BMC Nephrol 2021 Nov 21;22(1):388. Epub 2021 Nov 21.
Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Edward Ford Building (A27), Fisher Road, Camperdown, NSW, 2006, Australia.
Background: Gastro-intestinal (GI) intolerance is a frequently reported outcome in patients with kidney failure receiving maintenance dialysis and those who have received kidney transplants. Symptoms of GI intolerance (diarrhoea, constipation, bloating, abdominal pain, heart burn, and reflux) are associated with significant reduction in quality of life, morbidity, and increased used of healthcare resources. Having chronic kidney disease (CKD), together with related changes in diet and medication, may alter the gut microbiota and the microbial-derived uraemic metabolites that accumulate in kidney failure, and contribute to various complications including chronic diarrhoea, opportunistic infections, and drug-related colitis. Read More