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Crystal structures of NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the green alga Ostreococcus tauri and its evolutionary relationship with eukaryotic NADP-linked homologs.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 May 3:108898. Epub 2021 May 3.

Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Enzymology and Mechanism of Major Diseases and Key Laboratory of Biomedicine in Gene Diseases and Health of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, No.1 Beijing East Road, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, 241000, China. Electronic address:

NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases (NAD-IDHs) catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate. Previously, we identified a novel phylogenetic clade including NAD-IDHs from several algae in the type II subfamily, represented by homodimeric NAD-IDH from Ostreococcus tauri (OtIDH). However, due to its lack of a crystalline structure, the molecular mechanisms of the ligand binding and catalysis of OtIDH are little known. Read More

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Wolbachia Acquisition by Drosophila yakuba-Clade Hosts and Transfer of Incompatibility Loci Between Distantly Related Wolbachia.

Genetics 2019 Aug;212(4):1399-1419

Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, California 95616.

Maternally transmitted Wolbachia infect about half of insect species, yet the predominant mode(s) of Wolbachia acquisition remains uncertain. Species-specific associations could be old, with Wolbachia and hosts codiversifying (i.e. Read More

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Molecular-genetic characterization of human parvovirus B19 prevalent in Kerala State, India.

Virol J 2021 May 5;18(1):96. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Thiruvananthapuram, 695585, India.

Background: Human parvovirus B19V is a DNA virus, and a member of the family Parvoviridae, that causes various clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to persistent infection that is associated with different autoimmune diseases. The parvovirus B19 evolves with a very high mutation rate that is closer to those of existing RNA viruses. Globally circulating B19V is currently classified into three genotypes, but their distribution is not spatially and temporally correlated. Read More

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Large phylogenomic datasets reveal deep relationships and trait evolution in chlorophyte green algae.

Genome Biol Evol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.

The chlorophyte green algae (Chlorophyta) are species-rich ancient groups ubiquitous in various habitats with high cytological diversity, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic organisms. However, the deep phylogeny within core Chlorophyta remains unresolved, in part due to the relatively sparse taxon and gene sampling in previous studies. Here we contribute new transcriptomic data and reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of core Chlorophyta based on four large datasets up to 2698 genes of 70 species, representing 80% of extant orders. Read More

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Tremellomycetes Yeasts in Kernel Ecological Niche: Early Indicators of Enhanced Competitiveness of Endophytic and Mycoparasitic Symbionts against Wheat Pathobiota.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada.

Tremellomycetes rDNA sequences previously detected in wheat kernels by MiSeq were not reliably assigned to a genus or clade. From comparisons of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and subsequent phylogenetic analyses, the following three basidiomycetous yeasts were resolved and identified: , and an undescribed rDNA variant. The variant's clade is evolutionarily close to, but phylogenetically distinct from, the clade. Read More

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First Report of Anthracnose of American Ginseng caused by in Northeast China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12661, Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Juye Street No. 4899, Changchun, Jilin, China, 130112.

American ginseng () is a medicinal plant that is commercially cultivated in China. Anthracnose is a devastating disease of American ginseng, with annual production losses exceeding 20%. In July 2019, anthracnose of American ginseng was observed on 3-year-old plants in Fusong County, Jilin Province, China, the most important region of American ginseng. Read More

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Plasmopara viticola causing downy mildew on Vitis davidii in Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Natural Sciences, Kunsan National University, Department of Biology, 558 Daehak-ro, Gunsan, Korea (the Republic of), 54150;

Vitis davidii (Rom.Caill.) Foëx, commonly known as spine grape, is a deciduous climber native to China. Read More

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Genome-wide characterization and expression and co-expression analysis suggested diverse functions of genes in bread wheat.

Heliyon 2020 Dec 29;6(12):e05762. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

WUSCHEL-related homeobox () genes belong to the homeobox superfamily, are plant-specific and play vital functions in the growth and development. Herein, we identified a total of 43 genes in the allohexaploid (AABBDD) genome of L These genes were distributed on the various chromosomes of each subgenome (A, B and D). The phylogenetic analysis showed the clustering of TaWOXs into three clades: ancient, intermediate and modern or WUS. Read More

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December 2020

Sequence and Structural Characterization of Toll-Like Receptor 6 from Human and Related Species.

Biomed Res Int 2021 10;2021:5545183. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate immune response against various pathogens. They serve as expected targets of natural selection in those species which are adapted to habitats with contrasting pathogen burdens. Till date, sufficient literature about TLRs especially TLR6 is not available. Read More

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Electron Acceptor Availability Shapes Anaerobically Methane Oxidizing Archaea (ANME) Communities in South Georgia Sediments.

Front Microbiol 2021 14;12:617280. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Microbial Ecophysiology Group, Faculty of Biology/Chemistry, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

Anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME) mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments and are therefore important for controlling atmospheric methane concentrations in the water column and ultimately the atmosphere. Numerous previous studies have revealed that AOM is coupled to the reduction of different electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate/nitrite or Fe(III)/Mn(IV). However, the influence of electron acceptor availability on the ANME community composition in sediments remains largely unknown. Read More

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Prevalence and molecular characterization of canine parvovirus.

