308,946 results match your criteria classification diseases

The Future of Nephrology and Public Health.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-12. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

The study of kidney diseases has been described since the Hippocratic era, but nephrology as a medical specialty dates from the mid-20th century. Despite all interesting aspects of nephrology, there is a lack of interest by young physicians for the specialty worldwide. Great discoveries have been made throughout the years, leading to great achievements in diagnosis, classification, and treatment of kidney diseases. Read More

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Label-free diagnosis of breast cancer based on serum protein purification assisted surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 28;263:120234. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; School of opto-electronic and Communication Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Serum protein is generally used to assess the severity of disease, as well as cancer progression and prognosis. Herein, a simple and rapid serum proteins analysis method combined with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology was applied for breast cancer detection. The cellulose acetate membrane (CA) was employed to extract human serum proteins from 30 breast cancer patients and 45 healthy volunteers and then extracted proteins were mixed with silver nanoparticles for SERS measurement. Read More

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Rigid motion invariant statistical shape modeling based on discrete fundamental forms data from the osteoarthritis initiative and the Alzheimer' disease neuroimaging initiative.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 15;73:102178. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Zuse Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

We present a novel approach for nonlinear statistical shape modeling that is invariant under Euclidean motion and thus alignment-free. By analyzing metric distortion and curvature of shapes as elements of Lie groups in a consistent Riemannian setting, we construct a framework that reliably handles large deformations. Due to the explicit character of Lie group operations, our non-Euclidean method is very efficient allowing for fast and numerically robust processing. Read More

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A CNN model embedded with local feature knowledge and its application to time-varying signal classification.

Neural Netw 2021 Jul 22;142:564-572. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Computer Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China.

A novel convolutional neural network is proposed for local prior feature embedding and imbalanced dataset modeling for multi-channel time-varying signal classification. This model consists of a single-channel signal feature parallel extraction unit, a multi-channel signal feature integration unit, a local feature embedding and feature similarity measurement unit, a full connection layer, and a Softmax classifier. An algorithm combining dynamic clustering and sliding window was used to select segments signals with typical local features in each pattern class, forming a typical local feature set. Read More

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Early Alzheimer's disease diagnosis with the contrastive loss using paired structural MRIs.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Jul 22;208:106282. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic and fatal neurodegenerative disease with progressive impairment of memory. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) has been widely applied as important biomarkers of AD. Various machine learning approaches, especially deep learning-based models, have been proposed for the early diagnosis of AD and monitoring the disease progression on sMRI data. Read More

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Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 31:108972. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Boden Institute, University of Sydney, Australia.

Executive Summary This document updates the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of diabetes. It prioritizes clinical care and guides health professionals in choosing appropriate treatments at the time of diabetes diagnosis, and provides practical guidance to clinicians in assigning a type of diabetes to individuals at the time of diagnosis. It is a compromise between clinical and aetiological classification because there remain gaps in knowledge of the aetiology and pathophysiology of diabetes. Read More

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DOPE: D-Optimal Pooling Experimental design with application for SARS-CoV-2 screening.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Public Health, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objective: Testing individuals for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is crucial for curtailing transmission chains. Moreover, rapidly testing many potentially infected individuals is often a limiting factor in controlling COVID-19 outbreaks. Hence, pooling strategies, wherein individuals are grouped and tested simultaneously, are employed. Read More

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Advances in the genetic classification of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience (SITraN), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Department of Genetics Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA Department of Neurology, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre and Dementia Unit, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an archetypal complex disease wherein disease risk and severity are, for the majority of patients, the product of interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors. We are in a period of unprecedented discovery with new large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) and accelerating discovery of risk genes. However, much of the observed heritability of ALS is undiscovered and we are not yet approaching elucidation of the total genetic architecture, which will be necessary for comprehensive disease subclassification. Read More

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Depression, Anxiety, and Other Mental Disorders in Patients With Cancer in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Jul;7:1233-1250

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Cancer is a growing public health issue in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs), but the mental health consequences in this setting have not been well-characterized. We aimed to systematically evaluate the available literature on the prevalence, associates, and treatment of mental disorders in patients with cancer in LLMICs.

Methods: We systematically searched Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Read More

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Cytologic analysis of vitreous fluids: A retrospective review of our 24 years of experience.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee Medical Center Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Cytologic analysis of vitreous fluid is an important component in diagnosis of vitreitis. No standard reporting guidelines exist for these specimens. This study chronicles our 24 years experience and proposes a tentative diagnostic model. Read More

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Human biological variation and the "normal".

Joseph L Graves

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Aug 3:e23658. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Joint School of Nanosciences & Nanoengineering, North Carolina A&T State University, UNC Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA.

Anatomically modern human being is a relatively young species (~300 000 years old) with small amounts of genetic variation contained within them. The vast majority of its existence was spent in Eastern Africa, migration out of the region began around 100 000 YBP. Sub-Saharan African populations have the greatest amount of human genetic variation. Read More

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[Twelve years of research domain criteria in psychiatric research and practice: claim and reality].

