135 results match your criteria claw hammer

Foot deformities in patients with diabetic mellitus (with and without peripheral neuropathy).

J Tissue Viability 2021 04 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Nursing, University of Malaga, Spain; Biomedical Research Institute (IBIMA), 29010, Malaga, Spain.

Background: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus. It is the disorder that most commonly affects the feet of people with diabetes. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between DPN and the presence of deformities in the foot. Read More

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Claw Toe: Anatomic Guide for Injection of Botulinum Toxin into Foot Muscles.

Can J Neurol Sci 2021 Mar 26:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Poor response to injection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) into the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) muscle has been reported especially in patients with claw foot deformity. We previously advocated BoNT injection into the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle in such patients. Here, we determined the functional and anatomical relationships between FHL and FDL. Read More

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Percutaneous flexor digitorum brevis tenotomy: An anatomical study.

Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

MIFAS by GRECMIP (Minimally Invasive Foot and Ankle Society), Merignac, France; Institut de la Cheville et du Pied, 136bis rue Blomet, 75015 Paris, France; Centre Médico-chirurgical Universitaire du Pied - CHU Pellegrin, 33076 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: A percutaneous selective flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) tenotomy and a proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrolysis may correct a lesser claw toe deformity keeping flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and active flexion. Our study aimed to verify if the procedure was effective and reliable and if it respects the surrounding soft tissues.

Material And Method: Twelve cadaveric lateral toes were used. Read More

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[Needle-based flexor tenotomies performed by diabetologists in routine clinics - simple and safe].

Lakartidningen 2021 02 9;118. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

docent, överläkare, VE endokrinologi, VO EHRÖ, Skånes universitetssjukhus, Lund; institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper i Lund, Lunds universitet.

Deformities such as hammer and claw toes are common in people with diabetes and neuropathy. These deformities increase pressure on the tip of toes, leading to callosity and subsequent pressure ulcers. Conventional flexor tenotomy has been shown to decrease the risk of pressure ulcers. Read More

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February 2021

Podoscopic classification of second toe deformities.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Sep 29. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Clinique de l'Union, Centre de Chirurgie du Pied et de la Cheville, Saint-Jean, France. Electronic address:

Background: The AFCP (French Association of Foot Surgery) classification was recently introduced as a reliable and quick visual method for the assessment of sagittal plane deformities of the second toe. The aim of this study was four-fold: (1) to describe a new toe-ground area score (TAS) as an additional dynamic tool of such classification, (2) to verify whether all second toe deformities could be classified, (3) to assess the TAS intra- and inter-observer reliability and (4) to evaluate the TAS learning curve.

Methods: In this retrospective study 52 s toes were evaluated using a podoscope. Read More

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September 2020

[Research progress of interphalangeal arthrodesis].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Sep;34(9):1195-1199

Department of Ankle Surgery, Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, 200065, P.R.China.

Objective: To review the research progress of interphalangeal arthrodesis in the treatment of interphalangeal joint deformity.

Methods: The literature about interphalangeal arthrodesis at home and abroad was extensively consulted, and the indications, fusion methods, fixation methods, complications, and so on were summarized and analysed.

Results: The indications of interphalangeal arthrodesis are hammer toe, claw toe, and mallet toe. Read More

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September 2020

Minimally Invasive Advances: Lesser Toes Deformities.

Foot Ankle Clin 2020 Sep 11;25(3):461-478. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

GRECMIP-MIFAS (Groupe de Recherche en Chirurgie Mini-Invasive du Pied-Minimally Invasive Foot and Ankle Society), 2 rue Negrevergne, Merignac 33700, France; Hospital Ortopédico, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Minimally invasive procedures to treat lesser toes deformities are among the main surgeries of percutaneous techniques and considered mature techniques due to technical versatility and high correction potential, with low rates of complications. Although they seem technically simple procedures, there are important technical details for each of them to obtain a reliable correction. To achieve success in lesser toes percutaneous treatment, it is imperative to follow minimally invasive basic principles, especially postoperative care with specific bandages for unfixed osteotomies. Read More

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September 2020

Neuropathy, claw toes, intrinsic muscle volume, and plantar aponeurosis thickness in diabetic feet.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Jul 23;21(1):485. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

RR&D Center for Limb Loss and MoBility, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between claw toe deformity, peripheral neuropathy, intrinsic muscle volume, and plantar aponeurosis thickness using computed tomography (CT) images of diabetic feet in a cross-sectional analysis.

