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Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of arsenic transformed from feed additive organoarsenicals around chicken farms on the North China Plain.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 31;278:130438. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050061, PR China; Key Laboratory of Groundwater Remediation of Hebei Province and China Geological Survey, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050061, PR China. Electronic address:

Arsenic is frequently found in poultry waste, most of which is transformed from feed additive organoarsenicals, resulting in arsenic pollution of soils and water around poultry farms. The North China Plain, an important area for livestock breeding of China, was chosen to investigate the pollution characteristics and assess the health risk of arsenic around chicken farms. Among the 138 chicken farms sampled, almost no roxarsone, a common organoarsenical, was detected in chicken feeds, manure, and surface soils, while the detectable rate of other arsenic species was high. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of the physicochemical properties of zinc oxide sources on their bioavailability in broilers.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

UMR BOA, INRAE, Université de Tours, F-37380, Nouzilly, France.

The bioavailability of a trace mineral source is related to its intestinal solubility (bioaccessibility), which in turn is determined by its physicochemical properties. It is still not clear which characteristics are more relevant in affecting solubility and bioavailability of mineral sources. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a common feed additive used to supplement zinc in the diet of monogastric animals. Read More

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Microalgae as feed ingredients: recent developments on their role in immunomodulation and gut microbiota of aquaculture species.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 Jun;368(11)

Reliance Technology Group, Reliance Industries Limited, Reliance Corporate Park, Ghansoli, Thane-Belapur Road, Navi Mumbai 400701, India.

Microalgae are rapidly evolving alternative ingredients in food and feed. Desirable nutritional and functional qualities make them high potential sources of feed ingredients. Certain microalgae species are known to accumulate large amounts of protein, containing all essential amino acids while some species contain essential fatty acids and bioactive compounds hence offering several possible health benefits. Read More

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Rumen Microbiota of Tibetan Sheep () Adaptation to Extremely Cold Season on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:673822. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized by low temperatures and hypoxia, and this feature is more obvious in the winter. However, it is not clear how Tibetan sheep adapt to extreme cold climates. To address this, we used physiological methods combined with next-generation sequencing technology to explore the differences in growth performance, forage nutrient digestion, serum biochemical indexes, and rumen microbial communities of Tibetan sheep () between the summer and winter. Read More

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Effect of low and high concentrate supplementation on health and welfare indicators in different breeds in small-scale mountain dairy farms.

J Dairy Res 2021 May;88(2):139-146

Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitätsplatz 5, 39100Bolzano, Italy.

We investigated and compared the effects of low and high concentrate supplementation in terms of animal welfare, health and reproductive performance in two different dairy cow breeds on small-scale mountain farms. 64 South Tyrolean dairy farms were evaluated using an on-farm assessment for animal-based and resource-based welfare indicators, data from test day records, and a questionnaire for the farmer. Farms were divided into four groups: low input Tyrolean Grey (L-TG), low input Brown Swiss (L-BS), high input Tyrolean Grey (H-TG) and high input Brown Swiss (H-BS). Read More

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Assessing effects of dietary and milking frequency changes and injection of cabergoline during dry-off on hunger in dairy cows using 2 feed-thwarting tests.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark. Electronic address:

We investigated the single and combined effects of 2 feeding levels (normal lactation diet vs. energy-reduced diet, both fed for ad libitum intake) and 2 daily milking frequencies (twice vs. once) during 1 wk before the dry-off day (d 0), as well as an intramuscular injection of either a dopamine agonist (cabergoline; Velactis, Ceva Santé Animale; labeled for use only with abrupt dry-off, e. Read More

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On the necessity of recurrent processing during object recognition: it depends on the need for scene segmentation.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

While feed-forward activity may suffice for recognizing objects in isolation, additional visual operations that aid object recognition might be needed for real-world scenes. One such additional operation is figure-ground segmentation; extracting the relevant features and locations of the target object while ignoring irrelevant features. In this study of 60 human participants (female and male), we show objects on backgrounds of increasing complexity to investigate whether recurrent computations are increasingly important for segmenting objects from more complex backgrounds. Read More

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Bioactive peptides from microalgae: Focus on anti-cancer and immunomodulating activity.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Ås, Norway.

