1,356,901 results match your criteria clinical studies

A Systematic Review Demonstrates High Variation of Terminology, Surgical Techniques, Preoperative Diagnostic Measures, and Geographic Differences in the Treatment of Athletic Pubalgia/Sports Hernia/Core Muscle Injury/Inguinal Disruption.

Arthroscopy 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Paterson NJ 07503; New Jersey Orthopaedic Institute, Wayne NJ 07470.

Purpose: To perform a systematic review of reported terminologies, surgical techniques, preoperative diagnostic measures, and geographic differences in the treatment of core muscle injury (CMI)/athletic pubalgia/inguinal disruption.

Methods: A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase to identify clinical studies or articles that described a surgical technique to treat CMI refractory to nonoperative treatment. The search phrase used was "core muscle injury" OR "sports hernia" OR "athletic pubalgia" OR "inguinal disruption". Read More

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Enhancement of Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking by Acute Total Sleep Restriction in Male Wistar Rats.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 Apr 9:173188. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA. Electronic address:

Clinical studies suggest that sleep impairment is a barrier to successful treatment in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients, with sleep disruption associated with relapse to alcohol taking. To date, no preclinical study has evaluated the relationship between impaired sleep and alcohol relapse. In the present study, we used a self-administration model to investigate the effects of sleep restriction on reinstatement induced by alcohol-paired environmental cues. Read More

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Myelofibrosis: challenges for preclinical models and emerging therapeutic targets.

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

: Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by anemia, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms and bone marrow fibrosis. MF has no curative treatment to date, except for a small subset of patients that are eligible for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The discovery in recent years of the MF mutational landscape and the role of bone marrow microenvironment in disease pathogenesis has led to further insights into disease biology and consequentially rationally derived therapies. Read More

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[Anti-inflammatory therapies for SARS-COV2 infection from a hematological perspective].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Nov;148(11):1640-1646

Departamento de Hematología y Oncología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The pathophysiology of the inflammatory profile induced by SARS-COV2 infection has similarities with conditions of immune system activation with cytokine release such as hemophagocytic syndrome and some cases of acute graft-versus-host disease. There are encouraging results of clinical studies, performed with increasingly better methodological quality, supporting the use of targeted and specific anti-inflammatory therapy in selected groups of patients with COVID-19 with severe inflammation. In this review we describe the inflammatory pathophysiology of the disease and the recent findings about its treatment. Read More

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November 2020

[The impact on metabolic and reproductive diseases of low-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Nov;148(11):1630-1639

Unidad de Endocrinología, Fundación Neuropsiquiátrica de Santiago, Santiago, Chile.

With low carbohydrate diets glucose becomes unavailable as a source of energy for our body, leading to the production of ketones from fatty acids in the liver. The increase in plasma ketones is known as nutritional ketosis. The available evidence from basic and clinical studies indicates that both low carbohydrate and high fat low carbohydrate diets are effective for weight loss and are better than non-intervention. Read More

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November 2020

Leverage multiple real-world data sources in single-arm medical device clinical studies.

J Biopharm Stat 2021 Apr 12:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Biostatistics, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

The interest in utilizing real-world data (RWD) has been considerably increasing in medical product development and evaluation. With proper usage and analysis of high-quality real-world data, real-world evidence (RWE) can be generated to inform regulatory and healthcare decision-making. This paper proposes a study design and data analysis approach for a prospective, single-arm clinical study that is supplemented with patients from multiple real-world data sources containing patient-level covariate and outcome data. Read More

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[Systematic review: clinical evidence of probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea].

MMW Fortschr Med 2021 Apr;163(Suppl 4):19-26

Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Tübingen, Deutschland.

Background: Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is the most common intestinal side effect of an antibiotic therapy. Various probiotics or probiotic combinations are often used preventively while taking antibiotics for the prevention of AAD.

Method: This review is based on a systematic literature research in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Read More

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Protection of kidney function and tissue integrity by pharmacologic use of natriuretic peptides and neprilysin inhibitors.

Pflugers Arch 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Urology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

With variable potencies atrial-, brain-type and c-type natriuretic peptides (NP)s, best documented for ANP and its analogues, promote sodium and water excretion, renal blood flow, lipolysis, lower blood pressure, and suppress renin and aldosterone secretion through interaction predominantly with cGMP-coupled NPR-A receptor. Infusion of especially ANP and its analogues up to 50 ng/kg/min in patients with high risk of acute kidney injury (cardiac vascular bypass surgery, intraabdominal surgery, direct kidney surgery) protects kidney function (GFR, plasma flow, medullary flow, albuminuria, renal replacement therapy, tissue injury) at short term and also long term and likely additively with the diuretic furosemide. This documents a pharmacologic potential for the pathway. Read More

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A multisite analysis of the concordance between visual image interpretation and quantitative analysis of [F]flutemetamol amyloid PET images.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: [F]flutemetamol PET scanning provides information on brain amyloid load and has been approved for routine clinical use based upon visual interpretation as either negative (equating to none or sparse amyloid plaques) or amyloid positive (equating to moderate or frequent plaques). Quantitation is however fundamental to the practice of nuclear medicine and hence can be used to supplement amyloid reading methodology especially in unclear cases.

Methods: A total of 2770 [F]flutemetamol images were collected from 3 clinical studies and 6 research cohorts with available visual reading of [F]flutemetamol and quantitative analysis of images. Read More

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Alzheimer's pathogenic mechanisms and underlying sex difference.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

AD is a neurodegenerative disease, and its frequency is often reported to be higher for women than men: almost two-thirds of patients with AD are women. One prevailing view is that women live longer than men on average of 4.5 years, plus there are more women aged 85 years or older than men in most global subpopulations; and older age is the greatest risk factor for AD. Read More

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Multidisciplinary treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease in pre-dialysis minimizes costs: a four-year retrospective cohort analysis.

J Bras Nefrol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Brasileira, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brasil.

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and clinical studies show that this progression can be slowed. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs to Brazil's public health system (SUS) throughout the course of CKD in the pre-dialysis stage compared to the costs to the SUS of dialysis treatment (DT).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze clinical and laboratory variables; the outcome analyzed was need for DT. Read More

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The evolving use of minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2020 Jun;18 Suppl 10(6):1-20

CLL Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has changed remarkably throughout the past decade, with patients achieving deeper and more durable responses. Importantly, this clinical activity has been found to translate to prolonged survival. With some treatments, these responses are now allowing patients to stop therapy after 1 or 2 years, a concept referred to as "fixed duration. Read More

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Estrogen As A Safe Therapeutic Adjunct in Reducing The Inflammatory Storm in Trauma Hemorrhagic Shock Patients.

Shock 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India Department of Emergency Medicine, JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Department of Intensive & Critical Care, JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Department of Emergency Medicine, Florida State University, Sarasota Florida, USA Department of Surgery, JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Abstract: Trauma is a major cause of death and disability throughout the world. It is a leading cause of death with or without sepsis in about 50% of patients. Limited therapeutic options are available besides definitive care with a mortality benefit. Read More

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Hepatitis B virus: promising drug targets and therapeutic implications.

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wits/SAMRC Antiviral Gene Therapy Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Current therapy for infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) rarely clears the virus, and viremia commonly resurges following treatment withdrawal. To prevent serious complications of the infection, research has been aimed at identifying new viral and host targets that can be exploited to inactivate HBV replication. This paper reviews the use of these new molecular targets to advance anti-HBV therapy. Read More

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Evaluation of Oral Transmucosal Administration of Pentobarbital for Euthanasia of Conscious Wild Birds.

J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2021 Apr 10:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

This prospective study evaluated oral transmucosal pentobarbital sodium at three doses in 110 wild-caught wild birds requiring euthanasia. Birds received transmucosal pentobarbital at five (430 mg/kg), six (516 mg/kg), and seven times (602 mg/kg) the intravenous dose for mammals. Time to first effects and loss of consciousness, presence of pupillary light and corneal reflexes, apnea, and asystole were recorded each minute. Read More

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Netarsudil: A new ophthalmic drug in the treatment of chronic primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 10:11206721211008783. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

College of Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Vision impairment remains a major health problem worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is a prime risk factor for blindness in the elderly. Netarsudil is a Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, which also inhibits norepinephrine transport. Read More

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AAV-mediated overexpression of IL-10 affects the immunomodulatory properties of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Hum Gene Ther 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

University of Pennsylvania, 6572, Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, 382 West Street Road, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, United States, 19348;

Joint injury can cause posttraumatic inflammation, which if severe enough can lead to posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), a progressive and debilitating condition. Posttraumatic inflammation is characterized by an influx of T lymphocytes and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and degradative enzymes by activated chondrocytes and synoviocytes. Intra-articular bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) injection for the treatment of OA has been of interest due to the immunomodulatory properties of these cells. Read More

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New antidiabetic therapy and HFpEF: light at the end of tunnel?

Heart Fail Rev 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Clinica Medica, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

New antidiabetic therapy that includes sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors showed significant benefit on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus, and this was particularly confirmed for SGLT2 inhibitors in subjects with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Their role on patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is still not elucidated, but encouraging results coming from the clinical studies indicate their beneficial role. The role of GLP-1R agonists and particularly DPP-4 inhibitors is less clear and debatable. Read More

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Computational molecular docking and virtual screening revealed promising SARS-CoV-2 drugs.

Precis Clin Med 2021 Mar 18;4(1):1-16. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Center for Genomics, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

The pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rampaged the world, with more than 58.4 million confirmed cases and over 1.38 million deaths across the world by 23 November 2020. Read More

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Virtual Reality as a Non-Pharmacological Adjunct to Reduce the Use of Analgesics in Hospitals.

J Cogn Enhanc 2021 Apr 6:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Radiology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA USA.

Virtual reality (VR) has become an increasingly viable non-pharmacological adjunct to reduce the use of analgesics in hospitals. Within the context of the ongoing opioid epidemic, VR can serve as an invaluable alternative to traditional pain management techniques. While VR research continues to advance, there is no clear consensus on the terms used to describe critical aspects of VR. Read More

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A marginal liver graft with hyperbilirubinemia transplanted successfully by ischemia-free liver transplantation.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):425

Organ Transplant Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The shortage of transplant organs remains a serious issue worldwide, and using liver grafts from extended criteria donors could expand the donor pool. Extended criteria donor liver allografts have a high chance of complications such as primary nonfunction, early allograft dysfunction, and ischemic-type biliary lesions. How to employ these extended criteria donors safely and effectively warrants further investigation. Read More

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Revisiting Activity of Some Nocodazole Analogues as a Potential Anticancer Drugs Using Molecular Docking and DFT Calculations.

Front Chem 2021 24;9:628398. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Horus University-Egypt, New Damietta, Egypt.

Although potential anticancer activities of benzimidazole-based anthelmintic drugs have been approved by preclinical and clinical studies, modes of binding interactions have not been reported so far. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to propose binding interactions of some benzimidazole-based anthelmintics with one of the most important cancer targets (Tubulin protein). Studied drugs were selected based on their structural similarity with the cocrystallized ligand (Nocodazole) with tubulin protein. Read More

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Meeting Report: Translational Advances in Cancer Prevention Agent Development Meeting.

J Cancer Prev 2021 Mar;26(1):71-82

Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Office of Disease Prevention of the National Institutes of Health co-sponsored the Translational Advances in Cancer Prevention Agent Development Meeting on August 27 to 28, 2020. The goals of this meeting were to foster the exchange of ideas and stimulate new collaborative interactions among leading cancer prevention researchers from basic and clinical research; highlight new and emerging trends in immunoprevention and chemoprevention as well as new information from clinical trials; and provide information to the extramural research community on the significant resources available from the NCI to promote prevention agent development and rapid translation to clinical trials. The meeting included two plenary talks and five sessions covering the range from pre-clinical studies with chemo/immunopreventive agents to ongoing cancer prevention clinical trials. Read More

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Mutations as a Molecular Target for Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:644737. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Pathology, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Despite the significant achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC), this condition remains substantially an incurable disease. In recent years, several clinical studies have aimed to identify novel molecular targets, therapeutic strategies, and predictive biomarkers to improve the outcome of women with MBC. Overall, ~40% of hormone receptor (HR)/HER2 MBC cases harbor alterations affecting the (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Read More

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PD-1/PDL-1 Inhibitors and Cardiotoxicity; Molecular, Etiological and Management Outlines.

J Adv Res 2021 Mar 3;29:45-54. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Head of Department of Oncology First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Zhongshan Road Dalian, Dalian Liaoning Province 116044, China.

Background: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several immunotherapeutic drugs for cancer since 2010, and many more are still being evaluated in other clinical studies. These inhibitors significantly increase response rates and result in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer. However, cancer immunotherapy leads to essential cardiac toxicity properties that have become distinct from other cancer patients' care and are mostly related to their etiology. Read More

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Endogenous neuroprotective mechanism of ATP2B1 in transcriptional regulation of ischemic preconditioning.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1170-1183. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University in Nanning China.

Ischemic stroke is the main cause of disability and mortality in the world. Clinical studies have shown that patients who undergo mild transient ischemic attack (TIA) before more severe ischemic stroke have lower clinical severity of stroke and better functional prognosis. This phenomenon is called ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Read More

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Immune Monitoring for Advanced Cell Therapy Trials in Transplantation: Which Assays and When?

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:664244. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Transplantation Research and Immunology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

A number of immune regulatory cellular therapies, including regulatory T cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, have emerged as novel alternative therapies for the control of transplant alloresponses. Clinical studies have demonstrated their feasibility and safety, however developing our understanding of the impact of cellular therapeutics requires advanced immune monitoring strategies. To accurately monitor the immune response, a combination of complementary methods is required to measure the cellular and molecular phenotype as well as the function of cells involved. Read More

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Normalization of Spinal Cord Total Cross-Sectional and Gray Matter Areas as Quantified With Radially Sampled Averaged Magnetization Inversion Recovery Acquisitions.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:637198. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Neurologic Clinic and Policlinic, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

MR imaging of the spinal cord (SC) gray matter (GM) at the cervical and lumbar enlargements' level may be particularly informative in lower motor neuron disorders, e. g., spinal muscular atrophy, but also in other neurodegenerative or autoimmune diseases affecting the SC. Read More

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Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, and APOE in Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): Potential Mechanisms and Therapy.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 25;13:647990. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States.

Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) are a common cause of cognitive decline, yet limited therapies exist. This cerebrovascular disease results in neurodegeneration acute, chronic, local, and systemic mechanisms. The etiology of VCID is complex, with a significant impact from atherosclerosis. Read More

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HIF Inhibition Therapy in Ocular Diseases.

Keio J Med 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Photobiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The uncontrolled growth of blood vessels is a major pathological factor in human eye diseases that can result in blindness. This effect is termed ocular neovascularization and is seen in diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and retinopathy of prematurity. Current treatments for these diseases include laser photocoagulation, topical injection of corticosteroids, intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents and vitreoretinal surgery. Read More

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