8,254 results match your criteria circumcision


Physicians' Refusals of Service on Grounds of Conscience.

Authors:
Lance K Stell

Perspect Biol Med 2019 ;62(3):452-469

What is conscience, and when should we let it be our guide? Only when it threatens indictment for nonadherence to an ethically valid duty? How do we know when that is? Doesn't conscience change? And shouldn't we change it intentionally sometimes, for example, on the basis of an all-things-considered judgment? Is conscience subject to reason-guided amendment? Mightn't it be immune to change based on a cost-benefit analysis? Isn't that its deontic characteristic? Suppose we can't help fearing conscience, should we be excused for knuckling under to it? Is conscience then a bully we can't evade? When should society and the law respect physicians' divergent consciences? Mustn't physicians subordinate their interest in being on good terms with conscience to the fiduciary duty owed to patients? Isn't that what fidelity to the goals of medicine requires? Whose medicine? Wouldn't dogmatism about this eradicate physicians' moral agency? This essay provides partial and tentative answers to these questions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2019.0026DOI Listing
January 2020

Exploring factors influencing integration of traditional and medical male circumcision methods at Ingquza Hill Local Municipality, Eastern Cape: A socio-ecological perspective.

Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med 2019 Aug 6;11(1):e1-e11. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Background:  Medical male circumcision (MMC) and traditional male circumcision (TMC) are reportedly having negative and positive outcomes in the Eastern Cape province. Researchers show contradictory remedies; some advocate for abolishment of TMC and others call for the integration of both methods.

Aim:  This study aimed to explore factors influencing the integration of TMC and MMC at different socio-ecological levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v11i1.1948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6739517PMC

Health care providers' and mothers' perceptions about the medicalization of female genital mutilation or cutting in Egypt: a cross-sectional qualitative study.

BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2019 08 27;19(1):26. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Population Council, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional harmful practice that has been prevalent in Egypt for many years. The medicalization of FGM/C has been increasing significantly in Egypt making it the country with the highest rate of medicalization. In this qualitative study, we explored the drivers and motives behind why healthcare professionals perform FGM/C and why mothers rely on them to perform the practice on their daughters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12914-019-0202-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712689PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Generation of integration free human iPSC line SORMi002-A from neonatal foreskin fibroblasts.

Stem Cell Res 2019 10 9;40:101534. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Manipal Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, GKVK post, Bellary Road, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560065, India. Electronic address:

Circumcision is a common surgical procedure usually performed on neonates worldwide. Skin removed after circumcision is abundant and often discarded. Neonatal foreskin fibroblasts (NFFs) can be easily isolated from it for application in biomedical research including induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2019.101534DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Voluntary medical male circumcision and HIV infection among men who have sex with men: Implications from a systematic review.

SAGE Open Med 2019 8;7:2050312119869110. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: With the rapidly-increased HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men worldwide, the effectiveness of voluntary medical male circumcision as the tool of HIV prevention still remains undetermined.

Purpose: In the current study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between voluntary medical male circumcision and HIV risk among men who have sex with men.

Methods And Conclusion: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline, we conducted a comprehensive literature search through multiple databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050312119869110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6689924PMC

Case Report: Penile necrosis associated to paraphimosis with calciphylaxis due to terminal chronic kidney disease.

F1000Res 2019 19;8:1133. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Medicine School, Universidad del Valle, Calle 4B # 36-00, Cali, Colombia.

: Penile necrosis is a rare condition that may present in patients with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The recommended treatment is controversial. We report a case of penile necrosis in a diabetic patient caused by episode of paraphimosis associated with uremic arteriopathy treated with partial amputation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.18834.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685455PMC
July 2019
3 Reads

Mandatory police reporting of female genital mutilation in under 18s: experience of healthcare professionals.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 09;95(6):470

King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053927DOI Listing
September 2019

"Getting to Zero New HIV Infections in the Caribbean": Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Male Circumcision Among Adolescent Males in The Bahamas.