Methods: Forty randomly-selected subjects with type 2 diabetes were selected for each of the following four groups (n = 10 per group): 1) peripheral neuropathy with claw toes, 2) peripheral neuropathy without claw toes, 3) non-neuropathic with claw toes, and 4) non-neuropathic without claw toes. The intrinsic muscles of the foot were segmented from processed CT images. Read More

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Multi-System Factors Associated with Metatarsophalangeal Joint Deformity in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

J Clin Med 2020 Apr 3;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, 4444 Forest Park Ave., St. Louis, MO 63108, USA.

The underlying factors contributing to metatarsophalangeal joint deformity, a known precursor to skin breakdown in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), is likely to involve multiple body systems. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify multi-system factors associated with metatarsophalangeal joint deformity in individuals with type 2 DM and peripheral neuropathy ( = 60). Metatarsophalangeal joint deformity was quantified with a computed tomography (CT) scan. Read More

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Ideal implant choice for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in hammer toe/claw toe deformity correction: A systematic review.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2020 Jan-Apr;28(1):2309499020911168

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

Intramedullary devices have been developed to reduce the problems associated with Kirschner (K)-wire fixation in proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis. The purpose of this systematic review is to compare the surgical outcomes of K-wires versus novel internal fixation devices in PIPJ arthrodesis in claw/hammer toe surgery. The databases searched were PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Embase with keywords "claw toe OR hammer toe" AND "proximal interphalangeal OR PIP" AND "fusion OR arthrodesis. Read More

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December 2020

The effect of needle tenotomy on hammer, mallet and claw toe deformities in patients with diabetes, a retrospective study.

J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2019 Dec 12;18:100208. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Niels Steensens Vej 2, 2820 Gentofte, Denmark.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of needle tenotomies as a treatment option for hammer, mallet and claw toes in patients with diabetes.

Methods: This was a retrospective study where all patients receiving flexor tendon tenotomy by needle at our outpatient clinic were identified through the electronic patient record system.

Results: A total of 81 patients that had 106 tenotomy procedures performed were identified. Read More

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December 2019

The Effect of Percutaneous Flexor Tenotomy on Healing and Prevention of Foot Ulcers in Patients With Claw Deformity of the Toe.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2019 Nov;58(6):1134-1137

Surgeon, Department of Vascular Surgery, Rijnstate Hospital Arnhem, Arnhem, TA, the Netherlands.

Claw deformity of the foot is frequently seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. Percutaneous flexor tenotomy is a simple surgical procedure for the treatment of foot ulcers on the distal end of the toe caused by this deformity. This procedure can also be performed to prevent ulcers in claw toes that are at risk of ulceration. Read More

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November 2019

Treatment of metatarsalgia based on claw toe deformity through soft tissue release of the metatarsophalangeal joint and resection of the proximal interphalangeal joint: Evaluation based on foot kinematics and plantar pressure distribution.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Oct 27;26(7):755-762. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: This study investigated the effect of operative claw toe correction with release of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, repositioning of the plantar fat pad and resection of the proximal interphalangeal joint on foot kinematics, plantar pressure distribution and Foot Function Index (FFI).

Methods: Prospective experimental study with pretest-posttest design. The plantar pressure, 3D foot kinematics and the FFI of 15 patients with symptomatic claw toes were measured three months before and 12months after surgery. Read More

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October 2020

Forefoot disorders and conservative treatment.

