203,109 results match your criteria classical

One march, many paths: Insights into allergic march trajectories.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Allergy and Immunology and Center for Pediatric Eosinophilic Disorders, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Institute for Immunology and Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The classical allergic march model posits that atopy begins in infancy with atopic dermatitis and progresses to asthma and allergic rhinitis in a subset of individuals. The growing prevalence and severity of allergic diseases has prompted renewed interest in refining this model. This review outlines epidemiologic evidence for the existence of allergic march trajectories (distinct paths of atopy development in individuals), reviews the roles that genetics, environment, and disease endotypes play in determining trajectory outcomes, and discusses the clinical utility of the trajectory model. Read More

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Virus shedding kinetics and unconventional virulence tradeoffs.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009528. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Tradeoff theory, which postulates that virulence provides both transmission costs and benefits for pathogens, has become widely adopted by the scientific community. Although theoretical literature exploring virulence-tradeoffs is vast, empirical studies validating various assumptions still remain sparse. In particular, truncation of transmission duration as a cost of virulence has been difficult to quantify with robust controlled in vivo studies. Read More

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Mitigation of endemic GI-tract pathogen-mediated inflammation through development of multimodal treatment regimen and its impact on SIV acquisition in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009565. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Resource, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America.

Here, we assessed the efficacy of a short-course multimodal therapy (enrofloxacin, azithromycin, fenbendazole, and paromomycin) to eliminate common macaque endemic pathogens (EPs) and evaluated its impact on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, mucosal integrity, and local and systemic inflammation in sixteen clinically healthy macaques. Treatment combined with expanded practices resulted in successful maintenance of rhesus macaques (RM) free of common EPs, with no evidence of overt microbiota diversity loss or dysbiosis and instead resulted in a more defined luminal microbiota across study subjects. Creation of a GI pathogen free (GPF) status resulted in improved colonic mucosal barrier function (histologically, reduced colonic MPO+, and reduced pan-bacterial 16s rRNA in the MLN), reduced local and systemic innate and adaptive inflammation with reduction of colonic Mx1 and pSTAT1, decreased intermediate (CD14+CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-CD16+), reduced populations of peripheral dendritic cells, Ki-67+ and CD38+ CD4+ T cells, Ki-67+IgG+, and Ki-67+IgD+ B cells indicating lower levels of background inflammation in the distal descending colon, draining mesenteric lymph nodes, and systemically in peripheral blood, spleen, and axillary lymph nodes. Read More

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Identifying and elucidating the roles of Y198N and Y204F mutations in the PAH enzyme through molecular dynamic simulations.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 10:1-12. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. In phenylketonuria causes various symptoms including severe mental retardation. PAH gene of a classical Phenylketonuria patient was sequenced, and two novel heterozygous mutations, p. Read More

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Theoretical study of the vibrational properties of L-alanine and its zwitterionic form in the gas phase and in solution.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratoire de Structure Elaboration et Application aux Matériaux Moléculaires SEA2M, Université Abdelhamid Ibn Badis-Mostaganem, Mostaganem, Algeria.

Theoretical calculations have been performed to study the structures of L-alanine and its zwitterionic form in the gas phase and in solution. The energies and the vibrational frequencies of the L-alanine in both neutral and zwitterionic form have been calculated using HF, MP2, CCSD and density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP hybrid exchange correlation functional with different basis sets. The conductor-like solvation model of the polarizable continuum model (CPCM) has been used to compute energies, geometric structures and harmonic frequencies in solution for the L-alanine and its zwitterionic form. Read More

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Association of inbreeding and regional equine leucocyte antigen homozygosity with the prevalence of insect bite hypersensitivity in Old Kladruber horse.

Anim Genet 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska cesta 25, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia.

Inbreeding depression is the reduction of performance caused by mating of close relatives. In livestock populations, inbreeding depression has been traditionally estimated by regression of phenotypes on pedigree inbreeding coefficients. This estimation can be improved by utilising genomic inbreeding coefficients. Read More

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Improved creatinine-based early detection of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany.