Am J Mens Health 2019 Jul-Aug;13(4):1557988319872074

4 University of Toronto, ON, Canada.

Male circumcision (MC) plays a significant role in reducing new HIV infections, particularly in high prevalence countries. This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence of MC and attitudes toward MC among youth aged 15-18 years in The Bahamas, a medium HIV prevalence country. The survey included 797 young men who completed a questionnaire on MC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988319872074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6704421PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Maternity care of women affected by female genital mutilation/cutting: An audit of two Australian hospitals.

Women Birth 2019 Aug 13. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Osborne Park Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Osborne Place, Stirling, Perth, WA 6021, Australia; King Edward Memorial Hospital, 374 Bagot Road, Subiaco, Perth, WA 6008, Australia.

Background: Pregnant women affected by female genital mutilation/cutting are at risk of adverse maternal outcomes compared to unaffected women, and sometimes require procedures to facilitate giving birth that midwives and doctors do not routinely perform. These women require culturally sensitive care. Current health professional literature provides evidence that midwives and doctors need further knowledge and training in this area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2019.07.008DOI Listing

Blurred transitions of female genital cutting in a Norwegian Somali community.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(8):e0220985. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, Norway.

While diaspora communities have become more critical of Female Genital Cutting (FGC), there are also trends of continuity. To explore the interplay between continuity and change, I designed a study among Somali migrants in Norway. A team of six Somali research assistants collected data from 72 male and female research participants between 16 and 57 years of age through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220985PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695242PMC
August 2019
2 Reads

Use of topical versus injectable anaesthesia for ShangRing circumcisions in men and boys in Kenya: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(8):e0218066. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: The ShangRing is a disposable, collar clamp circumcision device pre-qualified for use in men and boys 13 years and above. It has been shown to be faster than conventional circumcision with comparable adverse event (AE) rates and high client satisfaction. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of HIV acquisition in males. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218066PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693766PMC
August 2019
2 Reads

Correlation between Pregnancy Related Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight loss and Obesity: a Prospective Study.

J Med Life 2019 Apr-Jun;12(2):178-183

"Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Weight gain during pregnancy can be a real risk factor for long-term obesity which has implications in all areas of medicine. This study is designed to assess pregnancy-related weight gain and postpartum weight loss, to identify a possible correlation between weight gain during pregnancy and the risk of obesity in the late postpartum period. The batch comprised 306 women, hospitalized in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Section of the "Nicolae Malaxa" Clinical Hospital between June - November 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2019-0015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685304PMC
October 2019
1 Read

Consent Challenges and Psychosocial Distress in the Scale-up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Among Adolescents in Western Kenya.

AIDS Behav 2019 Dec;23(12):3460-3470

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), 101 Conner Dr., Suite 200, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

In priority sub-Saharan African countries, on the ground observations suggest that the success of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs should not be based solely on numbers of males circumcised. We identify gaps in the consent process and poor psychosocial outcomes among a key target group: male adolescents. We assessed compliance with consent and assent requirements for VMMC in western Kenya among males aged 15-19 (N = 1939). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02620-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854308PMC
December 2019
1 Read

Increased risk of atopic diseases in boys with meatal stenosis: a possible pathophysiological relation.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Jul 22. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Pediatric Urology and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the role of atopy (i.e. atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, and food allergies) and its consequences on developing meatal stenosis in boys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.07.011DOI Listing
July 2019
3 Reads

The Prevalence of Penile Cancer in Patients With Adult Acquired Buried Penis.

Urology 2019 Nov 29;133:229-233. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of penile cancer in patients with adult acquired buried penis (AABP). Penile cancer is a rare but aggressive cancer. Several case reports have recently been published that indicate that AABP may increase the risk of penile cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.07.019DOI Listing
November 2019
4 Reads

Adverse events in a large-scale VMMC programme in Tanzania: findings from a case series analysis.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Jul;22(7):e25369

National AIDS Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, the Elderly and Children, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Introduction: Adverse events (AEs) rates in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) are critical measures of service quality and safety. While these indicators are key, monitoring AEs in large-scale VMMC programmes is not without challenges. This study presents findings on AEs that occurred in eight years of providing VMMC services in three regions of Tanzania, to provide discussion both on these events and the structural issues around maintaining safety and quality in scaled-up VMMC services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669321PMC
July 2019
1 Read
5.090 Impact Factor

Double scrotum? A rare ignored paraphimosis - Case report.

