8,989 results match your criteria cns involvement


Pineal gland hypermetabolic involvement without central nervous system symptoms in a pediatric patient with primary nodular sclerosis subtype classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 May 14:1-6. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Peyton Manning Children's Hospital at Ascension St. Vincent, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

This case report presents the first reported pediatric case of primary classical nodular sclerosing Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) with pineal gland involvement, presenting without CNS symptoms, which completely resolved after 2 cycles of chemotherapy. The 12 year-old male first presented with a right inguinal mass and external iliac lymphadenopathy accompanied by B symptoms. He was diagnosed with stage IV B classical HL, and as part of the staging work-up, a full-body PET/CT scan was performed. Read More

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Case Report: Cardiac Involvement by Lymphoma: Rare but Heterogeneous Condition With Challenging Behaviors.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:665736. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

S.C. Ematologia, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina, Trieste, Italy.

Cardiac lymphomas are rare extranodal lymphomas involving primarily and secondarily the heart and/or pericardium. Here we describe three cases of cardiac involvement from lymphoma with specific peculiarities: two primary cardiac Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas and one secondary involvement from Marginal Zone Lymphoma (MZL). The first case highlights the issue of early CNS relapse and the possible role for CNS prophylaxis; the second case demonstrates the difficulties of interpretation and possible mistakes of different radiologic techniques adopted to evaluate cardiac involvement by lymphoma during follow-up; the third is a unique case of MZL with cardiac involvement. Read More

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The value of bone marrow biopsy for staging of patients with primary CNS lymphoma.

Neuro Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, Knappschaftskrankenhaus University of Bochum, In der Schornau 23-25, 44892 Bochum, Germany.

Background: In patients with presumed primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) a systemic manifestation is found only in a small minority. Although bone marrow biopsy (BMB) is recommended for staging, its diagnostic value is unclear.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 392 patients with presumed PCNSL from three university hospitals and 33 patients with secondary CNS lymphoma (SCNSL) and initial CNS involvement from a multicentre Germany-wide prospective registry was performed. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 and Nervous System - Neurological Manifestations in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review.

J Neurol Res 2020 Aug 30;10(4):113-121. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Neuroscience Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Coronavirus (CoV) is a virus infectious disease with a considerable spectrum of clinical presentations. Symptoms ranged from asymptomatic infection to severe pneumonia that may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and several clinical complications. Neurologic symptoms related to CoV have been described recently in the literature. Read More

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Studies of involvement of G-protein coupled receptor-3 in cannabidiol effects on inflammatory responses of mouse primary astrocytes and microglia.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251677. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kentucky Lions Eye Center, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America.

Cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties and is suggested to be effective in the pre-clinical and clinical treatment of illnesses of the central nervous system (CNS). Two major types of CNS glial cells, astrocytes and microglia, play critical roles in the development and pathogenesis of CNS diseases. However, the mechanisms by which CBD plays an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role for these glial cells have not been fully elucidated. Read More

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Arachidonic Acid Metabolites in Neurologic Disorders.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Selcuk University Faculty of Medicine Neurology, Turkey.

Background & Objective: Arachidonic acid (ARA) is essential for the fluidity, selective permeability, and flexibility of the cell membrane. It is an important factor for the function of all cells, particularly in the nervous system, immune system, and vascular endothelium. ARA, after docosahexaenoic acid, is the second most common polyunsaturated fatty acid in the phospholipids of the nerve cell membrane. Read More

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Phenotypic diversity of brain MRI patterns in mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutations.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Paediatric Radiology, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France; Institut Imagine, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France.

Background And Purpose: Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases-encoded by ARS2 genes-are evolutionarily conserved enzymes that catalyse the attachment of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs, ensuring the accuracy of the mitochondrial translation process. ARS2 gene mutations are associated with a wide range of clinical presentations affecting the CNS.

Methods: Two senior neuroradiologists analysed brain MRI of 25 patients (age range: 3 d-25 yrs. Read More

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Histoplasmosis of the Central Nervous System: A Case Series between 1990 and 2019 in French Guiana.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

2CIC INSERM 1424, Centre Hospitalier de Cayenne, Cayenne, French Guiana.

Disseminated histoplasmosis is the most frequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness in French Guiana. Paradoxically, central nervous system (CNS) involvement has been scarcely described. We aimed to identify CNS histoplasmosis in our territory. Read More

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Case Report: Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba spp. in an Immunocompetent Pediatric Patient.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

2Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González," Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico.

Granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) caused by Acanthamoeba is a rare infection with central nervous system (CNS) involvement usually with fatal consequences. Currently, information regarding GAE in children is scarce and is limited only to case reports and case series. A 13-year-old immunocompetent male patient with a 6-month history of progressive and intermittent headaches presented to our institution. Read More

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Trisomy 9 mosaic syndrome: Sixteen additional patients with new and/or less commonly reported features, literature review, and suggested clinical guidelines.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Trisomy 9 mosaic syndrome (T9M) is a rare condition characterized by multiorgan system involvement including craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac, genitourinary (GU), skeletal, and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. Although more than 100 cases have been reported in the literature, a comprehensive review has not been performed nor have clinical guidelines been established. Therefore, we describe the clinical features of 16 additional patients, review features of previously reported individuals, and suggest clinical guidelines. Read More

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The Working Memory Network and Its Association with Working Memory Performance in Survivors of non-CNS Childhood Cancer.