Nervenarzt 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg, 68159, Mannheim, Deutschland.

The research domain criteria (RDoC) initiative of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) was presented 12 years ago. The RDoC provides a matrix for the systematic, dimensional and domain-based study of mental disorders that is not based on established disease entities as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The primary aim of RDoC is to understand the nature of mental health and illness in terms of different extents of dysfunction in psychological/biological systems with interconnected diagnoses. Read More

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[Causes of visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease].

Nico J Diederich

Nervenarzt 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Abteilung für Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, 4, rue Barblé, 1210, Luxemburg-Stadt, Luxemburg.

Background: Visual hallucinations (VH) have mainly been considered as late symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, minor forms of VH also occur in early stages of the disease. Initially dopaminergic overstimulation was discussed as the cause and later on VH have been considered as an early red flag of dementia in PD.

Objective: The present study analyzed whether the pathophysiological concept of VH has been enlarged in recent years. Read More

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Factors Associated With State-Specific Medicaid Expansion and Receipt of Autologous Breast Reconstruction Among Patients Undergoing Mastectomy.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2119141. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Section of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor.

Importance: Despite demonstrated psychosocial benefits, autologous breast reconstruction remains underutilized. An analysis of the association between Medicaid expansion and autologous breast reconstruction has yet to be performed.

Objective: To compare autologous breast reconstruction rates and determine the association between Medicaid expansion and breast reconstruction. Read More

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Identification of oral precancerous and cancerous tissue by swept source optical coherence tomography.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Micro-Scale Optical Information Science and Technology, Tianjin, China.

Background And Objectives: Distinguishing cancer from precancerous lesions is critical and challenging in oral medicine. As a noninvasive method, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the advantages of real-time, in vivo, and large-depth imaging. Texture information hidden in OCT images can provide an important auxiliary effect for improving diagnostic accuracy. Read More

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Red cell distribution width is a potential predictor of early relapse in polymyalgia rheumatica.

Reumatismo 2021 Aug 3;73(2):117-121. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale UPO, Novara; Division of Internal Medicine, Immunorheumatology Unit, "Maggiore della Carità" Hospital, Novara; CAAD, Centre for Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases, Novara.

Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been studied as a prognostic biomarker for different chronic inflammatory diseases. In this paper we aim to evaluate its potential role in the prediction of early relapse in patients affected by polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). We revised retrospectively clinical records of patients who received a diagnosis of PMR, according to 2012 ACR/EULAR classification criteria, for whom baseline clinical and laboratory data were available. Read More

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Fimepinostat (CUDC-907) in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B cell and high-grade B-cell lymphoma: report of a phase 2 trial and exploratory biomarker analyses.

Br J Haematol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Fimepinostat (CUDC-907), a first-in-class oral small-molecule inhibitor of histone deacetylase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, demonstrated efficacy in a phase 1 study of patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large and high-grade B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL/HGBL), particularly those with increased MYC protein expression and/or MYC gene rearrangement/copy number gain (MYC-altered disease). Therefore, a phase 2 study of fimepinostat was conducted in this patient population with 66 eligible patients treated. The primary end-point of overall response (OR) rate for patients with MYC-IHC ≥40% (n = 46) was 15%. Read More

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Natural Products as a Source of Inspiration for Novel Inhibitors of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) Formation.

Planta Med 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Natural Products & Food Research and Analysis (NatuRA), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Protein glycation, a post-translational modification found in biological systems, is often associated with a core defect in glucose metabolism. In particular, advanced glycation endproducts are complex heterogeneous sugar-derived protein modifications implicated in the progression of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetic complications, skin diseases, rheumatism, hypertension, and neurodegenerative diseases. Undoubtedly, there is the need to expand the knowledge about antiglycation agents that can offer a therapeutic approach in preventing and treating health issues of high social and economic importance. Read More

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Three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a complementary tool to multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the identification of aggressive prostate cancer at 3.0T.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Aug;11(8):3749-3766

ImViA Laboratory, EA-7535, Training and Research Unit in Health Sciences, University of Bourgogne/Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.

Background: The limitations of the assessment of tumor aggressiveness by Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and biopsies suggest that the diagnostic algorithm could be improved by quantitative measurements in some chosen indications. We assessed the tumor high-risk predictive performance of 3.0 Tesla (3. Read More

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Unicentric Castleman disease: multidetector computed tomography classification with surgical and pathologic correlation.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Aug;11(8):3562-3568

Department of Radiology, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: This study aimed to correlate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) classification of unicentric Castleman disease with the surgical and pathologic features.

Methods: The imaging manifestations of 63 cases of unicentric Castleman disease confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Every patient underwent an MDCT examination. Read More

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tRNA-derived fragments as New Hallmarks of Aging and Age-related Diseases.