Urol Case Rep 2019 Sep 16;26:100967. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Urology, Global Rainbow Healthcare, Agra, India.

Paraphimosis is usually acute painful condition. Delay in medical attention might result in dreaded complications like gangrene and auto-amputation. Very rarely patient might present late with large painless paraphimosis as in our case just because it interrupts intromission despite satisfactory painless erection. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22144420193021
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2019.100967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6656690PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Female Genital Mutilation in Rural Regions of Iraqi Kurdistan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Public Health Rep 2019 Sep/Oct;134(5):514-521. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

3 Australian Centre for Public and Population Health Research, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: Although female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in Iraqi Kurdistan, FGM continues to be performed frequently in Muslim communities in the region. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of FGM among females living in rural areas of Iraqi Kurdistan; (2) assess the attitudes toward FGM of mothers, village community leaders, and religious leaders; and (3) compare the prevalence of FGM by maternal education.

Methods: In a cross-sectional, double-randomized study of rural areas in Iraqi Kurdistan, we used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview 1657 mothers of 5048 daughters, 192 mullahs (religious leaders), and 386 mokhtars (community leaders). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354919860512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6852069PMC
January 2020

A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Four Types of Circumcision for Elderly Males with Redundant Prepuce.

Urol J 2019 Jul 30. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Tianjin Medical University, No. 22, Qixiangtai Road, Tianjin, 300211, P.R. China.

Purpose: Circumcision is a common human urologic surgery performed in males with redundant prepuce to prevent the transmission and reduce the risk of urologic diseases. However, the optimal circumcision method for elderly men remains to be determined. Herein, the current study was conducted to characterize the efficacy of four different kinds of circumcision for elderly males with redundant prepuce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4973DOI Listing

Scrotal Dartos-Fascio-Myo-Cutaneous flaps for penis reconstruction after iatrogenic skin shaft sub-amputation.

J Surg Case Rep 2019 Jul 23;2019(7):rjz206. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Penile amputation is an uncommon genital injury, the causes of penile trauma are varied; it can be iatrogenic or caused by traffic accidents, burns, circumcision, animal bites, gunshots or self-mutilation. The type and extent of penile trauma vary from mild to severe injuries, sometimes even with total amputation. A wide variety of surgical options exist for penile reconstruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjz206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649847PMC
July 2019
1 Read

Female Genital Cutting and Deinfibulation: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Research and Practice.

Arch Sex Behav 2019 Jul 29. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Program in Human Sexuality, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

At least 200 million girls and women across the world have experienced female genital cutting (FGC). International migration has grown substantially in recent decades, leading to a need for health care providers in regions of the world that do not practice FGC to become knowledgeable and skilled in their care of women who have undergone the procedure. There are four commonly recognized types of FGC (Types I, II, III, and IV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-019-1427-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6987000PMC

The use of steroid cream for physiologic phimosis in male infants with a history of UTI and normal renal ultrasound is associated with decreased risk of recurrent UTI.

J Pediatr Urol 2019 Oct 25;15(5):472.e1-472.e6. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: An uncircumcised male infant with a history of urinary tract infection (UTI), physiologic phimosis, and a normal renal ultrasound is a common patient referred to pediatric urology clinics. Topical steroid creams have been shown to effectively release physiologic phimosis.

Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that use of steroid cream for physiologic phimosis is associated with a lower UTI recurrence in uncircumcised male infants with normal renal ultrasounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.06.018DOI Listing
October 2019
4 Reads

Outcome of circumcision for newborns with penoscrotal web: oblique skin incision followed by penis shaft skin physical therapy shows success.

J Pediatr Urol 2019 Aug 27;15(4):404.e1-404.e8. Epub 2019 May 27.

Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Division of Urology, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

SHORT INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: and objectives: Although it is widely agreed that newborn circumcision complications are low when the penile anatomy is normal, outcomes are uncertain when a web of skin attaches the penis to the scrotum. This anomaly, called a penoscrotal web or webbed penis, often leads to surgical reconstruction instead of newborn circumcision.

Objective: With this study, the authors compare the circumcision success rate for webbed penis circumcisions using a new, alternate method vs that using the traditional method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.05.021DOI Listing

Reducing provider workload while preserving patient safety via a two-way texting intervention in Zimbabwe's voluntary medical male circumcision program: study protocol for an un-blinded, prospective, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2019 Jul 23;20(1):451. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Zimbabwe Community Health Intervention Project (ZiCHIRe), Harare, Zimbabwe.

Background: Surgical male circumcision (MC) safely reduces risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission by up to 60%. The average rate of global moderate and severe adverse events (AEs) is 0.8%: 99% of men heal from MC without incident. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3470-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651991PMC

Preventing female genital mutilation in high income countries: a systematic review of the evidence.

Reprod Health 2019 Jul 22;16(1):113. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

The Australian Centre for Public and Population Health Research, Faculty of Public Health, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW, 2007, Australia.

Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is prevalent in communities of migration. Given the harmful effects of the practice and its illegal status in many countries, there have been concerted primary, secondary and tertiary prevention efforts to protect girls from FGM. However, there is paucity of evidence concerning useful strategies and approaches to prevent FGM and improve the health and social outcomes of affected women and girls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-019-0774-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647166PMC
July 2019
1.616 Impact Factor

The effectiveness of demand creation interventions for voluntary male medical circumcision for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: a mixed methods systematic review.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Jul;22 Suppl 4:e25299

School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: UNAIDS has recommended that in 14 countries across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), 90% of men aged 10 to 29 years should be circumcised by 2021 to help reduce transmission of HIV. To achieve this target demand creation programmes have been widely implemented to increase demand for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC). This review explores the effectiveness of demand creation interventions and factors affecting programme implementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6643070PMC

Application of the HIV prevention cascade to identify, develop and evaluate interventions to improve use of prevention methods: examples from a study in east Zimbabwe.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Jul;22 Suppl 4:e25309

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Introduction: The HIV prevention cascade could be used in developing interventions to strengthen implementation of efficacious HIV prevention methods, but its practical utility needs to be demonstrated. We propose a standardized approach to using the cascade to guide identification and evaluation of interventions and demonstrate its feasibility for this purpose through a project to develop interventions to improve HIV prevention methods use by adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) and potential male partners in east Zimbabwe.

Discussion: We propose a six-step approach to using a published generic HIV prevention cascade formulation to develop interventions to increase motivation to use, access to and effective use of an HIV prevention method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6643077PMC
July 2019
4 Reads

HIV prevalence correlated with circumcision prevalence and high-risk sexual behavior in India's states: an ecological study.

Authors:
Chris R Kenyon

F1000Res 2019 15;8:60. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Antwerp, 2000, Belgium.

HIV prevalence varies between 0% and 1.6% in India's states. The factors underpinning this variation are poorly defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.17807.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6611127.2PMC
January 2019

Protocol for a randomized clinical trial exploring the effect of antimicrobial agents on the penile microbiota, immunology and HIV susceptibility of Ugandan men.

Trials 2019 Jul 19;20(1):443. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, St. George Campus Medical Sciences Building #6356 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.

Background: The foreskin is the main site of HIV acquisition in a heterosexual uncircumcised man, but many men in endemic countries are reluctant to undergo penile circumcision (PC). Observational studies suggest that proinflammatory anaerobic bacteria are enriched on the uncircumcised penis, where they may enhance HIV susceptibility through increased foreskin inflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of HIV-susceptible CD4 target cells. This trial will examine the impact of systemic and topical antimicrobials on ex vivo foreskin HIV susceptibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3545-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642556PMC

A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Efficacy of a Brief Setting-Based and Theory-Based Intervention Promoting Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Among Heterosexual Male Sexually Transmitted Disease Patients in China.

