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Device profile of the Eversense continuous glucose monitoring system for glycaemic control in type-1 diabetes: overview of its safety and efficacy.

Expert Rev Med Devices 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Senseonics, Inc., Germantown, Maryland, US.

Introduction: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems offer real-time data to facilitate diabetes management. The novel Eversense CGM has been approved in Europe and the US. The unique characteristics are the fully implantable sensor and the sensor life up to 180 days. Read More

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September 2021

Blood glucose concentration prediction based on VMD-KELM-AdaBoost.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

School of Science, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China.

The time series of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients are time-varying, nonlinear, and non-stationary. In order to improve the accuracy of blood glucose prediction, a multi-scale combination short-term blood glucose prediction model was constructed by combining the variational mode decomposition (VMD) method, the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM), and the AdaBoost algorithm (VMD-ELM-AdaBoost). Firstly, the blood glucose concentration series were decomposed into a set of intrinsic modal functions (IMFs) with different scales by the VMD method. Read More

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September 2021

Performance assessment of DNA sequencing platforms in the ABRF Next-Generation Sequencing Study.

Nat Biotechnol 2021 09 9;39(9):1129-1140. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Assessing the reproducibility, accuracy and utility of massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms remains an ongoing challenge. Here the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) Next-Generation Sequencing Study benchmarks the performance of a set of sequencing instruments (HiSeq/NovaSeq/paired-end 2 × 250-bp chemistry, Ion S5/Proton, PacBio circular consensus sequencing (CCS), Oxford Nanopore Technologies PromethION/MinION, BGISEQ-500/MGISEQ-2000 and GS111) on human and bacterial reference DNA samples. Among short-read instruments, HiSeq 4000 and X10 provided the most consistent, highest genome coverage, while BGI/MGISEQ provided the lowest sequencing error rates. Read More

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September 2021

Isotopic Peak Index, Relative Retention Time, and Tandem MS for Automated High Throughput IGF-1 Variants Identification in a Clinical Laboratory.

Anal Chem 2021 08 17;93(34):11836-11842. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Quest Diagnostics, 33608 Ortega Highway, San Juan Capistrano, California 92690, United States.

Measuring insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is useful for assessing and managing growth-related disorders, such as acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency. High-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is used for measuring IGF-1 due to its molecular specificity, quantitative performance, well-characterized reference materials, and detailed age/sex-specific reference intervals. However, polymorphisms in the gene may cause mass shifts in the polypeptide, which can impede quantitation and cause errors in clinical interpretation. Read More

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A simulation study of ionizing radiation acoustic imaging (iRAI) as a real-time dosimetric technique for ultra-high dose rate radiotherapy (UHDR-RT).

Med Phys 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Purpose: Electron-based ultra-high dose rate radiation therapy (UHDR-RT), also known as Flash-RT, has shown the ability to improve the therapeutic index in comparison to conventional radiotherapy (CONV-RT) through increased sparing of normal tissue. However, the extremely high dose rates in UHDR-RT have raised the need for accurate real-time dosimetry tools. This work aims to demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Ionized Radiation Acoustic Imaging (iRAI) through simulation studies and investigate its characteristics as a promising relative in vivo dosimetric tool for UHDR-RT. Read More

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Flash Glucose Monitoring to Assess Glycemic Control and Variability in Hemodialysis Patients: The GIOTTO Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 30;8:617891. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Padova, Italy.

Flash glucose monitoring (FGM) is a technology with considerable differences compared to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), but it has been scarcely studied in hemodialysis patients. Thus, we aimed assessing the performance of FGM in such patients by comparison to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). We will also focus on estimation of glycemic control and variability, and their relationships with parameters of glucose homeostasis. Read More

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Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Using Optical Sensor and Machine Learning Techniques for Diabetes Applications.

IEEE Access 2021 11;9:73029-73045. Epub 2021 May 11.

Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering Department, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 USA.

Diabetes is a major public health challenge affecting more than 451 million people. Physiological and experimental factors influence the accuracy of non-invasive glucose monitoring, and these need to be overcome before replacing the finger prick method. Also, the suitable employment of machine learning techniques can significantly improve the accuracy of glucose predictions. Read More

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A Multitask Learning Approach to Personalised Blood Glucose Prediction.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jul 27;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Blood glucose prediction algorithms are key tools in the development of decision support systems and closed-loop insulin delivery systems for blood glucose control in diabetes. Deep learning models have provided leading results among machine learning algorithms to date in glucose prediction. However these models typically require large amounts of data to obtain best personalised glucose prediction results. Read More

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Causal Inference Gates Corticostriatal Learning.