In addition to the rapidly expanding field of using microalgae for food and feed, microalgae represent a tremendous potential for new bioactive compounds with health-promoting effects. One field where new therapeutics is needed is cancer therapy. As cancer therapy often cause severe side effects and loose effect due to development of drug resistance, new therapeutic agents are needed. Read More

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ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: New frontiers in calf and heifer nutrition-From conception to puberty.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Animal Biosciences, Animal Science and Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 1Y2. Electronic address:

Dairy calf nutrition is traditionally one of the most overlooked aspects of dairy management, despite its large effect on the efficiency and profitability of dairy operations. Unfortunately, among all animals on the dairy farm, calves suffer from the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. These challenges have catalyzed calf nutrition research over the past decade to mitigate high incidences of disease and death, and improve animal health, growth, welfare, and industry sustainability. Read More

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Large variations in indirect NO emission factors (EF) from coastal aquaculture systems in China from plot to regional scales.

Water Res 2021 Jul 5;200:117208. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, P.R. China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control (AEMPC), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing 210044, China; Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AB, UK. Electronic address:

Aquaculture ponds are important anthropogenic sources of nitrous oxide (NO). Direct NO emissions arising from feed application to ponds have been widely investigated, but indirect emissions from NO production from residual feeds in pond water are much less understood and characterized to refine the IPCC emission factor. In this study, we determined the concentrations and spatiotemporal variations of dissolved NO and NO-N in situ in three aquaculture ponds at the Min River Estuary in southeastern China during the culture period over two years, and calculated the indirect NO emission factor (EF) for aquaculture ponds using the NO-N/NO-N mass ratio methodology. Read More

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The Trypanosome UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Is Imported by Piggybacking into Glycosomes, Where Unconventional Sugar Nucleotide Synthesis Takes Place.

mBio 2021 May 28:e0037521. Epub 2021 May 28.

Université de Bordeaux CNRS, Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité (MFP), UMR 5234, Bordeaux, France.

Glycosomes are peroxisome-related organelles of trypanosomatid parasites containing metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and biosynthesis of sugar nucleotides, usually present in the cytosol of other eukaryotes. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP), the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the sugar nucleotide UDP-glucose, is localized in the cytosol and glycosomes of the bloodstream and procyclic trypanosomes, despite the absence of any known peroxisome-targeting signal (PTS1 and PTS2). The questions that we address here are (i) is the unusual glycosomal biosynthetic pathway of sugar nucleotides functional and (ii) how is the PTS-free UGP imported into glycosomes? We showed that UGP is imported into glycosomes by piggybacking on the glycosomal PTS1-containing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and identified the domains involved in the UGP/PEPCK interaction. Read More

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Variations in bacterial taxonomic profiles and potential functions in response to the gut transit of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) feeding on cow manure.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 29;787:147392. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

CAS Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100000, China. Electronic address:

Earthworms play an important role in the organic matter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Earthworms interact directly with the microorganisms to affect the organic matter decomposition via gut transit, i.e. Read More

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September 2021

Gut-brain communication and obesity: understanding functions of the vagus nerve.

J Clin Invest 2021 May;131(10)

Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen, Germany.

Given the crucial role of the gastrointestinal tract and associated organs in handling nutrient assimilation and metabolism, it has long been known that its communication with the brain is important for the control of ingestive behavior and body weight regulation. It is also clear that gut-brain communication is bidirectional and utilizes both rapid neural and slower humoral mechanisms and pathways. However, progress in understanding these mechanisms and leveraging them for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease has been hindered by the enormous dimension of the gut mucosa, the complexity of the signaling systems, and lack of specific tools. Read More

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Daily variation of macronutrient concentrations in mature human milk over 3 weeks.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10224. Epub 2021 May 13.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Adelaide, Australia.

Human milk (HM) composition is known to be highly variable, both between individuals and across the duration of lactation. It is less clear, however, to what extent fat, lactose and protein concentrations in HM change daily over shorter time periods in mature HM, and no studies have evaluated this to date. The aim of this study was to systematically assess and compare HM macronutrient concentrations in samples collected at different times of day, from left and right breasts and daily across a 3-week period in the same woman. Read More

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Clinical Findings in Healthy Dogs Fed With Diets Characterized by Different Carbohydrates Sources.

Front Vet Sci 2021 22;8:667318. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

In recent years, pet owners have become more interested in the ingredients, and quality of pet-food, and several studies have demonstrated that feed management could affect healthy status. Recently, some authors indicated that commercial diets formulated without cereals, or using unconventional protein, and starch sources, can cause a reduction in taurine levels in both whole blood, and plasma. Nevertheless, the specific mechanism by means of which nutritional factors determine this reduction is not completely clear. Read More

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Contrasting the assembly of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a polluted semi-closed sea: Effects of marine compartments and environmental selection.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;285:117256. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Coastal Ecosystem, National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian, 116023, China.