Yeungnam Univ J Med 2019 05 14;36(2):92-98. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Forefoot disorders are often seen in clinical practice. Forefoot deformity and pain can deteriorate gait function and decrease quality of life. This review presents common forefoot disorders and conservative treatment using an insole or orthosis. Read More

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Prevalence and Associates of Foot Deformities among Patients with Diabetes in Jordan.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2020 ;16(5):471-482

National Centre of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, people with foot deformities, among patients with diabetes in Jordan.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 diabetic participants recruited from the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics in Jordan. Participants had their feet clinically examined to detect the following foot deformity outcomes: Hallux valgus, claw/hammer toe, prominent metatarsal heads, limited joint mobility, pes cavus, Charcot foot, and amputations. Read More

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Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the AFCP classification for sagittal plane deformities of the second toe.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Aug 29;26(6):650-656. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Centre du Pied, Marseille, France.

Background: The French Association of Foot Surgery (AFCP) recently proposed a morphological classification of lesser toe deformities, describing the position of each joint (metatarsophalangeal or MTP, proximal interphalangeal or PIP and distal interphalangeal or DIP) in relation to their anatomic position in the sagittal plane. A study was designed to test its reliability for assessment of sagittal plane deformities of the second toe.

Methods: In this retrospective study 55 toes (55 feet, 50 patients) were evaluated. Read More

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The efficacy of an intramedullary nitinol implant in the correction of claw toe or hammertoe deformities.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2019 Dec 17;139(12):1681-1690. Epub 2019 May 17.

Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology Department, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Av. Pio XII 36, 31008, Pamplona, Spain.

Introduction: A multitude of procedures has been described in the literature for the treatment of lesser toe deformities and there is currently no general consensus on the optimal method of fixation. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of an intramedullary nitinol implant for the correction of lesser toe deformities, and to determine if the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint are modified during patient follow-up after correction of the PIP joint.

Materials And Methods: A prospective analysis of 36 patients with claw toe or hammertoe who were treated with an intramedullary nitinol implant. Read More

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December 2019

[Degenerative forefoot : Diagnostics and treatment].

Z Rheumatol 2019 Apr;78(3):255-264

Orthopädische Klinik der Universität Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Kaiser-Karl-V.-Allee 3, 93077, Bad Abbach, Deutschland.

The hallux valgus deformity is the most common toe deformity of the forefoot and is often associated with a splayfoot. Malpositioning of the small toes may be isolated but are more common in other foot deformities. The understanding of the complex pathoanatomy of the foot is necessary for orthopedic treatment. Read More

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Claw toe.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2018 Oct;62 Suppl 1:126

Department of Radiology, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, New South Wales, Australia.

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October 2018

gene mutation causing Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathy in a Portuguese family.

Acta Myol 2018 May 1;37(1):2-4. Epub 2018 May 1.

Consulta de Doenças Neuromusculares, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Praceta Mota Pinto, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal.

gene encodes a non-opioid endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein which is involved in a large diversity of cell functions and is expressed ubiquitously in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Alterations of its normal function may contribute to two different phenotypes: juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS 16) and distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN). We present the case of a female patient, of 37-years-old, with distal muscle weakness and atrophy beginning in childhood and slowly progressive in the first two decades of life. Read More

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Microanatomy of the digestive tract, hooves and some visceral organs of addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus) following a concentrate or forage feeding regime.

Anat Histol Embryol 2018 Jun 8;47(3):254-267. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Subacute ruminal acidosis is a common disease in captive non-domesticated ruminants and is mainly diagnosed by rumen fluid pH and rumen histology. Furthermore, differences in ruminant gastrointestinal histology have been hypothesized to correlate with the browser-grazer continuum. Twelve surplus addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus) were divided into two groups, fed either their usual diet, consisting of a concentrate feed with a limited amount of hay, or a diet of unlimited hay only, for 3 months. Read More

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Outcomes of Resection and Joint-Preserving Arthroplasty for Forefoot Deformities for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Foot Ankle Int 2018 03 7;39(3):292-299. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Background: We investigated the clinical outcomes of resection and joint-preserving arthroplasty for forefoot deformities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Methods: Sixteen feet of 14 women (average age, 67.1 years; range, 53-82) underwent resection arthroplasty of the metatarsal head (resection group), and 18 feet of 15 women (average age, 61. Read More

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Effectiveness of the Cobb-Stainsby excision arthroplasty.

Foot Ankle Surg 2018 Feb 25;24(1):49-53. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Derriford Hospital, Derriford Road, Crownhill, Plymouth, Devon PL6 8DH, United Kingdom.

Background: Dislocated metatarsophalangeal joints from clawed or hammer toes can be a disabling consequence of several conditions. The Cobb-Stainsby forefoot arthroplasty combines partial phalangectomy (Stainsby) with extensor tendon transfer to the metatarsal head (Cobb). We present a retrospective, three surgeon case series of 215 toes in 126 patients. Read More

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February 2018

Conservative Management of Metatarsalgia and Lesser Toe Deformities.

Foot Ankle Clin 2018 Mar 11;23(1):9-20. Epub 2017 Nov 11.

Foot and Ankle Division, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2301 Erwin Road, Box 3000, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

There are several forefoot conditions that can result in metatarsal head pain. Various points of the gait cycle can predispose the metatarsal heads to pain based on intrinsic and extrinsic imbalances. Metatarsalgia can further be classified according to primary, secondary, or iatrogenic etiologies. Read More

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Treatment of Flexible Lesser Toe Deformities.

Foot Ankle Clin 2018 Mar 12;23(1):69-90. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Centre du Pied, 68, rue du Commandant Rolland, Marseille 13008, France.

Lesser toe deformities are among the most common complaints presented to foot and ankle specialists. These deformities present in variable ways, which makes surgical decision making complex. For every type of deformity, there could be a combination of soft tissues and bony procedures, chosen according to the surgeon's preferences. Read More

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Managing Complications of Lesser Toe and Metatarsophalangeal Joint Surgery.

Phinit Phisitkul

Foot Ankle Clin 2018 Mar 28;23(1):145-156. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Private practice, 942 Forest Edge Cir, Coralville 52241, USA. Electronic address:

The anatomy of the lesser toes is highly complicated and not yet well understood. The high propensity of the metatarsophalangeal joint to develop hyperextension deformity should be recognized. Surgeons should provide each patient with a realistic expectation for lesser toe reconstructive procedures. Read More

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A Prospective Study of Distal Metatarsal Chevron Osteotomies with K-Wire Fixations to Treat Hallux Valgus Deformities.

Cureus 2017 Sep 20;9(9):e1704. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Department of Orthopaedics, Poole Hospital, Poole, United Kingdom.

Introduction Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot deformities worldwide. Females are affected more often than males. The three most common clinical symptoms are the painful bunion, transfer metatarsalgia, and hammer or claw toes. Read More

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September 2017

Foot problems in older women.

F Guidozzi

Climacteric 2017 Dec 21;20(6):518-521. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Witwatersrand , Parktown, Johannesburg , South Africa.

Between 20 and 45% of women aged over 65 years of age will develop one or more foot problems, which, although not specific to older women, are more common in that age group than in younger women. These include structural defects of the toes including hallux valgus, hammer, mallet or claw toes, skin disorders, fungal infection of the toes and toe nails, thickened toe nails, ulcers, fissures or cracks between the toes, corns and calluses, flat or high-arched feet. Foot pain is common and may be associated with other co-morbid diseases of the foot. Read More

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December 2017

The pathology and management of lesser toe deformities.

EFORT Open Rev 2016 Nov 13;1(11):409-419. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Foot & Ankle Unit, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, HA7 4LP, UK.

Deformities of the lesser toes are common and can be associated with significant morbidity. These deformities are often multiple, and numerous treatment strategies have been described in the literature.The goal of surgical treatment is to improve symptoms by restoring alignment and function, and avoiding recurrence. Read More

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November 2016

Effectiveness of foot fasciotomies in foot and ankle trauma.

J R Army Med Corps 2017 Oct 23;163(5):324-328. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Department of Orthopaedics, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Ft. Sam Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Foot compartment syndrome (FCS) has been reported to cause neuropathic pain, claw or hammer toes, and motor and sensory disturbances. The optimal treatment of FCS is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine if foot fasciotomies improve patient outcomes in high-energy, combat-related lower extremity trauma. Read More

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October 2017