J Neurosci 2021 Aug 9;41(32):6892-6904. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California 92521.

Attributing outcomes to your own actions or to external causes is essential for appropriately learning which actions lead to reward and which actions do not. Our previous work showed that this type of credit assignment is best explained by a Bayesian reinforcement learning model which posits that beliefs about the causal structure of the environment modulate reward prediction errors (RPEs) during action value updating. In this study, we investigated the brain networks underlying reinforcement learning that are influenced by causal beliefs using functional magnetic resonance imaging while human participants ( = 31; 13 males, 18 females) completed a behavioral task that manipulated beliefs about causal structure. Read More

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The effects of self-assessed health: Dealing with and understanding misclassification bias.

J Health Econ 2021 Jul 22;78:102463. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Economics, 111 Barry Street, The University of Melbourne, 3010 VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Self-assessed health (SAH) is often used in health econometric models as the key explanatory variable or as a control variable. However, there is evidence questioning its test-retest reliability, with up to 30% of individuals changing their response. Building on recent advances in the econometrics of misclassification, we develop a way to consistently estimate and account for misclassification in reported SAH by using data from a large representative longitudinal survey where SAH was elicited twice. Read More

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Phagocyte extracellular traps in children with neutrophilic airway inflammation.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Apr 21;7(2). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Monash Lung and Sleep, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Childhood lung infection is often associated with prominent neutrophilic airway inflammation and excess production of proteases such as neutrophil elastase (NE). The mechanisms responsible for this inflammation are not well understood. One potentially relevant pathway is the production of extracellular traps by neutrophils (NETs) and macrophages (METs). Read More

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Comparing performance on the Months of the Year Backwards test in hospitalised patients with delirium, dementia, and no cognitive impairment: an exploratory study.

Eur Geriatr Med 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Geriatric Medicine, Edinburgh Delirium Research Group, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Purpose: To investigate performance of the Months of the Year Backwards (MOTYB) test in older hospitalised patients with delirium, dementia, and no cognitive impairment.

Methods: Secondary analysis of data from a case-control study of 149 hospitalised patients aged ≥ 65 years with delirium [with or without dementia (N = 50)], dementia [without delirium (N = 46)], and no cognitive impairment (N = 53). Verbatim transcripts of MOTYB audio recordings were analysed to determine group differences in response patterns. Read More

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Accuracy of CGM Systems During Continuous and Interval Exercise in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2021 Jun 11:19322968211023522. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University and Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs) play an important role in the management of T1D, but their accuracy may reduce during rapid glucose excursions. The aim of study was to assess the accuracy of recent rt-CGMs available in Italy, in subjects with T1D during 2 sessions of physical activity: moderate continuous (CON) and interval exercise (IE).

Method: we recruited 22 patients with T1D, on CSII associated or integrated with a CGM, to which a second different sensor was applied. Read More

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Accuracy of Dexcom G6 Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Non-Critically Ill Hospitalized Patients With Diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipids, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA

Objective: Advances in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) have transformed ambulatory diabetes management. Until recently, inpatient use of CGM has remained investigational, with limited data on its accuracy in the hospital setting.

Research Design And Methods: To analyze the accuracy of Dexcom G6, we compared retrospective matched-pair CGM and capillary point-of-care (POC) glucose data from three inpatient CGM studies (two interventional and one observational) in general medicine and surgery patients with diabetes treated with insulin. Read More

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Backpropagation Neural Network-Based Machine Learning Model for Prediction of Blood Urea and Glucose in CKD Patients.

IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med 2021 13;9:4900608. Epub 2021 May 13.

Electronics Programme, School of Physical and Applied ScienceGoa University Taleigao 403206 India.

