4,811 results match your criteria civil society

Positioning the National Health Insurance for financial sustainability and Universal Health Coverage in Ghana: A qualitative study among key stakeholders.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253109. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra.

Introduction: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was introduced in 2003 to reduce "out-of-pocket" payments for health care in Ghana. Over a decade of its implementation, issues about the financial sustainability of this pro-poor policy remains a crippling fact despite its critical role to go towards Universal Health Coverage. We therefore conducted this study to elicit stakeholders' views on ways to improve the financial sustainability of the operations of NHIS. Read More

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Ultra-Processed Profits: The Political Economy of Countering the Global Spread of Ultra-Processed Foods - A Synthesis Review on the Market and Political Practices of Transnational Food Corporations and Strategic Public Health Responses.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia.

Background: Ultra-processed food (UPF) and Ultra-processed beverage (UPB) consumption is associated with higher risks of numerous non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Yet global consumption of these products is rising due to profound changes in production, processing, manufacturing, marketing, retail, and consumption practices, alongside the growth of the resources and political influence of Big Food. Whilst the sales of UPFs and UPBs in high-income countries (HICs) are stagnating, sales are rapidly expanding in more populous middle-income countries (MICs). Read More

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The Mythological Machine in the Great Civil War (2001-2021): and in Nation-Making.

Middle East Crit 2021 12;30(2):127-148. Epub 2021 May 12.

Exeter University, Exeter, UK.

The article revisits 'sectarianism' as an epistemic venue within the context of a Great Civil War in the Middle East (2001-2021), a label that includes the overarching narratives of political life in the aftermath of 9/11 up to the aftermath of the so-called 'Arab Spring.' By introducing the notion of the 'mythological machine,' it argues that 'sectarianism' is a myth, something that does not exist in real terms, but which has real world effects. The mythological machine is a device that produces epiphanies and myths; it is a gnoseological process, which has cultural, social and political effects through the generation of mythological facts and, as a machine, it does so through both guiding and automatized mechanisms. Read More

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Combustion characteristics of biomass fuel briquettes from onion peels and tamarind shells.

Arch Environ Occup Health 2021 Jun 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Civil Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.

Rising worldwide demand and consumption of fossil fuels have elevated wealth creation, improved undesirable impacts on climatic change from emission of greenhouse gases, and endangered communal health. In developing nations, biomass wastes, which include but are not limited to agricultural residues, are generated in huge quantities yearly. During the disposal of biomass, incomplete combustion causes people to get exposed to elevated indoor concentrations on health-damaging pollutants including particulate matter and carbon monoxide. Read More

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The urbanisation-environment conflict: Insights from material stock and productivity of transport infrastructure in Hanoi, Vietnam.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 10;294:113007. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

Developing regions experience rapid population growth and urbanisation, which require large quantities of materials for civil infrastructure. The production of construction materials, especially for urban transport systems, however, contributes to local and global environmental change. Political agendas may overlook the environmental implications of urban expansion, as economic growth tends to be prioritised. Read More

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An integrated framework for the comprehensive evaluation of low impact development strategies.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 10;294:113023. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Hydraulics Division, Civil Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.

The impacts of urbanization on water quality, hydrology, society, and the environment can be minimized through low impact development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study has evaluated the performances of seven different LID scenarios including stand-alone and different combinations of green roof (GR), bioretention cells (BC), permeable pavement (PP), and infiltration trench (IT) in the Ayamama watershed, which is one of the most densely urbanized areas in Istanbul. Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) was used to obtain the performances of LID scenarios in quantitative (i. Read More

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Coping with migration-related stressors - a qualitative study of Nepali male labour migrants.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 12;21(1):1131. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Public Health & Policy, 15 - 17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK.

Background: International labour migration has become a crucial livelihood strategy, especially in countries where decently paid employment opportunities are limited. Such opportunities come with many potential benefits but also many stressors that challenge migrants' coping skills, especially when they are in a foreign environment away from their normal support network. This paper explores how labour migrants coped with migration-related stressors using a sample of male Nepali migrants. Read More

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Big food and the World Health Organization: a qualitative study of industry attempts to influence global-level non-communicable disease policy.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jun;6(6)

Tobacco Control Research Group, Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Introduction: There is an urgent need for effective action to address the over 10 million annual deaths attributable to unhealthy diets. Food industry interference with policies aimed at reducing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is widely documented at the national level but remains under-researched at the global level. Thus, this study explores how ultra-processed food industry actors have attempted to influence NCD policy at WHO. Read More

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COVID-19 crisis and increased risks of elder abuse in caregiving spaces.

