3,269 results match your criteria climate transition

Topography and climate in the upper Indus Basin: Mapping elevation-snow cover relationships.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 4;786:147363. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Geosciences, Universität Potsdam, Germany.

The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which covers a wide range of climatic and topographic settings, provides an ideal venue to explore the relationship between climate and topography. While the distribution of snow and glaciers is spatially and temporally heterogeneous, there exist regions with similar elevation-snow relationships. In this work, we construct elevation-binned snow-cover statistics to analyze 3415 watersheds and 7357 glaciers in the UIB region. Read More

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Representation of Multiphase OH Oxidation of Amorphous Organic Aerosol for Tropospheric Conditions.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States.

Organic aerosol (OA) is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and, during transport, can experience chemical transformation with consequences for air quality and climate. Prediction of the chemical evolution of OA depends on its reactivity with atmospheric oxidants such as the OH radical. OA particles undergo amorphous phase transitions from liquid to solid (glassy) states in response to temperature changes, which, in turn, will impact its reactivity toward OH oxidation. Read More

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A bibliometric study about energy, environment, and climate change.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 211106, China.

Using the extended science citation index database (SCI) and social science citation index (SSCI) databases, this paper analyzed the characteristics of publications, research foundations, research hotspots, and the evolutionary tracks of studies in the field of energy, environment, and climate change from 1990 to 2019 using a bibliometric method. This method is useful because it involves the quantitative analysis of large amounts of literature, using mathematical and statistical method. The results showed that the United States (US), the United Kingdom (UK), and China were the countries with the most published papers in the field. Read More

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Forecasting transitions in the state of food security with machine learning using transferable features.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 27;786:147366. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Food insecurity is a growing concern due to man-made conflicts, climate change, and economic downturns. Forecasting the state of food insecurity is essential to be able to trigger early actions, for example, by humanitarian actors. To measure the actual state of food insecurity, expert and consensus-based approaches and surveys are currently used. Read More

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Introducing intense rainfall and snowmelt variables to implement a process-related non-stationary shallow landslide susceptibility analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 27;786:147360. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra "A. Desio", Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

The study objective was to derive a susceptibility model for shallow landslides that could include process-related non-stationary variables, to be adaptable to climate changes. We selected the territory of the Mont-Emilius and Mont-Cervin Mountain Communities (northern Italy) as the study area. To define summary variables related to landslide predisposing and triggering processes, we investigated the relationships between landslide occurrences and intense rainfall and snowmelt events (period 1991-2020). Read More

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Land cover and vegetation carbon stock changes in Greece: A 29-year assessment based on CORINE and Landsat land cover data.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 29;786:147408. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

University of Virginia, Engineering Systems and Environment, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA. Electronic address:

Evaluation of carbon sequestration in various land cover types is a valuable tool for environmental policies targeting towards minimization of CO emissions and climate change impacts. For the past few decades, remotely sensed information on land cover has been used as useful alternative to ground observations and has proved to be a robust tool for studying land use / land cover (LULC) changes. The present work deals with the assessment of land-cover changes in a Mediterranean country - Greece, where expected climate change impacts and desertification risk are stated to be severe. Read More

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Direct observation of spin correlations in an artificial triangular lattice Ising spin system with grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory for Mesoscopic Systems, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. and Laboratory for Multiscale Materials Experiments, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.

The triangular lattice with Ising magnetic moments is an archetypical example of geometric frustration. In the case of dipolar-coupled out-of-plane moments, the geometric frustration results in a disordered classical spin-liquid state at higher temperatures while the system is predicted to transition to an anti-ferromagnetic stripe ground state at low temperatures. In this work we fabricate artificial triangular Ising spin systems without and with uniaxial in-plane compression to tune the nature and temperature of the correlations. Read More

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Early human impacts and ecosystem reorganization in southern-central Africa.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Ministry of Civic Education and National Unity, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Modern engage in substantial ecosystem modification, but it is difficult to detect the origins or early consequences of these behaviors. Archaeological, geochronological, geomorphological, and paleoenvironmental data from northern Malawi document a changing relationship between forager presence, ecosystem organization, and alluvial fan formation in the Late Pleistocene. Dense concentrations of Middle Stone Age artifacts and alluvial fan systems formed after ca. Read More

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Carbonaceous Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalysts: From Defect and Doping-Induced Activity over Hybrid Compounds to Ordered Framework Structures.

Small 2021 May 4:e2007484. Epub 2021 May 4.

Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1): Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, Jülich, 52425, Germany.

Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is expected to be of great importance for the future energy conversion and storage in form of hydrogen by water electrolysis. Besides the traditional noble-metal or transition metal oxide-based catalysts, carbonaceous electrocatalysts are of great interest due to their huge structural and compositional variety and unrestricted abundance. This review provides a summary of recent advances in the field of carbon-based OER catalysts ranging from "pure" or unintentionally doped carbon allotropes over heteroatom-doped carbonaceous materials and carbon/transition metal compounds to metal oxide composites where the role of carbon is mainly assigned to be a conductive support. Read More

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Energy Poverty and Low Carbon Just Energy Transition: Comparative Study in Lithuania and Greece.

Soc Indic Res 2021 Apr 29:1-53. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Kaunas Faculty, Vilnius University, Muitines 8, LT-44280 Kaunas, Lithuania.

EU has set ambitious commitment to achieve low carbon energy and economy transition up to 2050. This low carbon transition means sustainable energy development path based on renewable energy sources and first of all should address the energy poverty vulnerability and justice issues. The main goal of the paper is to develop indicators framework for assessing low carbon just energy transition and to apply this framework for analysis how climate change mitigation policies in households targeting enhancement of energy renovation of residential buildings and promotion of the use of micro-generation technologies and other policies are affecting household's energy poverty and vulnerability in selected countries: Lithuania and Greece. Read More

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Dynamic modelling of Australian rooftop solar photovoltaic product stewardship transition.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 26;127:18-29. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Australia and New Zealand Recycling Platform, Auckland, New Zealand.

As rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption in Australia is exponentially growing in the past decade, there is a need to promote effective product stewardship for PV panels reaching their end-of-life (EoL). This paper presents the development of a System Dynamics (SD) model for managing EoL rooftop PV panels based on the circular economy concept. Four stages of the SD modelling process include problem scoping and variable identification, model conceptualisation, SD model development, and scenario analysis. Read More

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Genetic dissection of flowering time in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) through single- and multi-locus genome-wide association studies.

Mol Genet Genomics 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0C6, Canada.

In a rapidly changing climate, flowering time (FL) adaptation is important to maximize seed yield in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). However, our understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying FL in this multipurpose crop remains limited. Read More

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Warm early Mars surface enabled by high-altitude water ice clouds.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(18)

Aeolis Research, Chandler, AZ 85224.

Despite receiving just 30% of the Earth's present-day insolation, Mars had water lakes and rivers early in the planet's history, due to an unknown warming mechanism. A possible explanation for the >10-y-long lake-forming climates is warming by water ice clouds. However, this suggested cloud greenhouse explanation has proved difficult to replicate and has been argued to require unrealistically optically thick clouds at high altitudes. Read More

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A decade of exploring MXenes as aquatic cleaners: Covering a broad range of contaminants, current challenges and future trends.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 16;279:130587. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Environmental Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India, 741246; Centre for Climate and Environmental Studies, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal, 741246, India. Electronic address:

Clean water, the elixir of life, is of tremendous importance in achieving environmental sustainability and the balanced functioning of our ecosystem. Coupled with population growth, several anthropogenic activities and environmental catastrophes have together contributed to an alarming increase in the concentration of toxic pollutants in water bodies. Diversified physiochemical conditions of water matrices, ranging from mining drainage to seawater, is the critical challenge in designing adsorbents. Read More

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Regional Policies Targeting Residential Solid Fuel and Agricultural Emissions Can Improve Air Quality and Public Health in the Greater Bay Area and Across China.

Geohealth 2021 Apr 1;5(4):e2020GH000341. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science School of Earth and Environment University of Leeds Leeds UK.

Air pollution exposure is a leading public health problem in China. The majority of the total air pollution disease burden is from fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, with smaller contributions from ozone (O) exposure. Recent emission reductions have reduced PM exposure. Read More

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Chromosome-level genome assembly of the hard-shelled mussel Mytilus coruscus, a widely distributed species from the temperate areas of East Asia.

Gigascience 2021 Apr;10(4)

International Research Center for Marine Biosciences, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, 999 Huchenghuan Road, Shanghai 201306, China.

Background: The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) is widely distributed in the temperate seas of East Asia and is an important commercial bivalve in China. Chromosome-level genome information of this species will contribute not only to the development of hard-shelled mussel genetic breeding but also to studies on larval ecology, climate change biology, marine biology, aquaculture, biofouling, and antifouling.

Findings: We applied a combination of Illumina sequencing, Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing, and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture technologies to construct a chromosome-level genome of the hard-shelled mussel, with a total length of 1. Read More

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Adapting the environmental risk transition theory for urban health inequities: An observational study examining complex environmental riskscapes in seven neighborhoods in Global North cities.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 3;277:113907. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, ICTA-Edifici Z, Bellatera, Spain; Hospital Del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Carrer Del Dr. Aiguader, 88, Barcelona, Spain; Barcelona Lab for Urban Environmental Justice and Sustainability (BCNUEJ), Carrer Del Dr. Aiguader, 88, Room 112.02, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Theories of epidemiologic transition analyze the shift in causes of mortality due to changes in risk factors over time, and through processes of urbanization and development by comparing risk factors between countries or over time. These theories do not account for health inequities such as those resulting from environmental injustice, in which minority and lower income residents are more likely to be exposed to environmental hazards or have less access to environmental goods. Neighborhoods with histories of environmental injustice are also at risk for gentrification as they undergo environmental improvements and new greening projects. Read More

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Working from home, quality of life, and perceived productivity during the first 50-day COVID-19 mitigation measures in Austria: a cross-sectional study.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: To explore changes in quality of life and perceived productivity, focusing on the effects of working from home during the first COVID-19 50-day mitigation period in Austria.

Methods: We conducted an Austrian-representative online survey (N = 1010) of self-reported life- and work-related changes during the first COVID-19 50-day mitigation period (March 16 through May 1 2020) compared to the situation before. We used multinominal logistic regression models to identify correlates of improved/decreased quality of life in the entire sample, and of improved/decreased productivity in a subsample of the working population (N = 686). Read More

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Pathways to "5-a-day": modeling the health impacts and environmental footprints of meeting the target for fruit and vegetable intake in the United Kingdom.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre on Climate Change and Planetary Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption in the United Kingdom is currently well below recommended levels, with a significant associated public health burden. The United Kingdom has committed to reducing its carbon emissions to net zero by 2050, and this transition will require shifts towards plant-based diets.

Objective: The aim was to quantify the health effects, environmental footprints, and cost associated with 4 different pathways to meeting the United Kingdom's "5-a-day" recommendation for fruit and vegetable consumption. Read More

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Diets benefiting health and climate relate to longevity in northern Sweden.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Diets combining adequate nutritional quality and low climate impact are highly needed for human and planet health.

Objectives: We aimed to 1) evaluate nutrient density indexes' ability to predict mortality, and 2) assess the effects of diets varying in nutrient density and climate impact on total mortality.

Methods: Dietary data from 49,124 women and 47,651 men aged 35-65 y in the population-based prospective study Västerbotten Intervention Programme (Sweden) were used. Read More

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Termination of Solar Cycles and Correlated Tropospheric Variability.

Earth Space Sci 2021 Apr 2;8(4):e2020EA001223. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

National Center for Atmospheric Research High Altitude Observatory Boulder CO USA.

The Sun provides the energy required to sustain life on Earth and drive our planet's atmospheric circulation. However, establishing a solid physical connection between solar and tropospheric variability has posed a considerable challenge. The canon of solar variability is derived from the 400 years of observations that demonstrates the waxing and waning number of sunspots over an 11(-ish) year period. Read More

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The forensic landscape and the population genetic analyses of Hainan Li based on massively parallel sequencing DNA profiling.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Due to the formation of the Qiongzhou Strait by climate change and marine transition, Hainan island was isolated from the mainland southern China during the Last Glacial Maximum. Hainan island, located at the southernmost part of China and separated from the Leizhou Peninsula by the Qiongzhou Strait, laid on one of the modern human northward migration routes from Southeast Asia to East Asia. The Hlai language-speaking Li minority, the second largest population after Han Chinese in Hainan island, is the direct descendants of the initial migrants in Hainan island and has unique ethnic properties and derived characteristics; however, the forensic-associated studies on Hainan Li population are still insufficient. Read More

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Building up an ecologically sustainable and socially desirable post-COVID-19 future.

Sustain Sci 2021 Apr 5:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Resource Wisdom, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.

COVID-19 crisis has emphasized how poorly prepared humanity is to cope with global disasters. However, this crisis also offers a unique opportunity to move towards a more sustainable and equitable future. Here, we identify the underlying environmental, social, and economic chronic causes of the COVID-19 crisis. Read More

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Evidence of a rapid phosphorus-induced regime shift in a large deep reservoir.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 30;782:146755. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, 700 Moreno Avenue, La Verne, CA 91750, USA.

Ecological regime shift studies in freshwater systems are mainly limited to shallow lakes and reservoirs, while abrupt changes in deeper lakes are often attributed to climate change. Here, we demonstrate the application of regime shift theory to one of California's newest and deepest reservoirs, Diamond Valley Lake (DVL), which in recent years showed an unexpected rapid departure from its water quality conditions of the previous decade. The reservoir shifted from a well oxygenated condition with low phytoplankton growth to a hypoxic, phytoplankton-dominated turbid system. Read More

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Using mounting, orientation, and design to improve bat box thermodynamics in a northern temperate environment.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7728. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, H9X 2E3, Canada.

Wildlife managers design artificial structures, such as bird houses and bat boxes, to provide alternative nesting and roosting sites that aid wildlife conservation. However, artificial structures for wildlife may not be equally efficient at all sites due to varying climate or habitat characteristics influencing thermal properties. For example, bat boxes are a popular measure employed to provide compensatory or supplementary roost sites for bats and educate the public. Read More

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Key periods of peatland development and environmental changes in the middle taiga zone of Western Siberia during the Holocene.

Ambio 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Research Education Center of Environmental Dynamics and Climate Change (UNESCO Chair), Yugra State University, Chekhova str. 16, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia, 628007.

The response of peatlands to climate change can be highly variable. Through understanding past changes we can better predict the response of peatlands to future climate change. We use a multi-proxy approach to reconstruct the surface wetness and carbon accumulation of the Mukhrino mire (Western Siberia), describing the development of the mire since peat formation in the early Holocene, around 9360 cal. Read More

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Increased functional diversity warns of ecological transition in the Arctic.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Apr 7;288(1948):20210054. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway.

As temperatures rise, motile species start to redistribute to more suitable areas, potentially affecting the persistence of several resident species and altering biodiversity and ecosystem functions. In the Barents Sea, a hotspot for global warming, marine fish from boreal regions have been increasingly found in the more exclusive Arctic region. Here, we show that this shift in species distribution is increasing species richness and evenness, and even more so, the functional diversity of the Arctic. Read More

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Rapid deforestation of a coastal landscape driven by sea-level rise and extreme events.

Ecol Appl 2021 Apr 4:e02339. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Biology, Duke University, Box 90338, Durham, North Carolina, 27708, USA.

Climate change is driving ecological shifts in coastal regions of the world, where low topographic relief makes ecosystems particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise, salinization, storm surge, and other effects of global climate change. The consequences of rising water tables and salinity can penetrate well inland, and lead to particularly dramatic changes in freshwater forested wetlands dominated by tree species with low salt tolerance. The resulting loss of coastal forests could have significant implications to the coastal carbon cycle. Read More

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In-use emissions and usage trend of pellet heating stoves in rural Yangxin, Shandong Province.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 17;280:116955. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Biomass Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Center, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, PR China.

The use of coal in Chinese households for winter heating emits harmful pollutants that severely affect indoor air quality and climate. Therefore, China has made efforts to transition into clean heating using improved heating stoves and biomass pellets. Although the economic and policy implications of such demonstration projects have been extensively investigated, little has been done to understand the real-world performance and adoption trends of such stoves. Read More

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The Relative Contributions of Different Chemical Components to the Oxidative Potential of Ambient Fine Particles in Nanjing Area.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 10;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Siegwerk Shanghai Ltd., Shanghai 201108, China.

Ambient fine particles (PM) have been shown to have adverse health effects by inducing oxidative stress. Here, dithiothreitol (DTT)-based oxidative potential (OP) was used to assess the capacity of oxidative stress caused by PM. In this study, PM samples were collected in the Nanjing area in 2016, and physicochemical properties and DTT activity were investigated. Read More

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