Diabetes mellitus and its complication such as heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, etc. is a serious concern all over the world. Hence, monitoring some important blood parameters non-invasively is of utmost importance, that too with high accuracy. Read More

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Item-Level Genome-Wide Association Study of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in Three Population-Based Cohorts.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 May 14:appiajp202020091390. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin (Mallard, Grotzinger, Harden); Department of Complex Trait Genetics, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Savage); Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis (Johnson, Anokhin, Agrawal); Department of Psychiatry (Huang, Jennings, Palmer, Sanchez-Roige) and Institute for Genomic Medicine (Palmer), University of California San Diego, La Jolla; Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond (Edwards); Department of Biological Psychiatry, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Hottenga, Nivard, de Geus, Boomsma); Department of Medicine, Division of Genetic Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn. (Gustavson, Davis, Sanchez-Roige); Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (Dick); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Edenberg) and Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics (Lai), Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis; Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City (Kramer); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, N.Y. (Meyers, Pandey); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn. (Davis); Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K. (Clarke).

Objective: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a 10-item screen for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g. Read More

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The development of a glucose prediction model in critically ill patients.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Jul 10;206:106105. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Intensive Care, Hanzeplein 2, 9713GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The aim of the current study is to develop a prediction model for glucose levels applicable for all patients admitted to the ICU with an expected ICU stay of at least 24 h. This model will be incorporated in a closed-loop glucose system to continuously and automatically control glucose values.

Methods: Data from a previous single-center randomized controlled study was used. Read More

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Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit Following Total Pancreatectomy with Islet Autotransplantation in Children: Establishing Accuracy of the Dexcom G6 Model.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 27;10(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Hyperglycemia is detrimental to postoperative islet cell survival in patients undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). This makes continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) a useful management tool. We evaluated the accuracy of the Dexcom G6 CGM in pediatric intensive care unit patients following TPIAT. Read More

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[Realization of non-invasive blood glucose detector based on nonlinear auto regressive model and dual-wavelength].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(2):342-350

College of Biological Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, P.R.China.

The use of non-invasive blood glucose detection techniques can help diabetic patients to alleviate the pain of intrusive detection, reduce the cost of detection, and achieve real-time monitoring and effective control of blood glucose. Given the existing limitations of the minimally invasive or invasive blood glucose detection methods, such as low detection accuracy, high cost and complex operation, and the laser source's wavelength and cost, this paper, based on the non-invasive blood glucose detector developed by the research group, designs a non-invasive blood glucose detection method. It is founded on dual-wavelength near-infrared light diffuse reflection by using the 1 550 nm near-infrared light as measuring light to collect blood glucose information and the 1 310 nm near-infrared light as reference light to remove the effects of water molecules in the blood. Read More

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A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial of intravenous plasma purified alpha-1 antitrypsin for SARS-CoV-2-induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised, controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 19;22(1):288. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Objectives: The primary objective is to demonstrate that, in patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 resulting in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), administration of 120mg/kg of body weight of intravenous Prolastin®(plasma-purified alpha-1 antitrypsin) reduces circulating plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Secondary objectives are to determine the effects of intravenous Prolastin® on important clinical outcomes including the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs).

Trial Design: Phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Read More

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Touch-Based Fingertip Blood-Free Reliable Glucose Monitoring: Personalized Data Processing for Predicting Blood Glucose Concentrations.

ACS Sens 2021 05 19;6(5):1875-1883. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department Nanoengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

Diabetes prevalence has been rising exponentially, increasing the need for reliable noninvasive approaches for glucose monitoring. Different biofluids have been explored recently for replacing current blood finger-stick glucose strips with noninvasive painless sensing devices. While sweat has received considerable attention, there are mixed reports on correlating the sweat results with blood glucose levels. Read More

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Incorporating real-world evidence into the development of patient blood glucose prediction algorithms for the ICU.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2021 07;28(8):1642-1650

Centre for Big Data Research in Health, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: Glycemic control is an important component of critical care. We present a data-driven method for predicting intensive care unit (ICU) patient response to glycemic control protocols while accounting for patient heterogeneity and variations in care.

Materials And Methods: Using electronic medical records (EMRs) of 18 961 ICU admissions from the MIMIC-III dataset, including 318 574 blood glucose measurements, we train and validate a gradient boosted tree machine learning (ML) algorithm to forecast patient blood glucose and a 95% prediction interval at 2-hour intervals. Read More

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The Bayesian Additive Regression Trees Formula for Safe Machine Learning-Based Intraocular Lens Predictions.

Front Big Data 2020 18;3:572134. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Mathematics, Queens College, CUNY, Queens, New York, NY, United States.