Glob Public Health 2021 Jun 11:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Aging and Development Unit, African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya.

This paper discusses the potential abuse and mistreatment against older adults by informal caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. The COVID-19 pandemic has distorted many informal caregivers' roles, which require serious adjustment for reducing caregiving stress and burden. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has created challenging situations in caregiving spaces, which have the tendency to cause informal caregivers to abuse older adults. Read More

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Treatment of High-Energy Intra-Articular Fractures of Tibia with Ilizarov External Fixator in Adults: A Tertiary Center Experience.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 11:e14488. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of the Ilizarov fixator in the proximal and distal fractures of the tibia.

Materials And Methodology: This retrospective study reviewed 59 patients having high-energy intra-articular proximal and distal tibia fractures associated with severe soft-tissue injury, who were managed surgically with an Ilizarov fixator. The functional outcome was evaluated by using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scoring system (AOFAS) and the Association for the Study and Application of the Method of Ilizarov (ASAMI) Italy scoring system for tibial plateau and plafond fractures respectively. Read More

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Costs and Scale-Up Costs of Integrating HIV Self-Testing Into Civil Society Organisation-Led Programmes for Key Populations in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali.

Front Public Health 2021 24;9:653612. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Global Health and Development, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Despite significant progress on the proportion of individuals who know their HIV status in 2020, Côte d'Ivoire (76%), Senegal (78%), and Mali (48%) remain far below, and key populations (KP) including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who use drugs (PWUD) are the most vulnerable groups with a HIV prevalence at 5-30%. HIV self-testing (HIVST), a process where a person collects his/her own specimen, performs a test, and interprets the result, was introduced in 2019 as a new testing modality through the ATLAS project coordinated by the international partner organisation Solthis (IPO). We estimate the costs of implementing HIVST through 23 civil society organisations (CSO)-led models for KP in Côte d'Ivoire ( = 7), Senegal ( = 11), and Mali ( = 5). Read More

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Forty days of regulatory emergency use authorisation of COVID-19 vaccines: Interfacing efficacy, hesitancy and SDG target 3.8.

Glob Public Health 2021 Jun 9:1-22. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Pharmacy, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa.

The year 2020 will be synonymous with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for many global citizens. Millions have died from and tens of millions more have been infected globally by the COVID-19 pandemic. This has led to an urgent search for COVID-19 vaccines and treatments by the scientific and political communities and civil society. Read More

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When biographical disruption meets HIV exceptionalism: Reshaping illness identities in the shadow of criminalization.

Sociol Health Illn 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Drawing on interviews with civil society actors in the AIDS Service Organization (ASO) sector in Canada, this article explores how these actors contribute to shaping the illness identities of people living with HIV/AIDS in the shadow of efforts to criminalize exposure to HIV. While the biographically disruptive qualities associated with an HIV diagnosis have been addressed in the medical sociology literature, we turn our attention to the key role played by ASOs as interlocutors in this process. Paying specific attention to the intersection of processes of medicalization and criminalization, we ask how they are re-stigmatizing a condition that has shifted in the public consciousness from its earlier association with deviance and moral culpability. Read More

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Taking Steps Toward Coherent Global Governance of Alcohol: The Challenge and Opportunity of Managing Conflict of Interest.

Jeff Collin

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2021 May;82(3):387-394

Global Health Policy Unit, School of Social & Political Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Objective: The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is increasingly seen as offering a template for advancing effective global health governance in other spheres, notably including alcohol. In thinking about lessons that can be transferred, there is a simplifying tendency to overstate the FCTC's transformative impacts and, more problematically, to neglect the significance of evolving policies, norms, and practices that collectively enabled its development. This can lead to underestimating the extent to which the FCTC's evolution was protracted and contested, while issues that need to be addressed as prerequisites for an international legal instrument for alcohol are viewed as only feasible after its achievement. Read More

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Indoors ventilation in times of confinement by SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: A comparative approach between Spain and Italy.