Aging Dis 2021 Aug 1;12(5):1304-1322. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

1Institute of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China.

tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), which are non-coding RNAs produced via tRNA cleavage with lengths of 14 to 50 nucleotides, originate from precursor tRNAs or mature tRNAs and exist in a wide range of organisms. tRFs are produced not by random fracture of tRNAs but by specific mechanisms. Considerable evidence shows that tRFs are detectable in model organisms of different ages and are associated with age-related diseases in humans, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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Identifying COVID-19 by using spectral analysis of cough recordings: a distinctive classification study.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Jul 29:1-15. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Avrasya University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey.

Sound signals from the respiratory system are largely taken as tokens of human health. Early diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases is of great importance because, if delayed, it exerts irreversible effects on human health. The Coronavirus pandemic, which is deeply shaking the world, has revealed the importance of this diagnosis even more. Read More

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Lipoprotein (a) level as a risk factor for stroke and its subtype: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 2;11(1):15660. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

The role of lipoprotein-A [Lp (a)] as a risk factor for stroke is less well documented than for coronary heart disease. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for the published observational studies in order to investigate the association of Lp (a) levels with the risk of stroke and its subtypes. In our meta-analysis, 41 studies involving 7874 ischemic stroke (IS) patients and 32,138 controls; 13 studies for the IS subtypes based on TOAST classification and 7 studies with 871 Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) cases and 2865 control subjects were included. Read More

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Clinical classification systems and long-term outcome in mid- and late-stage Parkinson's disease.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2021 Aug 2;7(1):66. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurology, Lund, Sweden.

Parkinson's disease shows a heterogeneous course and different clinical subtyping systems have been described. To compare the capabilities of two clinical classification systems, motor-phenotypes, and a simplified clinical motor-nonmotor subtyping system, a cohort was included at mean 7.9 ± 5. Read More

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Impact of Histological Subtype on Survival in Canine Mammary Carcinomas: a Retrospective Analysis of 155 Cases.

J Comp Pathol 2021 Jul 7;186:23-30. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Small Animal Tumor Diagnostic Center, Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Canine mammary carcinoma (CMC) is the most common type of neoplasm in intact female dogs. While a previous study in Western countries validated the 2011 classification as an independent prognostic indicator in CMC, its role in CMC prognostication in Asian countries such as Korea remains unclear. In the present study, we estimate the survival rates in CMC types defined by the 2011 classification, elucidate the prognostic significance of the histological subtype and grade and that of the lymphatic invasion status in CMC, and validate the 2011 classification as an independent prognostic indicator in a large cohort of CMCs (excluding cases of multicentric CMCs). Read More

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Quantifying Parkinson's disease motor severity under uncertainty using MDS-UPDRS videos.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 21;73:102179. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305, USA; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a brain disorder that primarily affects motor function, leading to slow movement, tremor, and stiffness, as well as postural instability and difficulty with walking/balance. The severity of PD motor impairments is clinically assessed by part III of the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), a universally-accepted rating scale. However, experts often disagree on the exact scoring of individuals. Read More

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Artificial intelligence for classification of temporal lobe epilepsy with ROI-level MRI data: A worldwide ENIGMA-Epilepsy study.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 24;31:102765. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany; Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pediatric and Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Artificial intelligence has recently gained popularity across different medical fields to aid in the detection of diseases based on pathology samples or medical imaging findings. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a key assessment tool for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The role of machine learning and artificial intelligence to increase detection of brain abnormalities in TLE remains inconclusive. Read More

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Disproportionate Use in Minor Trauma Is Driving Emergency Department Cervical Spine Imaging: An Injury Severity Score-Based Analysis.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Purpose: Clinical practice guidelines intended to reduce unnecessary cervical spine imaging have yielded mixed results. We aimed to assess evolving emergency department (ED) cervical spine imaging utilization in patients with trauma by injury severity.

Methods: Using 2009 to 2018 IBM MarketScan Commercial Databases, we identified ED trauma encounters, associated cervical spine imaging, and related diagnosis codes. Read More

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A novel 4-mRNA signature predicts the overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia.

Am J Hematol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive cancer of myeloid cells with high levels of heterogeneity and great variability in prognostic behaviors. Cytogenetic abnormalities and genetic mutations have been widely used in the prognostic stratification of AML to assign patients into different risk categories. Nevertheless, nearly half of intermediate-risk AML patients need more precise prognostic schemes. Read More

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High-throughput Interpretation of Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor Short-read Sequencing Data with PING.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Aug 2;17(8):e1008904. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

The killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) complex on chromosome 19 encodes receptors that modulate the activity of natural killer cells, and variation in these genes has been linked to infectious and autoimmune disease, as well as having bearing on pregnancy and transplant outcomes. The medical relevance and high variability of KIR genes makes short-read sequencing an attractive technology for interrogating the region, providing a high-throughput, high-fidelity sequencing method that is cost-effective. However, because this gene complex is characterized by extensive nucleotide polymorphism, structural variation including gene fusions and deletions, and a high level of homology between genes, its interrogation at high resolution has been thwarted by bioinformatic challenges, with most studies limited to examining presence or absence of specific genes. Read More

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