Our work introduces a highly accurate, safe, and sufficiently explicable machine-learning (artificial intelligence) model of intraocular lens power (IOL) translating into better post-surgical outcomes for patients with cataracts. We also demonstrate its improved predictive accuracy over previous formulas. We collected retrospective eye measurement data on 5,331 eyes from 3,276 patients across multiple centers who received a lens implantation during cataract surgery. Read More

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December 2020

Use of Pediatric Injectable Medicines Guidelines and Associated Medication Administration Errors: A Human Reliability Analysis.

Ann Pharmacother 2021 Mar 1:1060028021999647. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Imperial College London, UK.

Background: In a recent human reliability analysis (HRA) of simulated pediatric resuscitations, ineffective retrieval of preparation and administration instructions from online injectable medicines guidelines was a key factor contributing to medication administration errors (MAEs).

Objective: The aim of the present study was to use a specific HRA to understand where intravenous medicines guidelines are vulnerable to misinterpretation, focusing on deviations from expected practice () that contributed to large-magnitude and/or clinically significant MAEs.

Methods: Video recordings from the original study were reanalyzed to identify discrepancies in the steps required to find and extract information from the NHS Injectable Medicines Guide (IMG) website. Read More

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Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients With Insulinoma Treated by Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Ethanol Injection.

Pancreas 2021 02;50(2):183-188

From the Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of National Health Commission.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to analyze the continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) profiles of patients with insulinoma before and after treatment with endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol injection and assess the value of CGM in curative effect evaluating.

Methods: We included 8 patients, and CGM was performed for 3 to 5 days before and after treatment.

Results: The proportion of monitoring points at which the glucose level was lower than 3. Read More

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February 2021

Performance of the Intermittently Scanned Continuous Glucose Monitoring (isCGM) System during a High Oral Glucose Challenge in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes-A Prospective Secondary Outcome Analysis.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 15;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Cardiovascular Diabetology Research Group, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria.

To assess intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) performance for different rates of change in plasma glucose (RCPG) during glycemic challenges in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Nineteen people with T1D (7 females; age 35 ± 11 years; HbA 7.3 ± 0. Read More

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January 2021

Permeability coefficients and vapour pressure determination for fragrance materials.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 Apr 21;43(2):225-234. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Unit Operations Lab, Polytechnic School, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Objective: This study aims to correlate new experimental data relevant to the description of the combined evaporation/permeation process of a perfume applied onto the skin.

Methods: The vapour pressure data were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA). The Antoine constants and the Clarke and Glew parameters were determined for the same set of fragrance molecules to describe its low vapour pressures at new temperature ranges. Read More

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Effects of acute nutritional ketosis during exercise in adults with glycogen storage disease type IIIa are phenotype-specific: An investigator-initiated, randomized, crossover study.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 01 7;44(1):226-239. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Neuroimaging Center, Department of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSDIIIa) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a debranching enzyme deficiency. A subgroup of GSDIIIa patients develops severe myopathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute nutritional ketosis (ANK) in response to ketone-ester (KE) ingestion is effective to deliver oxidative substrate to exercising muscle in GSDIIIa patients. Read More

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January 2021

Validation of 3D fluoroscopy for image-guidance registration in depth electrode implantation for medically refractory epilepsy.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 05 14;163(5):1347-1354. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, QEII Health Sciences Centre and Dalhousie University, 1796 Summer Street, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Background: Frame registration is a critical step to ensure accurate electrode placement in stereotactic procedures such as stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and is routinely done by merging a computed tomography (CT) scan with the preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) examination. Three-dimensional fluoroscopy (XT) has emerged as a method for intraoperative electrode verification following electrode implantation and more recently has been proposed as a registration method with several advantages.

Methods: We compared the accuracy of SEEG electrode placement by frame registration with CT and XT imaging by analyzing the Euclidean distance between planned and post-implantation trajectories of the SEEG electrodes to calculate the error in both the entry (EP) and target (TP) points. Read More

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Data-driven detection of subtype-specific differentially expressed genes.

Sci Rep 2021 01 11;11(1):332. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Arlington, VA, 22203, USA.

Among multiple subtypes of tissue or cell, subtype-specific differentially-expressed genes (SDEGs) are defined as being most-upregulated in only one subtype but not in any other. Detecting SDEGs plays a critical role in the molecular characterization and deconvolution of multicellular complex tissues. Classic differential analysis assumes a null hypothesis whose test statistic is not subtype-specific, thus can produce a high false positive rate and/or lower detection power. Read More

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January 2021