Vet World 2021 Mar 9;14(3):603-606. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background And Aim: Canine parvovirus (CPV) belonging to family Parvoviridae causes hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs and heavy mortality in young dogs. The virus has three structural (VP1, VP2 and VP3) and two non-structural proteins (NS1 and NS2), VP2 being highly immunogenic. This study aims to study molecular epidemiology of CPV by sequence analysis of gene to determine the prevailing antigenic type(s) in the northern regions of India. Read More

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Multi-locus phylogeny with dense Guiana Shield sampling supports new suprageneric classification of the Neotropical three-barbeled catfishes (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 28:107186. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Ichthyology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, 10024, USA.

The catfish family Heptapteridae is ubiquitous across a range of freshwater habitats from southern Mexico to northern Argentina and contains 23 genera and 228 valid species. After a century of mostly morphology-based systematic analyses of these fishes, we provide the first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis spanning most valid Heptapteridae genera (16 of 23). We examined eight of 14 valid genera in the Nemuroglanis-subclade (Heptapterini, new tribe), all valid genera in the Brachyglanis-subclade (Brachyglaniini, new tribe) and most valid Brachyglaniini species (11 of 15). Read More

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Integration drives rapid phenotypic evolution in flatfishes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(18)

Department of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.

Evolutionary innovations are scattered throughout the tree of life, and have allowed the organisms that possess them to occupy novel adaptive zones. While the impacts of these innovations are well documented, much less is known about how these innovations arise in the first place. Patterns of covariation among traits across macroevolutionary time can offer insights into the generation of innovation. Read More

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Sequence and phylogentic analysis of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia, 2012-2019.

Virol J 2021 04 30;18(1):90. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to exist in the Middle East sporadically. Thorough investigations of the evolution of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are urgently required. In the current study, we studied amplified fragments of ORF1a/b, Spike (S) gene, ORF3/4a, and ORF4b of four human MERS-CoV strains for tracking the evolution of MERS-CoV over time. Read More

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Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection within the same clade in Ecuador: A case study.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Unidad de Investigaciones en Biomedicina, Zurita & Zurita Laboratorios, Quito, Ecuador; Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador. Electronic address:

Objectives: To date, reported SARS-CoV-2 reinfection cases are mainly based on strains belonging to different clades. As the pandemic advances, a few lineages have become dominant in certain areas which has led to a new type of reinfection by extremely similar strains. Here, we report a reinfection within the same clade in a symptomatic 28-year-old-male in Quito-Ecuador. Read More

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Origin, spreading and genetic variability of chicken anemia virus.

Avian Pathol 2021 Apr 30:1-37. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sección Genética Evolutiva, Departamento de Biología Animal, Instituto de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Iguá 4225, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay.

Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a widespread pathogen that causes immunosuppression to chickens. The virus-induced immunosuppression often results in secondary infections and a sub-optimal response to vaccinations, leading to high mortality rates and significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The small circular ssDNA genome (2. Read More

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Global Analysis of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase-Dependent Small RNAs Reveals New Substrates and Functions for These Proteins and SGS3 in Arabidopsis.

Noncoding RNA 2021 Apr 27;7(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

RNA silencing pathways control eukaryotic gene expression transcriptionally or posttranscriptionally in a sequence-specific manner. In RNA silencing, the production of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) gives rise to various classes of 20-24 nucleotide (nt) small RNAs (smRNAs). In , smRNAs are often derived from long dsRNA molecules synthesized by one of the six genomically encoded RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR) proteins. Read More

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A Revised Phylogeny of the Clade Reveals Cryptic Species.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Section for GeoGenetics, GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, bygning 7, DK-1353 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The genus is taxonomically and phylogenetically challenging due to complex genomes, polyploidization and an extensive historical nomenclature, potentially hiding cryptic taxa. A straightforward interpretation of phylogenetic relationships within the section is further hindered by dominant but outdated concepts on historically identified hybrid taxa. is traditionally considered to be of hybrid origin, but the evidence for this is weak. Read More

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Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of TALE Superfamily Genes in Soybean ( L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Soybean Research Institute, National Center for Soybean Improvement, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Soybean (General, Ministry of Agriculture), State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, College of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

The three-amino-acid-loop-extension (TALE) superfamily genes broadly existed in plants, which played important roles in plant growth, development and abiotic stress responses. In this study, we identified 68 TALE (GmTALE) superfamily members. Phylogenetic analysis divided the GmTALE superfamily into the BEL1-like (BLH/BELL homeodomain) and the KNOX (KNOTTED-like homeodomain) subfamilies. Read More

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Scanning Electron Microscopic Findings on Respiratory Organs of Some Naturally Infected Dromedary Camels with the Lineage-B of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia-2018.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh 33516, Egypt.