Understanding the underlying mechanisms of community assembly is a major challenge in microbial ecology, particularly in communities composed of diverse organisms with different ecological characteristics. However, very little is known about the effects of marine compartments in shaping marine planktonic communities; primarily, how they are related to organism types and environmental variables. In this study, we used multiple statistical methods to explore the mechanisms driving phytoplankton and zooplankton metacommunity dynamics at the regional scale in the Bohai Sea, China. Read More

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Photoperiod affects the laying performance of the mountain duck by regulating endocrine hormones and gene expression.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Waterfowl Healthy Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, China.

Light mainly affects animal reproductive performance through the hypothalamus- pituitary-gonadal axis, but the specific regulating mechanism is not yet clear in duck. To reveal the effects of light on the laying performance of ducks and its possible regulatory mechanisms, Shanma ducks at 52 weeks age were divided into three group treated with different photoperiods of 16 hr (control group), 24 hr (long-photoperiod group, LP), and 8 hr (short-photoperiod group, SP). Laying performance, endocrine-related hormones and gene expression of three groups were compared. Read More

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Diet Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Better Options Than Nil Per Os.

Crohns Colitis 360 2020 Oct 17;2(4). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Hospitalizations are a time when providers often have uncertainty about what to feed patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While there are many trials evaluating the role of diet in the management of IBD, the role of diet for the hospitalized patient is less clear. The hospitalization may serve as an opportunity to educate patients about the role of diet, try different diets, and develop dietary recommendations for after discharge. Read More

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October 2020

The effects of dietary calcium and phosphorus level, and feed form during rearing on growth performance, bone traits and egg production in brown egg-type pullets from 0 to 32 weeks of age.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 16;100(6):101130. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Trouw Nutrition R&D, Poultry Research Centre, El Viso de San Juán, Toledo, 45950, Spain.

In a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, effects of feed form (crumbles (CWS), mash (MWS), both with inclusion of 3% finely ground wheat straw, or crumbles with inclusion of 3% oat hulls (COH)), and dietary Ca and P (high and low Ca-P) from 0 to 16 wk of age were studied on growth performance, bone characteristics, and gizzard development of egg-type pullets. The cross-over effect of feeding strategy during rearing on laying performance and egg shell quality was studied from 19 to 32 wk of age. From 0 to 16 wk, ADG, ADFI, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved with CWS and COH compared to MWS, but ADG and FCR were improved with MWS compared to CWS and COH from 11 to 16 wk. Read More

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Invited Review: Maintain or Improve Piglet Gut Health around Weanling: The Fundamental Effects of Dietary Amino Acids.

Authors:
Shengfa F Liao

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.

Gut health has significant implications for swine nutrient utilization and overall health. The basic gut morphology and its luminal microbiota play determinant roles for maintaining gut health and functions. Amino acids (AA), a group of essential nutrients for pigs, are not only obligatory for maintaining gut mucosal mass and integrity, but also for supporting the growth of luminal microbiota. Read More

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Composition and properties of bovine milk: A case study from dairy farms in Northern Sweden; Part II. Effect of monthly variation.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7015, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

This study investigated the influence of monthly variation on the composition and properties of raw farm milk collected as part of a full-scale cheese-making trial in a region in northern Sweden. In our companion paper, the contribution of on-farm factors to the variation in milk quality attributes is described. In total, 42 dairy farms were recruited for the study, and farm milk samples were collected monthly over 1 yr and characterized for quality attributes of importance for cheese making. Read More

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Dual sensor measurement shows that temperature outperforms pH as an early sign of aerobic deterioration in maize silage.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8686. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Agricultural Engineering, The University of Bonn, 53115, Bonn, Germany.

High quality silage containing abundant lactic acid is a critical component of ruminant diets in many parts of the world. Silage deterioration, a result of aerobic metabolism (including utilization of lactic acid) during storage and feed-out, reduces the nutritional quality of the silage, and its acceptance by animals. In this study, we introduce a novel non-disruptive dual-sensor method that provides near real-time information on silage aerobic stability, and demonstrates for the first time that in situ silage temperature (T) and pH are both associated with preservation of lactic acid. Read More

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Invited review: A 2020 perspective on pasture-based dairy systems and products.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 15;104(7):7364-7382. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Food For Health Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin D04 V1W8, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork P61 C996, Ireland; School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork T12 K8AF, Ireland. Electronic address:

Grazing pasture is the basis for dairy production systems in regions with temperate climates, such as in Ireland, New Zealand, parts of Australia, the United States, and Europe. Milk and dairy products from cows on pasture-based farms predominantly consuming fresh grazed grass (typically classified as "grass-fed" milk) have been previously shown to possess a different nutrient profile, with potential nutritional benefits, compared with conventional milk derived from total mixed ration. Moreover, pasture-based production systems are considered more environmentally and animal welfare friendly by consumers. Read More

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First Bites-Why, When, and What Solid Foods to Feed Infants.

Front Pediatr 2021 26;9:654171. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Humans are the only mammals who feed our young special complementary foods before weaning and we are the only primates that wean our young before they can forage independently. There appears to be a sensitive period in the first several months of life when infants readily accept a wide variety of tastes and this period overlaps with a critical window for oral tolerance. As a result, infants should be exposed to a wide variety of flavors while mother is pregnant, while mother is nursing and beginning at an early age. Read More

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Can current farmland landscapes feed declining steppe birds? Evaluating arthropod abundance for the endangered little bustard () in cereal farmland during the chick-rearing period: Variations between habitats and localities.

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 2;11(7):3219-3238. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Terrestrial Ecology Group (TEG) Department of Ecology, Research Center on Biodiversity and Global Change Autónoma University of Madrid Madrid Spain.

Agriculture intensification threatens farmland bird populations because, among other reasons, it reduces the availability of food resources required to rear their offspring. In our study, we sampled and analyzed total arthropod abundance, biomass and richness, and orthopteran and coleopteran abundance and biomass in different agricultural habitats (alfalfa fields, stubble fields, grazed fields, and field margins) across 4 study localities with different levels of agriculture abandonment-intensification, comparing between areas used and not used by one of the most threatened farmland birds in Europe, the little bustard (), during the chick-rearing season. Field margins were the taxonomically richest habitat, while alfalfa fields presented significantly higher total arthropod abundance and biomass than other habitats. Read More

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A metabolic CRISPR-Cas9 screen in Chinese hamster ovary cells identifies glutamine-sensitive genes.

Metab Eng 2021 Jul 1;66:114-122. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability at the University of California, San Diego, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, USA; National Biologics Facility, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark. Electronic address:

Media and feed optimization have fueled many-fold improvements in mammalian biopharmaceutical production, but genome editing offers an emerging avenue for further enhancing cell metabolism and bioproduction. However, the complexity of metabolism, involving thousands of genes, makes it unclear which engineering strategies will result in desired traits. Here we present a comprehensive pooled CRISPR screen for CHO cell metabolism, including ~16,000 gRNAs against ~2500 metabolic enzymes and regulators. Read More

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Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in Plants Grown in Salty Soil in Response to Inoculation with Halophilic Bacteria.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 31;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

Soil salinity is an increasing problem facing agriculture in many parts of the world. Climate change and irrigation practices have led to decreased yields of some farmland due to increased salt levels in the soil. Plants that have tolerance to salt are thus needed to feed the world's population. Read More

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Effects of Feed Supplementation on Nesfatin-1, Insulin, Glucagon, Leptin, T3, Cortisol, and BCS in Milking Ewes Grazing on Semi-Natural Pastures.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, via Gentile III da Varano, 62032 Camerino, Italy.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of feed supplementation on body condition score (BCS) and different metabolic hormones concentration in lactating sheep reared in Italian Central Apennine pastures during the grazing summer period. In this study, 24 Comisana x Appenninica pluriparous ewes from June until August were divided into two homogenous groups: the control group (UNS) was free to graze, while the other group (SUP), in addition to grazing, was supplemented with 600 g/day/head of cereals. At the start of the supplementation and at an interval of 9-10 days until the end of experimentation, BCS evaluation and blood withdrawal to assay nesfatin-1, insulin, glucagon, leptin, triiodothyronine and cortisol levels were performed. Read More

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Cadherins in early neural development.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 May 1;78(9):4435-4450. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Institute for Stem Cell Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Little France Drive, Edinburgh, EH16 4UU, UK.

During early neural development, changes in signalling inform the expression of transcription factors that in turn instruct changes in cell identity. At the same time, switches in adhesion molecule expression result in cellular rearrangements that define the morphology of the emerging neural tube. It is becoming increasingly clear that these two processes influence each other; adhesion molecules do not simply operate downstream of or in parallel with changes in cell identity but rather actively feed into cell fate decisions. Read More

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Anthropogenic edges impact howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) feeding behaviour in a Costa Rican rainforest.

Primates 2021 Jul 1;62(4):647-657. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biology, Regis University, Denver, CO, 80221, USA.

Anthropogenic forest fragmentation impacts many aspects of animal behaviour, including feeding ecology. With forests increasingly fragmented in tropical regions due to human development, the proportion of forest edge (≤ 100 m from clear-cut regions) is higher relative to forest interior. Forest edges differ in vegetation from interior, making it important to better understand how anthropogenic edges impact the feeding behaviour of primates such as mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Read More

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