Dev Neuropsychol 2021 Apr-Jun;46(3):249-264

Division of Neuropediatrics, Development and Rehabilitation, Children's University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Childhood cancer and its treatment puts survivors at risk of low working memory capacity. Working memory represents a core cognitive function, which is crucial in daily life and academic tasks. The aim of this functional MRI (fMRI) study was to examine the working memory network of survivors of childhood cancer without central nervous system (CNS) involvement and its relation to cognitive performance. Read More

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COVID-19 - neuropathological point of view, pathobiology, and dilemmas after the first year of the pandemic struggle.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(1):1-16

Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland.

This article constitutes a summary of the knowledge on the involvement of the nervous system in COVID-19, concerning its general pathobiology, clinical presentation and neuropathological features as well as the future directions of investigation. Variable definitions, selection bias, mainly retrospective analyses of hospitalized patients and different methodologies are implemented in the research of this new disease. Central nervous system (CNS) pathology presents most frequently features of non-specific neuroinflammation with microglial activation and lymphoid infiltrations, ischemic/hypoxic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, and microthrombi. Read More

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January 2021

Neurologic Manifestations of COVID-19 in Children: Emerging Pathophysiologic Insights.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Department of Rheumatology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected mortality and morbidity across all ages, including children. Neurologic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019, ranging from headaches to cerebrovascular stroke, may involve the CNS or peripheral nervous system. Neurologic involvement is also noted in the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, a pediatric condition that occurs weeks after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Read More

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Obscure Involvement of MYC in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Neuronal Repair.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation, University of Belgrade, Visokog Stevana 2, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.

MYC is well known as a potent oncogene involved in regulating cell cycle and metabolism. Augmented MYC expression leads to cell cycle dysregulation, intense cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Surprisingly, its increased expression in neurons does not induce their proliferation, but leads to neuronal cell death and consequent development of a neurodegenerative phenotype. Read More

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Nitric Oxide as a Target for Phytochemicals in Anti-Neuroinflammatory Prevention Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, #191, Hambakmoero, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21936, Korea.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter that mediates the activation and inhibition of inflammatory cascades. Even though physiological NO is required for defense against various pathogens, excessive NO can trigger inflammatory signaling and cell death through reactive nitrogen species-induced oxidative stress. Excessive NO production by activated microglial cells is specifically associated with neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ischemia, hypoxia, multiple sclerosis, and other afflictions of the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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From Kidney to Brain: An Uncommon Severe Relapse of Myeloperoxidase Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (MPO-ANCA) Vasculitis.

Cureus 2021 Mar 31;13(3):e14205. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto, PRT.

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of rare autoimmune diseases that affect medium and small blood vessels, with uncommon, variable central nervous system (CNS) involvement. It poses diagnosis challenges due to the limited accuracy of conventional imaging and vast differential diagnosis. We describe the case of a 76-year-old man with a previously diagnosed myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive AAV with exclusive renal involvement. Read More

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Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is required for the neuronal differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 14;21(6):619. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Life Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zheijiang 310053, P.R. China.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed by somatic cells may be used as a potentially novel treatment regimen in stem cell regenerative medicine, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, iPSCs were generated using mouse embryonic fibroblasts by ectopic overexpression of Sox-2, Oct-3/4, Klf-4 and c-Myc, and cultured under the same conditions as that used for embryonic stem cells. The neuronal differentiation capacity of mouse iPSCs was examined, and the involvement of the formation of embryoid bodies was assessed. Read More

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M. fortuitum-induced CNS-pathology: Deciphering the role of canonical Wnt signaling, blood brain barrier components and cytokines.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Apr 29:104111. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India; Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, South Asian University, Delhi-110021, India. Electronic address:

Molecular underpinning of mycobacteria-induced CNS-pathology is not well understood. In the present study, zebrafish were infected with Mycobacterium fortuitum and the prognosis of CNS-pathogenesis studied. We observed M. Read More

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Central Nervous System Involvement in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Introduction: To evaluate the incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and prognosis of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Methods: All AML patients who were admitted to Hacettepe University hospital between 2000 and 2021 were evaluated. The medical records of 548 AML cases were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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Durability of CNS disease control in NSCLC patients with brain metastases treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors plus cranial radiotherapy.

Lung Cancer 2021 Apr 8;156:76-81. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have excellent systemic activity and are standard first line treatment in EGFR/ALK wild type metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, their role in patients with brain metastases, which affects over 20% of patients and cause significant morbidity, is less clear.

Methods: We reviewed patients with EGFR/ALK wild-type mNSCLC with CNS metastases. Read More

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Non-neuronal cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - from pathogenesis to biomarkers.

