV genotypes and their potential clinic importance in HIV-infected Mexican patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Prospective Study Evaluating Changes in Histology, Clinical and Virologic Outcomes in HBV-HIV Co-infected Adults in North America.

Hepatology 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

National Cancer Institute, Bethesda.

Introduction: Histological and clinical outcomes in HBV-HIV coinfection in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are poorly-defined.

Methods: Adult HBV-HIV co-infected patients from 8 North American sites were enrolled in this NIH-funded prospective observational study (n=139). Demographic, clinical, serological and virological data were collected at entry and every 24 weeks for ≤192 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dynamic needs and challenges of people with drug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV in South Africa: a qualitative study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 04;9(4):e479-e488

Centre for the Aids Programme of Research in South Africa MRC-HIV-TB Pathogenesis and Treatment Research Unit, Durban, South Africa; Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: There is little evidence of patient acceptability for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) care in the context of new treatment regimens and HIV co-infection. We aim to describe experiences of DRTB-HIV care among patients in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa.

Methods: In this qualitative study using Bury's framework for chronic illness, we conducted 13 focus groups at a tertiary hospital with 55 patients co-infected with DRTB and HIV (28 women, 27 men) who were receiving new bedaquiline-based treatment for DRTB, concurrent with antiretroviral therapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Emergence and characterization of a putative novel human adenovirus recombinant HAdV-C104 causing pneumonia in Southern China.

Virus Evol 2021 Jan 2;7(1):veab018. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120, P. R. China.

In 2017, a survey of the molecular epidemiology of human adenovirus (HAdV) infections in Southern China based on hexon and fiber genotype demonstrated that the most prevalent genotypes of HAdV were HAdV-3 ( = 62), HAdV-2 ( = 21), and HAdV-7 ( = 16). In addition, two patients were co-infected with two genotypes of HAdV. Interestingly, a novel human adenovirus C recombinant genotype strain was isolated from one of the pneumonia patients in this survey. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with multiple common respiratory pathogens in infected children: A retrospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(11):e24315

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Wuhan Children' Hospital.

Abstract: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, considerable attention has been paid on its epidemiology and clinical characteristics in children patients. However, it is also crucial for clinicians to summarize and investigate the co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 in children.We retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and imaging characteristics of COVID-19 patients in co-infection group (CI, n = 27) and single infection group (SI, n = 54). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of the Inflammatory Cytokines and IL-10 Network in Individuals Co-infected With Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HTLV/HCV).

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:632695. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Laboratório Avançado de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Brazil.

Background: Co-infection between the human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can modify the natural history of HCV infection. The aim of this study was to describe the inflammatory cytokines and IL-10 network in patients co-infected with HTLV and HCV viruses in Bahia, Brazil.

Methods: Samples from 31 HTLV/HCV co-infected individuals and 27 HCV monoinfected individuals were evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Helicobacter pylori infection rates in dyspeptic Serbian HIV-infected patients compared to HIV-negative controls.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(3):e0248041. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Disease, Clinical Center of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Helicobacter pylori infection does not belong to the spectrum of opportunistic infections in people living with HIV (PLHIV). To evaluate the Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence rate trends in HIV co-infected individuals in comparison to the HIV-negative population, we compared histopathological findings of H. pylori positive gastritis (gastritis topography and histopathology) between 303 PLHIV and 2642 HIV-negative patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) between 1993 and 2014 due to dyspeptic symptoms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Joint Modeling of Incidence of Tuberculosis and Change in Viral Load Over Time Among Adult HIV/AIDS Patients on Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Zewditu Memorial Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 1;13:239-249. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Globally, approximately 37.9 million people were living with HIV and one-third of these people are co-infected with tuberculosis (TB). However, little is known about predictors of tuberculosis incidence and its association with viral load. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Retrospective review analysis of COVID-19 patients co-infected with .

Lung India 2021 Mar;38(Supplement):S22-S26

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, UK.

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an extremely infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The outbreak of this virus has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. We have seen an unprecedented spread of this virus, leading to extreme pressure on health-care services. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Low antileishmanial drug exposure in HIV-positive visceral leishmaniasis patients on antiretrovirals: an Ethiopian cohort study.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Apr;76(5):1258-1268

Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital/Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Despite high HIV co-infection prevalence in Ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, the adequacy of antileishmanial drug exposure in this population and effect of HIV-VL co-morbidity on pharmacokinetics of antileishmanial and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs is still unknown.

Methods: HIV-VL co-infected patients received the recommended liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) monotherapy (total dose 40 mg/kg over 24 days) or combination therapy of LAmB (total dose 30 mg/kg over 11 days) plus 28 days 100 mg/day miltefosine, with possibility to extend treatment for another cycle. Miltefosine, total amphotericin B and ARV concentrations were determined in dried blood spots or plasma using LC-MS/MS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF