1,013 results match your criteria cmi responses

Immunization of chicken with flagellin adjuvanted Salmonella enteritidis bacterial ghosts confers complete protection against chicken salmonellosis.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 21;100(7):101205. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan Campus, 54596, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The present study describes the generation of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) ghosts with a surface decorated Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) flagellin (FliC) antigen for immune enhancement and strain-specific protection. The ghosts were generated by biological means using pJHL184::fliC temperature inducible plasmid where the lysis occurs by phage PhiX174 lysis gene E expression. Being an inactivated strain, no environmental contamination was observed by fecal shedding upon inoculation into the chicken. Read More

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Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike responses to Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines by previous infection status.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: We investigate determinants of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG responses in healthcare workers (HCWs) following one or two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines.

Methods: HCWs participating in regular SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antibody testing were invited for serological testing prior to first and second vaccination, and 4 weeks post-vaccination if receiving a 12-week dosing interval. Quantitative post-vaccination anti-spike antibody responses were measured using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (detection threshold: ≥50 AU/ml). Read More

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T cell-mediated response to SARS-CoV-2 in liver transplant recipients with prior COVID-19.

Am J Transplant 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Unit of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitario "12 de Octubre", Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital "12 de Octubre" (imas12), Madrid, Spain.

Whether immunosuppression impairs severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific T-cell-mediated immunity (SARS-CoV-2-CMI) after liver transplantation (LT) remains unknown. We included 31 LT recipients in whom SARS-CoV-2-CMI was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and interferon (IFN)-γ FluoroSpot assay after a median of 103 days from COVID-19 diagnosis. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Read More

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Spreading of a new SARS-CoV-2 N501Y spike variant in a new lineage.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

IHU Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Univ., Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), MEPHI, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: Our surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 genomic epidemiology led us to detect several variants since summer 2020. We report the recent spread of a new SARS-CoV-2 spike 501Y variant.

Methods: SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained from human nasopharyngeal samples by Illumina next-generation sequencing were analyzed using Nextclade and an in-house Python script and compared using BLASTn to the GISAID database. Read More

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How to interpret and use COVID-19 serology and immunology tests.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Centre (UGMLC), Philipps University Marburg, German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Marburg, Germany.

Background: Although molecular tests are considered the reference standard for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics, serological and immunological tests may be useful in specific settings.

Objectives: This review summarizes the underlying principles and performance of COVID-19 serological and immunological testing.

Sources: Selected peer-reviewed publications on COVID-19 related serology and immunology published between December 2019 and March 2021. Read More

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Personal protective equipment preparedness in intensive care units during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: An Asia-Pacific follow-up survey.

Aust Crit Care 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Frankston Hospital, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Personal-protective equipment (PPE)-preparedness, defined as adherence to guidelines, healthcare worker (HCW) training, procuring PPE stocks and responding appropriately to suspected cases, is crucial to prevent HCW-infections.

Objective: To perform a follow-up survey to assess changes in PPE-preparedness across six Asia-Pacific countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A prospective follow-up cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted between 10/08/2020 to 01/09/ 2020, five months after the initial Phase 1 survey. Read More

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Concomitant Swine Influenza A Virus Infection Alters PRRSV1 MLV Viremia in Piglets but Does Not Interfere with Vaccine Protection in Experimental Conditions.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation, de l'Environnement et du Travail (Anses), Unité Virologie Immunologie Porcines, BP 53, 22440 Ploufragan, France.

Modified-live vaccines (MLVs) against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) are usually administrated to piglets at weaning when swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections frequently occur. SwIAV infection induces a strong interferon alpha (IFNa) response and IFNa was shown to abrogate PRRSV2 MLV replication and an inherent immune response. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of swIAV infection on the replication of a PRRSV1 MLV (MLV1), post-vaccine immune responses and post-challenge vaccine efficacy at both the systemic and pulmonary levels. Read More

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[email protected] hybrid microcapsules with high in vivo biocompatibility and stability for cell therapy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 16;203:111770. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry (CMI), University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B-5000, Namur, Belgium; Namur Institute of Structured Matter (NISM), University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B-5000, Namur, Belgium; State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Designing new materials to encapsulate living therapeutic cells for the treatment of the diseases caused by protein or hormone deficiencies is a great challenge. The desired materials need to be biocompatible towards both entrapped cells and host organisms, have long-term in vivo stability after implantation, allow the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites, and ensure perfect immune-isolation. The current work investigates the in vivo biocompatibility and stability of [email protected] hybrid microcapsules and the immune-isolation of entrapped HepG2 cells, to assess their potential for cell therapy. Read More

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Biomechanical and cognitive interactions during Visuo Motor Targeting Task.

Gait Posture 2021 May 26;86:287-291. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Biomechanical analyses primarily focus on physical aspects of human movement; however, it is not understood how walking is affected while simultaneously performing a demanding cognitive task - a form of Cognitive-Motor Interference (CMI). CMI occurs when performance of a primary task (e.g. Read More

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Mucosal Priming with a Recombinant Influenza A Virus-Vectored Vaccine Elicits T-Cell and Antibody Responses to HIV-1 in Mice.

J Virol 2021 05 24;95(12). Epub 2021 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Guangdong Laboratory of Computational Biomedicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

Recombinant influenza A viral (IAV) vectors are potential to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity, but the packaging capacity is limited and only one or a few epitopes can be carried. Here, we report the generation of a replication-competent IAV vector that carries a full-length HIV-1 gene linked to the 5'-terminal coding region of the neuraminidase segment via a protease cleavage sequence (IAV-p24). IAV-p24 was successfully rescued and stably propagated, and P24 protein was efficiently expressed in infected mammalian cells. Read More

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Comparative Antibody Responses to the Live-Attenuated and Recombinant Herpes Zoster Vaccines.

J Virol 2021 05 24;95(12). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Two herpes zoster (HZ) vaccines licensed in the United States are recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): (i) live-attenuated vaccine (ZVL) using vOka strain varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and (ii) recombinant adjuvanted vaccine (RZV) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE). Two phase 3 clinical trials of RZV led the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to recommend it with preferred status. VZV T cell-mediated immunity (CMI), but not humoral immunity, is considered essential for protection against HZ. Read More

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Cell-Mediated Immunological Biomarkers and Their Diagnostic Application in Livestock and Wildlife Infected With .

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:639605. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Department of Science and Innovation-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

has the largest host range of the complex and infects domestic animal species, wildlife, and humans. The presence of global wildlife maintenance hosts complicates bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control efforts and further threatens livestock and wildlife-related industries. Thus, it is imperative that early and accurate detection of in all affected animal species is achieved. Read More

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Immunomodulatory effect of Noni fruit and its isolates: insights into cell-mediated immune response and inhibition of LPS-induced THP-1 macrophage inflammation.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 18;12(7):3170-3179. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Ainy Street, Cairo 11562, Egypt.

Morinda citrifolia L. is a plant of the family Rubiaceae and is known as Indian mulberry or Noni in India. It is a perennial herb native to Southeast Asia and has been used over the years as a food supplement and medicinal plant. Read More

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B-Cells and Antibodies as Contributors to Effector Immune Responses in Tuberculosis.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:640168. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by (Mtb), is still a major threat to mankind, urgently requiring improved vaccination and therapeutic strategies to reduce TB-disease burden. Most present vaccination strategies mainly aim to induce cell-mediated immunity (CMI), yet a series of independent studies has shown that B-cells and antibodies (Abs) may contribute significantly to reduce the mycobacterial burden. Although early studies using B-cell knock out animals did not support a major role for B-cells, more recent studies have provided new evidence that B-cells and Abs can contribute significantly to host defense against Mtb. Read More

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February 2021

Impact of Surgical Status, Loneliness, and Disability on Interleukin 6, C-Reactive Protein, Cortisol, and Estrogen in Females with Symptomatic Type I Chiari Malformation.

Cerebellum 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Chiari malformation type I (CMI) provides an opportunity for examining possible moderators of allostatic load. CMI patients who had (n = 43) and had not (n = 19) undergone decompression surgery completed questionnaires regarding pain, disability, and loneliness, and provided serum samples for IL-6, CRP, estrogen, and free estradiol assays, and saliva samples to assess diurnal cortisol curves. ANOVAs examining surgical status (decompressed versus non-decompressed), loneliness (high vs. Read More

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Immunogenicity of Calvenza-03 EIV/EHV Vaccine in Horses: Comparative In Vivo Study.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institut für Virologie, Robert von Ostertag-Haus, Zentrum für Infektionsmedizin, Freie Universität Berlin, Robert-von-Ostertag-Str. 7-13, 14163 Berlin, Germany.

Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of equines that is caused mainly by the H3N8 subtype of influenza A virus. Vaccinating horses against EI is the most effective strategy to prevent the infection. The current study aimed to compare the kinetics of EI-specific humoral- and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in horses receiving either identical or mixed vaccinations. Read More

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February 2021

SARS CoV-2 infections in healthcare workers with a pre-existing T-cell response: a prospective cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 2;27(6):916.e1-916.e4. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain; Laboratory of Immunovirology, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: T-cell responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are observed in unexposed individuals. We evaluated the impact of this pre-existing cellular response on incident SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Methods: This was a follow-up study of 38 seronegative healthcare workers (HCWs) with previous evaluation of CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. Read More

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Clinical, virologic and immunologic features of a mild case of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Geneva Centre for Emerging Viral Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland; Laboratory of Virology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objectives: To report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection 6 months after the first infection in a young healthy female physician. Both episodes led to mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: SARS-CoV-2 infections were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal specimens. Read More

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February 2021

Transdermal Immunization of Elastic Liposome-Laden Recombinant Chimeric Fusion Protein of (MSP-Fu) Mounts Protective Immune Response.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Biomedical Parasitology and Nano-Immunology Lab., CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), Sec-39A, Chandigarh 160036, India.

Transdermal immunization exhibits poor immunogenic responses due to poor permeability of antigens through the skin. Elastic liposomes, the ultradeformable nanoscale lipid vesicles, overcome the permeability issues and prove a versatile nanocarrier for transcutaneous delivery of protein, peptide, and nucleic acid antigens. Elastic liposome-mediated subcutaneous delivery of chimeric fusion protein (MSP-Fu) of exhibited improved immunogenic responses. Read More

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February 2021

Think about it: Cognitive-motor dual-tasking affects sub-regional spine responses to unexpected trunk perturbations.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 Apr 5;76:102766. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Cognitive motor interference (CMI) is a psychomotor phenomenon characterized by alterations in kinematic spatial-temporal parameters during concurrent cognitive and motor tasks (i.e. dual-tasking). Read More

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Vaccine-related major cutaneous reaction size correlates with cellular-mediated immune responses after tularaemia immunisation.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 19;10(1):e1239. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health (CVD) University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore MD USA.

Objectives: , the causative agent of tularaemia, is an exceptionally infectious bacterium, potentially fatal for humans if left untreated and with the potential to be developed as a bioweapon. Both natural infection and live-attenuated vaccine strain (LVS) confer good protection against tularaemia. LVS vaccination is traditionally administered by scarification, and the formation of a cutaneous reaction or take at the vaccination site is recognised as a clinical correlate of protection. Read More

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January 2021

Interferon-γ and IL-5 associated cell-mediated immune responses to HPV16 E2 and E6 distinguish between persistent oral HPV16 infections and noninfected mucosa.

Clin Exp Dent Res 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Objectives: Natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck region is poorly understood, and their impact on collective HPV-specific immunity is not known.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we have performed a systematic analysis of HPV16-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in 21 women with known oral and genital HPV DNA status and HPV serology (Ab) based on 6-year follow-up data. These women being a subgroup from the Finnish Family HPV Study were recalled for blood sampling to be tested for their CMI-responses to HPV16 E2, E6, and E7 peptides. Read More

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January 2021

Noninvasive Oxygen Strategies to Manage Confirmed COVID-19 Patients in Indian Intensive Care Units: A Survey.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2020 Oct;24(10):926-931

Department of Intensive Care, University of Sydney, Nepean Clinical School and Nepean Hospital, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: About 5% of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients will need intensive care unit (ICU) admission for hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring oxygen support. The choice between early mechanical ventilation and noninvasive oxygen therapies, such as, high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) and/or noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) has to balance the contradictory priorities of protecting healthcare workers by minimizing aerosol-generation and optimizing resource management. This survey over two timeframes aimed to explore the controversial issue of location and noninvasive oxygen therapy in non-intubated ICU patients using a clinical vignette. Read More

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October 2020

Induction of Cross-reactive Hemagglutination Inhibiting Antibody and Polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell Responses by a Recombinant Matrix-M-Adjuvanted Hemagglutinin Nanoparticle Influenza Vaccine.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Nov 4. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Novavax, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Background: Recurrent reports of suboptimal influenza vaccine effectiveness have renewed calls to develop improved, broadly cross-protective influenza vaccines. Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a novel, saponin (Matrix-M)-adjuvanted, recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) quadrivalent nanoparticle influenza vaccine (qNIV).

Methods: We conducted a randomized, observer-blind, comparator-controlled (trivalent high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine [IIV3-HD], or quadrivalent recombinant influenza vaccine [RIV4]), safety and immunogenicity trial of qNIV (in 5 different doses/formulations) in healthy adults aged ≥65 years. Read More

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November 2020

Psycho-Physiological Responses to a 4-Month High-Intensity Interval Training-Centered Multidisciplinary Weight-Loss Intervention in Adolescents with Obesity.

J Obes Metab Syndr 2020 Dec;29(4):292-302

Clermont Auvergne University, EA 3533, Laboratory of the Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise under Physiological and Pathological Conditions (AME2P), Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: To evaluate the impact of 4 months of a high-intensity interval training (HIIT)-centered weightmanagement intervention on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), health perception (HP) and physical selfperception (PSP) in adolescents with obesity.

Methods: Fifty-six adolescents with obesity (28 girls; mean body mass index [BMI], 35±4.89 kg/m; z-BMI, 2. Read More

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December 2020

Cytokine saga in visceral leishmaniasis.

Cytokine 2020 Oct 28:155322. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University (formerly University of Pune), Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India. Electronic address:

In humans, infection with Leishmania manifests into a spectrum of diseases. The manifestation of the diseases depend on the resultant evasion of the parasite to immune responses namely by macrophages, which is an exclusive host of Leishmania. The B cells valiantly mount antibody responses, however, to no avail as the Leishmania parasites occupy the intracellular niches of the macrophages and subvert the immune response. Read More

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October 2020

Newcastle disease virus vectored rabies vaccine induces strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses in mice.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Dec 12;251:108890. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Recombinant DNA Lab, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, 243 122, India. Electronic address:

Rabies is a devastating disease affecting almost all mammalian animal species including humans. Vaccines are available to combat the disease. Protection against the disease is rendered by assessing the humoral immune response. Read More

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December 2020

A whole blood test to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific response in COVID-19 patients.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Feb 10;27(2):286.e7-286.e13. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani-IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: To examine whether specific T-cell-responses to SARS-CoV-2 peptides can be detected in COVID-19 using a whole-blood experimental setting, which may be further explored as a potential diagnostic tool.

Methods: We evaluated interferon (IFN)-γ levels after stimulating whole-blood with spike and remainder-antigens peptides megapools (MP) derived from SARS-CoV-2 sequences; interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IFN-γ, Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also evaluated.

Results: IFN-γ-response to spike and remainder-antigens MPs was significantly increased in 35 COVID-19 patients compared with 29 'no COVID-19' individuals (medians spike-MP: 0. Read More

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February 2021

Combination of Innate Immune Modulators as Vaccine Adjuvants in Mice.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Oct 1;8(4). Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.

The development of new, effective, and safe vaccines necessarily requires the identification of new adjuvant(s) to enhance the potency and longevity of antigen-specific immune responses. In the present study, we compare the antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses within groups of mice vaccinated subcutaneously with ovalbumin (OVA; as an experimental antigen) plus polyphosphazene (an innate immune modulator), Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly-I:C; (an RNA mimetic) and glycopeptide ARC5 (which is a Toll-like receptor (TLR), TLR2 ligand and PAM3CSK4 analogue) formulated together in a soluble vaccine. We also investigated the effect of a polymeric nanoparticle of ARC4 and ARC7 (which are a novel muramyl dipeptide analogue and a monophosophoryl lipid A (MPLA) analogue, respectively) plus OVA +/- ARC5 as a subcutaneous vaccine in mice. Read More

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October 2020

Association of the polymorphism of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 and TLR-9 genes with hepatitis C virus-specific cell-mediated immunity outcomes among Egyptian health-care workers.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Jan 2;203(1):3-12. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt.

Variations in the immune response could explain resistance to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Toll-like receptor gene (TLR)-3 is an innate detector of dsRNA viruses, and the TLR-9 gene recognizes bacterial and viral unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) motifs. We previously reported that the TLR-3. Read More

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January 2021