Eur J Orthod 2003 Apr;25(2):139-48
Developmental Biology Programme, Institute of Biotechnology, and Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontics, Institute of Dentistry, University of Helsinki, Finland.
The development and growth of the skull is a co-ordinated process involving many different tissues that interact with each other to form a complex end result. When normal development is disrupted, debilitating pathological conditions, such as craniosynostosis (premature calvarial suture fusion) and cleidocranial dysplasia (delayed suture closure), can result. It is known that mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3(FGFR1, 2, and 3), as well as the transcription factors MSX2 and TWIST cause craniosynostosis, and that mutations in the transcription factor RUNX2 (CBFA1) cause cleidocranial dysplasia. Read More