The currently known animal reservoir for MERS-CoV is the dromedary camel. The clinical pattern of the MERS-CoV field infection in dromedary camels is not yet fully studied well. Some pathological changes and the detection of the MERS-CoV antigens by immunohistochemistry have been recently reported. Read More

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Efficacy of two vaccines against recent emergent antigenic variants of clade 2.3.2.1a highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA. Electronic address:

H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have caused outbreaks in poultry in Bangladesh since 2007. While clade 2.2. Read More

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First Report of a Leaf Blight Caused by on in Paraguay.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Camara Paraguaya de Exportadores de Cereales y Oleaginosos (CAPECO), Asunción, Paraguay;

The genus contains several fungal species known to cause diseases on plants in the Poaceae family (Klaubauf et al. 2014; Wang et al. 2019). Read More

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First report of banana bunchy top virus in banana (Musa spp.) and its eradication in Togo.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

IITA, Virology & Molecular Diagnostics, Oyo Road, Ibadan, OYO, Nigeria, PMB 5320;

Banana (including plantain; Musa spp.) is a vegetatively propagated semi-perennial crop in fields and backyard gardens in Togo. Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), caused by banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus) is the most economically important viral disease, infection of which causes severe stunting and production losses of 90-100% within two seasons. Read More

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First Report of Leaf Spot on Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Caused by Alternaria alternata in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Harbin, China;

Industrial hemp is an economically important plant with traditional uses for textiles, paper, building materials, food and medicine (Li 1974; Russo et al. 2008; Zlas et al. 1993). Read More

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First Report of Root Rot Caused by Calonectria montana on Sugar Beet in Heilongjiang Province, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Heilongjiang University, Xuefu Road 74, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China, 150080;

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important crop that has significant economic value in northern regions of China, especially in Heilongjiang Province. In October 2019, root rot was discovered on the sugar beet cultivar HDW09 in Hulan (126°64' E, 46°00' N), Heilongjiang Province, China. Read More

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Ecophysiological steps of marine adaptation in extant and extinct non-avian tetrapods.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, U.S.A.

Marine reptiles and mammals are phylogenetically so distant from each other that their marine adaptations are rarely compared directly. We reviewed ecophysiological features in extant non-avian marine tetrapods representing 31 marine colonizations to test whether there is a common pattern across higher taxonomic groups, such as mammals and reptiles. Marine adaptations in tetrapods can be roughly divided into aquatic and haline adaptations, each of which seems to follow a sequence of three steps. Read More

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Revision of the New World leafhopper tribe Faltalini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) and the evolution of brachyptery.

Authors:
James N Zahniser

Zootaxa 2021 Apr 13;4954(1):zootaxa.4954.1.1. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

USDA-APHIS-PPQ MRC-168, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, Washington DC 20013-7012 USA.

The taxonomy of the deltocephaline leafhopper tribe Faltalini (13 genera, 63 species) is revised. A key to all genera and keys to species for each genus are provided. All genera are described and at least one species of each genus is illustrated including images of the habitus, male and female genitalia, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the head, face, and other characters. Read More

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Taxonomy of the North Moroccan and Iberian species of the subgenus Amblypteraca/ (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Pimeliinae: Pimelia/).

Zootaxa 2021 Apr 20;4963(3):zootaxa.4963.3.4. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), c/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006-Madrid, Spain. Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Cambio Global CIBC-UAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, c/Darwin 2, 28049-Madrid, Spain..

The subgenus Amblypteraca Mas-Peinado, Buckley, Ruiz García-París, 2018 of Pimelia Fabricius, 1775, is restricted to the southern Iberian Peninsula and western Maghreb (northern and western Morocco). The distribution of Amblypteraca throughout the African-European edges overlaps largely with the geographic range of the subgenus Amblyptera, which is sister to the clade grouping subgenera Amblypteraca and Ecphoroma Solier, 1836. Delimiting species boundaries in the speciose genus Pimelia is often challenging, and the taxonomic status of some groups within the aforementioned subgenera is still a matter of debate. Read More

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A note on emMuraena/em emalba/em Zuiew, 1793 (Teleostei: Synbranchidae).

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 25;4949(2):zootaxa.4949.2.12. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Zoologie, Dresden, Germany..

Originally described as Muraena alba by the Russian ichthyologist Basilius Zuiew (1793) [Vasilij Fyodorovich Zuev'], the name Monopterus albus has long been used for a species of swamp eel (Synbranchidae) with a reportedly widespread occurrence in Asia (Rosen Greenwood 1976, Kottelat 2013). In recent years molecular studies have shown that Monopterus albus of authors is a species complex and several authors have recommended that up to three (Collins et al. 2002, Matsumoto et al. Read More

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sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species associated with the Georgian honeysuckle ( M. Bieb.).

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Apr;71(4)

Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Brunswick, 38124, Germany.

During an investigation of the yeast communities associated with wild fruit shrubs in Dagestan (Caucasus, Russia), four fermenting ascospore-producing yeast strains were isolated from leaves of the Georgian honeysuckle ( M. Bieb.) and from soil underneath this plant. Read More

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