Sustain Cities Soc 2021 Sep 3;72:103051. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

University of Salerno, Deparment of Civil Engineering, Fisciano, Italy.

With the arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the scientific academia, as well as policymakers, are striving to conceive solutions as an attempt to contain the spreading of contagion. Among the adopted measures, severe lockdown restrictions were issued to avoid the diffusion of the virus in an uncontrolled way through public spaces. It can be deduced from recent literature that the primary route of transmission is via aerosols, produced mainly in poorly ventilated interior areas where infected people spend a lot of time with other people. Read More

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September 2021

Climate-resilient strategies for sustainable management of water resources and agriculture.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, 550000, Vietnam.

Warming of the earth is considered as the major adverse effect of climate change along with other abnormalities such as non-availability of water resources, decreased agriculture production, food security, rise in seawater level, glaciers melting, and loss of biodiversity. Over the years, decreased agriculture production and water quality degradation have been observed due to climatic abnormalities. Crop production is highly sensitive to climate. Read More

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Urban greenspace as a climate change adaptation strategy for subtropical Asian cities: A comparative study across cities in three countries.

Glob Environ Change 2021 May;68:102248

Department of Urban Planning and Disaster Management, Ming-Chuan University, Taiwan.

Interest in nature-based approaches for climate change adaptation in cities is growing. Whilst there is a growing field of scholarship in a European and North America setting, research on the policy and governance of urban greenspace for climate adaptation in subtropical Asia is limited. Given the different development patterns, environmental characteristics and governance arrangements in subtropical cities, plus their comparatively large population and high climate risk, this is a significant knowledge gap. Read More

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Involvement of stakeholders during the preparedness phase of post-accident situation management.

Ann ICRP 2021 Jun 6:1466453211006805. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

French Nuclear Safety Authority, Environment and Emergency Department, CS 70013 - 92541 Montrouge cedex, France; e-mail:

The Steering Committee for Post-accident Management Preparedness (CODIRPA) was commissioned by the French Government in 2005 with the aim of establishing the main principles to be set up for population protection and recovery in the long term. From the beginning, one of the main principles was the pluralistic nature of the working groups (WGs), including scientific and technical experts, representatives from state departments, nuclear operators, and representatives of civil society (i.e. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(5):1222-1228


Objective: The aim: Conducting a comprehensive analysis on ensuring the mechanism of state regulation of the development of medical emergency response as an element of the civil protection system of Ukraine in the context of dynamic changes of external and internal factors of its functioning.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: The data of the state statistical reporting for the period 2010-2019 and the legislative acts of Ukraine on medical emergency response were used as the materials of study. Bibiliosemantic and statistical method and the method of structural-and-logical analysis were applied in the course of study. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(5):1137-1141


Objective: The aim: To investigate factors that can negatively affect societal resilience in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and identify communication aspects of strengthening resilience through information policy formation.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: In the research process, the authors employed the monographic and abstract-logical methods. The communication aspect analysis of strengthening social resilience in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic also grounded upon the results of the authors' sociological study "Motivation of compliance/non-compliance with quarantine restrictions by the population of Ukraine". Read More

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Quantifying the social benefits and costs of reducing phosphorus pollution under climate change.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 1;293:112838. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Gund Institute for Environment, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States; Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States.

Excess phosphorus loading to waterbodies has led to increasing frequency and severity of harmful algal blooms, negatively impacting economic activity and human health. While interventions to improve water quality can create large societal benefits, these investments are costly and the value of benefits is often unknown. Understanding the social and economic impacts of reduced phosphorus loading is critical for developing effective land use policies and for generating public and political support for these initiatives. Read More

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Looking into individual choices and local realities to define adaptation options to drought and climate change.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 1;293:112861. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Agricultural Economics, Statistics and Business Management / CEIGRAM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM). ETSIAAB, Avda. Puerta Hierro 2, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Climate change adaptation choices defined by local communities reflect individual risk perception and contextual factors. This study examines how local contextual environmental factors contribute to individual choices for adapting to water scarcity in three locations in central Spain. The study evaluates citizens' choices by audience segmentation and explore the role of geographical location in segments' engagement with adaptation and adaptation measure preference. Read More

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What is required to scale-up and sustain biofortification? Achievements, challenges and lessons from scaling-up Orange-Fleshed Sweetpotato in Sub-Sahara Africa.

J Agric Food Res 2021 Jun;4:100102

International Potato Center, Box 25171, 00603, Nairobi, Kenya.

This review presents results of the ex-post survey on Reaching Agents of Change (RAC) project, highlighting experiences, lessons, challenges and recommendations for scaling up orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). The RAC project was a three-and halfyear initiative (2011 and 2015), implemented in three primary countries, namely Tanzania, Mozambique, Nigeria, and to a lesser extent Ghana and Burkina Faso. The project advocated for policy change and increased investments to scale-up the orangefleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) to combat vitamin A deficiency. Read More

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Engendering Governance After Armed Conflict: Observations From Kosovo.

Front Sociol 2021 17;6:574225. Epub 2021 May 17.

Herbert C. Kelman Institute for Interactive Conflict Transformation (HKI), Vienna, Austria.

This article addresses gender-responsive governance reforms in post-conflict Kosovo from two perspectives: (1) the perspective of human rights as fundamental for state-building, and (2) the resolutions of the UN Security Council regarding Women, Peace, and Security (WPS), notably the initial UNSCR 1325. Special focus is laid on women's agency in governance matters-at the level of the state and at the level of civil society. A gender approach to three dimensions of governance-political-administrative governance, security governance, and socioeconomic governance-shows successes and problems in this post-conflict society. Read More

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Don't Let Sexual and Reproductive Health become Collateral Damage in the Face of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Public Health Perspective.

Afr J Reprod Health 2020 Jun;24(s1):56-63

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, University of KwaZulu- Natal.

South Africa, similar to many other countries in the African continent is still experiencing challenges in its efforts to provide sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care to women and adolescent girls, and it has become clear that the COVID-19 pandemic is the latest threat to universal access to SRH. In the face of this threat, the Sustainable Developmental Goals that call on the global community to -leave no one behind‖ may become a blurred vision unless we adopt a wider lens away from the tunnel vision that currently plagues health systems around the globe. This paper therefore exposes how SRH may become collateral damage in the face of the present COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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South African Fathers Involvement and Their Adolescents' Sexual Risk Behavior and Alcohol Consumption.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Although considerable research has examined the influence of parent-adolescent relationships on the sexual health of adolescents, there is a great need for research to understand the influence of fathers on their children's HIV sexual risk behavior, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined how the residence and the involvement of fathers are related to their children's HIV sexual risk and alcohol consumption behaviors. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 175 sixth-grade adolescents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Read More

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New frontiers in Japanese Forest Policy: Addressing ecosystem disservices in the 21st century.

Ambio 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.

Forests are a potential solution to numerous global environmental issues, and their restoration is widely pursued. Forty percent of Japan's forests are planted forests. This has caused the common occurrence of forest ecosystem disservices in the country, like-wildlife damage, pollinosis, and driftwood damage. Read More

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Who Counts Where? COVID-19 Surveillance in Federal Countries.

J Health Polit Policy Law 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

McGill University.

Context: While the World Health Organization (WHO) has established guidance on COVID-19 surveillance, little is known about implementation of these guidelines in federations, which fragment authority across multiple levels of government. This study examines how subnational governments in federal democracies collect and report data on COVID-19 cases and mortality associated with COVID-19.

Methods: We collected data from subnational government websites in 15 federal democracies to construct indices of COVID-19 data quality. Read More

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Novel Plant-Associated Promotes Growth of Common Floating Aquatic Plants, Duckweeds.

Microorganisms 2021 May 24;9(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Bioproduction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566, Ibaraki, Japan.

Duckweeds are small, fast growing, and starch- and protein-rich aquatic plants expected to be a next generation energy crop and an excellent biomaterial for phytoremediation. Despite such an importance, very little is known about duckweed-microbe interactions that would be a key biological factor for efficient industrial utilization of duckweeds. Here we first report the duckweed growth promoting ability of bacterial strains belonging to the phylum , the members of which are known to inhabit soils and terrestrial plants, but their ecological roles and plant-microbe interactions remain largely unclear. Read More

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