Objectives: This study aims to improve early detection of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) compared to classical clinical scores.

Methods: Data from 7633 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2008 and 2018 in our institution were analysed. CSA-AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Read More

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Using the E1A Minigene Tool to Study mRNA Splicing Changes.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 22(170). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas;

mRNA processing involves multiple simultaneous steps to prepare mRNA for translation, such as 5´capping, poly-A addition and splicing. Besides constitutive splicing, alternative mRNA splicing allows the expression of multifunctional proteins from one gene. As interactome studies are generally the first analysis for new or unknown proteins, the association of the bait protein with splicing factors is an indication that it can participate in mRNA splicing process, but to determine in what context or what genes are regulated is an empirical process. Read More

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Extending the Classical Continuum Theory to Describe Water Flow through Two-Dimensional Nanopores.

Langmuir 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, China.

Water flow through two-dimensional nanopores has attracted significant attention owing to the promising water purification technology based on atomically thick membranes. However, the theoretical description of water flow in nanopores based on the classical continuum theory is very challenging owing to the pronounced entrance/exit effects. Here, we extend the classical Hagen-Poiseuille equation for describing the relationship between flow rate and pressure loss in laminar tube flow to two-dimensional nanopores. Read More

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Psychometric evaluation of the Swedish self-rated 36-item version of WHODAS 2.0 for use in psychiatric populations - using classical test theory.

Nord J Psychiatry 2021 May 9:1-8. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Swedish version of the self-rated 36-item WHODAS 2.0 in patients from Swedish psychiatric outpatient settings, using classical test theory.

Methods: The 36-item WHODAS 2. Read More

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Vessel Segmentation from Volumetric Images: A Multi-scale Double-pathway Network with Class-balanced Loss at the Voxel Level.

Med Phys 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Xi'an Key Lab of Radiomics and Intelligent Perception, School of Information Sciences and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710069, China.

Purpose: Vessel segmentation from volumetric medical images is becoming an essential pre-step in aiding the diagnosis, guiding the therapy and patient management for vascular-related diseases. Deep learning-based methods have drawn many attentions, but most of them did not fully utilize the multi-scale spatial information of vessels. To address this shortcoming, we propose a multi-scale network similar to the well-known multi-scale DeepMedic. Read More

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Double-negative (DN) B Cells: an under-recognized effector memory B cell subset in autoimmunity.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking University People's Hospital & Beijing Key Laboratory for Rheumatism Mechanism and Immune Diagnosis (BZ0135), Beijing, China.

Human B cells could be divided into four classical subsets based on CD27 and IgD expression. Distinct from the other three well-studied subsets, CD27 IgD B cells, also termed as double-negative (DN) B cells, have long been neglected. Yet in recent years, emerging evidence show that DN B cells are unique memory B cells with important functions. Read More

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Reflection on modern methods: understanding bias and data analytical strategies through DAG-based data simulations.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Infectiology, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) are increasingly used in epidemiology to identify and address different types of bias. The present work aims to demonstrate how DAG-based data simulation can be used to understand bias and compare data analytical strategies in an educational context. Examples based on classical confounding situations and an M-DAG are examined and used to introduce basic concepts and demonstrate some important features of regression analysis, as well as the harmful effect of adjusting for a collider variable. Read More

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Choice of Pole and Ski Lengths Among Elite Cross-Country Skiers: The Influence of Sex and Performance Level.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 22;3:654864. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Centre for Elite Sports Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Cross-country (XC) skiers employ whole-body exercise to generate speed through poles and skis. The choice of optimal pole and ski lengths are therefore of high importance. The aim of this study was to document pole and ski lengths among elite male and female cross-country skiers in the classical and skating styles and to investigate sex differences in body-height-normalized pole and ski lengths. Read More

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Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type with extensive cardiopulmonary involvement.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Mar 23;11:e2021246. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Patologia. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is a rare type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which usually presents with extranodal involvement and affects the nasal/upper aerodigestive tract in the classical presentation. Herein, we report the case of a 31-year-old, previously healthy, male patient diagnosed with ENKTL-NT with the involvement of the lung parenchyma and heart. Unfortunately, due to the rapid disease progression, the diagnosis was performed only at the autopsy. Read More