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Oxford Motor Neuron Disease Centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

The prevailing motor neuron-centric view of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis could be an important factor in the failure to identify disease-modifying therapy for this neurodegenerative disorder. Non-neuronal cells have crucial homeostatic functions within the CNS and evidence of involvement of these cells in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative disorders, including ALS, is accumulating. Microglia and astrocytes, in crosstalk with peripheral immune cells, can exert both neuroprotective and adverse effects, resulting in a highly nuanced range of neuronal and non-neuronal cell interactions. Read More

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Structural Changes on MRI Demonstrate Specific Cerebellar Involvement in SLE Patients-A VBM Study.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 16;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.

The purpose of this study is to investigate possible differences in brain structure, as measured by T1-weighted MRI, between patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and healthy controls (HC), and whether any observed differences were in turn more severe in SLE patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations (NPSLE) than those without (non-NPSLE). Structural T1-weighted MRI was performed on 69 female SLE patients (mean age = 35.8 years, range = 18-51 years) and 24 age-matched female HC (mean age = 36. Read More

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Shared Neurodevelopmental Perturbations Can Lead to Intellectual Disability in Individuals with Distinct Rare Chromosome Duplications.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Genetics, Institute of Biosciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul UFRGS, Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil.

Chromosomal duplications are associated with a large group of human diseases that arise mainly from dosage imbalance of genes within the rearrangements. Phenotypes range widely but are often associated with global development delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and multiple congenital abnormalities. How different contiguous genes from a duplicated genomic region interact and dynamically affect the expression of each other remains unclear in most cases. Read More

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Understanding the Central Nervous System Symptoms of Rotavirus: A Qualitative Review.

Viruses 2021 04 11;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.

This qualitative review on rotavirus infection and its complications in the central nervous system (CNS) aims to understand the gut-brain mechanisms that give rise to CNS driven symptoms such as vomiting, fever, feelings of sickness, convulsions, encephalitis, and encephalopathy. There is substantial evidence to indicate the involvement of the gut-brain axis in symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not rotavirus specific, they represent evolutionarily conserved survival mechanisms for protection against pathogen entry and invasion. Read More

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Gut Microbiota and Bipolar Disorder: An Overview on a Novel Biomarker for Diagnosis and Treatment.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 2;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

NHS, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service for Diagnosis and Treatment, Hospital "G. Mazzini", ASL 4, 64100 Teramo, Italy.

The gut microbiota is the set of microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract of living creatures, establishing a bidirectional symbiotic relationship that is essential for maintaining homeostasis, for their growth and digestive processes. Growing evidence supports its involvement in the intercommunication system between the gut and the brain, so that it is called the gut-brain-microbiota axis. It is involved in the regulation of the functions of the Central Nervous System (CNS), behavior, mood and anxiety and, therefore, its implication in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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Ocular manifestation of rickettsial disease in South Indian population.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 May;69(5):1167-1171

Prasad Netralaya, Udupi, Karnataka, India.

Purpose: The aim of this work was to study the ocular manifestations and its management in spotted fever and typhus group of rickettsial disease.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 50 patients with serologically confirmed Rickettsial disease. In all patients, relevant history, investigations and treatment details were collected and they underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity, anterior segment examination and dilated fundus examination. Read More

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The Contribution of Astrocyte and Neuronal Panx1 to Seizures Is Model and Brain Region Dependent.

ASN Neuro 2021 Jan-Dec;13:17590914211007273

Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, United States.

Pannexin1 (Panx1) is an ATP release channel expressed in neurons and astrocytes that plays important roles in CNS physiology and pathology. Evidence for the involvement of Panx1 in seizures includes the reduction of epileptiform activity and ictal discharges following Panx1 channel blockade or deletion. However, very little is known about the relative contribution of astrocyte and neuronal Panx1 channels to hyperexcitability. Read More

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Fabry disease with cardiovascular manifestation in a patient with end-stage renal disease.

Cesk Patol 2021 ;57(1):49-52

Fabry disease is a rare X-linked hereditary storage disease caused by a mutation of the gene encoding alpha-galactosidase A. The clinical manifestation of the classical disease form is variable depending on the degree of individual organs involvement, including especially kidney, myocardium, central nervous system (CNS) and skin. We report a case of a 51-year-old man whose diagnostic manifestation was cardiac involvement leading to endomyocardial biopsy, which significantly contributed to the diagnosis. Read More

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Comparison of severe pediatric complicated influenza patients with and without neurological involvement.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25716

Divison of Pediatric Cardiology, China Medical University Children's Hospital, Taiwan.

Abstract: Although influenza is generally an acute, self-limited, and uncomplicated disease in healthy children, it can result in severe morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to analyze and compare the clinical features and outcome of severe pediatric influenza with and without central nervous system (CNS) involvement.We conducted a retrospective observational study of children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of China Medical University Children's Hospital in Taiwan with a confirmed diagnosis of influenza. Read More

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Primary and secondary central nervous system mature T- and NK-cell lymphomas.

Semin Hematol 2021 Apr 3;58(2):123-129. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Primary central nervous system (CNS) mature T- and NK-cell lymphomas are rare, only comprising 2% to 3% of all primary CNS lymphomas. Among them, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) are the commonly reported histological subtypes. Secondary CNS T-cell lymphoma generally affects about 5% of patients with T- or NK-cell lymphoma, with some exceptions. Read More

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