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Camrelizumab monotherapy leading to partial remission for relapsed upper tract urothelial carcinoma after radical nephroureterectomy: a case report.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1821-1826

Department of Urology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare malignant disease, and while locally advanced non-metastatic UTUC can be cured by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), this procedure leaves patients at high risk of relapse and death from cancer. Though the FDA has currently approved five agents for the systemic immunotherapy treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients, the effect of immunotherapy in patients with recurrent UTUC still lacks specific evidence. Camrelizumab is a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor which has been approved for the treatment of recurrent or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in China and have achieved improvement in a verity of solid tumors with manageable safety profile. Read More

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Narrative review on Morbus Fabry: diagnosis and management of cardiac manifestations.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):650-660

2nd Department of Internal Cardiovascular Medicine, General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder due to reduced or undetectable α-galactosidase A (AGAL-A) enzyme activity caused by pathogenic variants in the AGAL-A gene (). Tissue and organ changes are caused by widespread progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb) and globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb). The classical form of FD is multisystemic with cutaneous (angiokeratomas), neurological (peripheral neuropathy, premature stroke), renal (proteinuria and renal insufficiency), and cardiac involvement. Read More

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Role of probiotics in prevention and treatment of enteric infections: a comprehensive review.

3 Biotech 2021 May 27;11(5):242. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan, Himachal Pradesh India.

Microorganisms that inhabits human digestive tract affect global health and enteric disorders. Previous studies have documented the effectiveness and mode of action of probiotics and classified as human-friendly biota and a competitor to enteric pathogens. Statistical studies reported more than 1. Read More

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Successful Coil Embolization Treatment of a Large Arterioportal Fistula: A Rare Cause of Mesenteric Ischemia.

Cureus 2021 Apr 6;13(4):e14322. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Radiology, Ascension Providence/Michigan State University, Southfield, USA.

Superior mesenteric arteriovenous fistulae (SMAVF) are a rare complication from trauma or iatrogenic surgical intervention. There are less than 50 cases reported in the literature and no clear guidelines as to the best practices for diagnosis and treatment. SMAVF are often asymptomatic but can present with nonspecific abdominal symptoms ranging from nausea and vomiting to gastrointestinal bleeding and mesenteric ischemia. Read More

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Autoantibodies against complement component C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 29;10(4):e1279. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Internal Medicine University Hospital Basel Basel Switzerland.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the archetype of a systemic autoimmune disease, but the multifaceted pathogenic mechanisms leading to inflammation and organ damage are not fully understood. Homozygous deficiency of complement C1q, the first component of the classical pathway of complement, is strongly associated with the development of SLE, thus pointing at a primarily protective role of C1q. However, while most SLE patients do not have hereditary C1q deficiency, there is indirect evidence for the importance of C1q in the inflammatory processes of the disease, including hypocomplementemia as a result of activation via the classical pathway, deposition of C1q in affected tissues and the occurrence of autoantibodies against C1q (anti-C1q). Read More

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Cholestasis and behavioral disorders.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(2):95-107

Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Acute and chronic failure in liver function may give rise to cognitive and non-cognitive impairments in the brain, namely hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Liver diseases may cause cholestasis, which is defined as the impaired secretion of bile. It is characterized by the accumulation of substances in plasma that are normally excreted in bile such as bile acids. Read More

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January 2021

Microwave-assisted multicomponent reactions in heterocyclic chemistry and mechanistic aspects.

Beilstein J Org Chem 2021 19;17:819-865. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad 500 037, India.

Microwave-assisted (MWA) multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have successfully emerged as one of the useful tools in the synthesis of biologically relevant heterocycles. These reactions are strategically employed for the generation of a variety of heterocycles along with multiple point diversifications. Over the last few decades classical MCRs such as Ugi, Biginelli, etc. Read More

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The Role of Imaging in the Preoperative Assessment of Patients with Nasal Obstruction and Septal Deviation-A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 23;25(2):e242-e248. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

 Isolated nasal obstruction (INO) is a common complaint of multiple etiology. The preoperative evaluation of patients presenting with nasal obstruction and deviated nasal septum (DNS) does not typically include imaging. The benefits of performing computed tomography (CT) in the preoperative setting are inconclusive. Read More

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Clinical Relevance of CD4 Cytotoxic T Cells in High-Risk Neuroblastoma.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:650427. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial childhood solid tumor. The majority of high-risk neuroblastoma is resistant/refractory to the current high intensity therapy, and the survival of these patients remains poor for the last three decades. To effectively treat these extremely unfavorable neuroblastomas, innovative immunotherapy approaches would be the most promising. Read More

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Ion Transporters and Osmoregulation in the Kidney of Teleost Fishes as a Function of Salinity.

Front Physiol 2021 20;12:664588. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Euryhaline teleosts exhibit major changes in renal function as they move between freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) environments, thus tolerating large fluctuations in salinity. In FW, the kidney excretes large volumes of water through high glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and low tubular reabsorption rates, while actively reabsorbing most ions at high rates. The excreted product has a high urine flow rate (UFR) with a dilute composition. Read More

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Being the Family Caregiver of a Patient With Dementia During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Lockdown.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 20;13:653533. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Primary Care, Regional Neurogenetic Centre, Catanzaro, Italy.

Family caregivers of patients with dementia are at high risk of stress and burden, and quarantine due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have increased the risk of psychological disturbances in this population. The current study was carried out during the national lockdown declared in March 2020 by the Italian government as a containment measure of the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic and is the first nationwide survey on the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the mental health of dementia informal caregivers. Eighty-seven dementia centers evenly distributed on the Italian territory enrolled 4,710 caregiver-patient pairs. Read More

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Effects of iTBS-rTMS on the Behavioral Phenotype of a Rat Model of Maternal Immune Activation.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 21;15:670699. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurophysiology, Medical Faculty, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered a promising therapeutic tool for treating neuropsychiatric diseases. Previously, we found intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) rTMS to be most effective in modulating cortical excitation-inhibition balance in rats, accompanied by improved cortical sensory processing and sensory learning performance. Using an animal schizophrenia model based on maternal immune activation (MIA) we tested if iTBS applied to either adult or juvenile rats can affect the behavioral phenotype in a therapeutic or preventive manner, respectively. Read More

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Dopaminergic Neuromodulation of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity in Mature Adult Rodent and Human Cortical Neurons.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 22;15:668980. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Synapses in the cerebral cortex constantly change and this dynamic property regulated by the action of neuromodulators such as dopamine (DA), is essential for reward learning and memory. DA modulates spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), a cellular model of learning and memory, in juvenile rodent cortical neurons. However, it is unknown whether this neuromodulation also occurs at excitatory synapses of cortical neurons in mature adult mice or in humans. Read More

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An integrated framework with machine learning and radiomics for accurate and rapid early diagnosis of COVID-19 from Chest X-ray.

Expert Syst Appl 2021 Oct 4;180:115152. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, PO Box 1982, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia.

The objective of the research article is to propose and validate a combination of machine learning and radiomics features to detect COVID-19 early and rapidly from chest X-ray (CXR) in presence of other viral/bacterial pneumonia and at different severity levels of diseases. It is vital to assess the performance of any diagnosis method on an independent data set and at very early stage of the disease when the disease severity of is very low. In such cases, most of the diagnosis methods fail. Read More

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October 2021

Nonlinear science against the COVID-19 pandemic.

Physica D 2021 Oct 30;424:132946. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Mathematical Oncology Laboratory (MOLAB), Departamento de Matemáticas, E. T. S. I. Industriales and Instituto de Matemática Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingeniería, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain.

This special issue showcases recent uses of mathematical and nonlinear science methods in the study of different problems arising in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The sixteen original research papers included in this collection span a wide spectrum of studies including classical epidemiological models, new models accounting for COVID-19 specificities, non-pharmaceutical control measures, network models and other problems related to the pandemic. Read More

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October 2021