AIDS Behav 2019 Sep;23(9):2453-2466

Centre for Health Behaviours Research, JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based biomedical HIV prevention but under-utilized by male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) in China. A parallel-group, non-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were uncircumcised heterosexual MSTDP attending four sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics in three Chinese cities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02610-9DOI Listing
September 2019
5 Reads

Universal Testing, Expanded Treatment, and Incidence of HIV Infection in Botswana.

N Engl J Med 2019 07;381(3):230-242

From the Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (J. Makhema, T.G., M.M., E.K., U.C., K. Manyake, A.M.M., S.V.S., R. Letlhogile, K. Mukokomani, E.W., S.M., K.M.P., S.L.D.-P., C.K., S.G., H.B., L.O., O.J., E.T.T., M.E., S.L.), the Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness (R. Lebelonyane, S.E.-H.), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (M.G.A., W.A., T.M., L.A.M., M.R.), Gaborone, Botswana; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (K.E.W., M.P.H., S.M., K.M.P., S.L.D.-P., V.N., S.G., R.L.S., H.M., V.D., Q.L., R.W., E.T.T., M.E., S.L.), Massachusetts General Hospital (K.M.P.), Brigham and Women's Hospital (S.L.D.-P., S.L.), and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute (R.W.), Boston; Bennett Statistical Consulting, Ballston Lake, NY (K.B.); Goodtables Data Consulting, Norman, OK (J.L.); the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (J. Moore, P.B., L.B., C.S., E.R., S.P.) and Intellectual Concepts (L.B.), Atlanta; and the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (E.T.T.).

Background: The feasibility of reducing the population-level incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by increasing community coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and male circumcision is unknown.

Methods: We conducted a pair-matched, community-randomized trial in 30 rural or periurban communities in Botswana from 2013 to 2018. Participants in 15 villages in the intervention group received HIV testing and counseling, linkage to care, ART (started at a higher CD4 count than in standard care), and increased access to male circumcision services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1812281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800102PMC
July 2019
10 Reads
55.873 Impact Factor

Is circumcision an answer for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men? - Authors' reply.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Aug;7(8):e1012

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510085, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30270-0DOI Listing
August 2019
1 Read

Is circumcision an answer for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men?

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Aug;7(8):e1011

Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Marquette, MI 49855, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30274-8DOI Listing
August 2019
1 Read

Spatial analysis of HIV-TB co-clustering in Uganda.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jul 12;19(1):612. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

GIS Centre, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for individuals infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Conversely, HIV is the most important risk factor in the progression of TB from the latent to the active status. In order to manage this double epidemic situation, an integrated approach that includes HIV management in TB patients was proposed by the World Health Organization and was implemented in Uganda (one of the countries endemic with both diseases). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4246-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625059PMC

Female Genital Mutilation.

J Assoc Physicians India 2019 Apr;67(4):90

Professor of Medicine (Retd.), TN Medical College, Hon. Physician, Bhatia Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

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April 2019
6 Reads

Complications of high volume circumcision: glans amputation in adolescents; a case report.

BMC Urol 2019 Jul 11;19(1):65. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Perinatal HIV Research Unit (PHRU), SA MRC Soweto Matlosana Collaborating Centre for HIV/AIDS and TB, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: The past four years has seen a rapid roll-out of male medical circumcision services in South Africa in response to clinical trials showing circumcision prevents HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. Clinics conduct substantial numbers of circumcisions per day. We report three cases of glans amputation in adolescents attending high volume clinics where modified Models of Optimising Volume and Efficiency (MOVE) are implemented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-019-0462-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625076PMC
July 2019
3 Reads

Cost-per-diagnosis as a metric for monitoring cost-effectiveness of HIV testing programmes in low-income settings in southern Africa: health economic and modelling analysis.

J Int AIDS Soc 2019 Jul;22(7):e25325

Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK.

Introduction: As prevalence of undiagnosed HIV declines, it is unclear whether testing programmes will be cost-effective. To guide their HIV testing programmes, countries require appropriate metrics that can be measured. The cost-per-diagnosis is potentially a useful metric. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6615491PMC
July 2019
22 Reads

Spinal meningeal cyst in a child with Marfan syndrome: A potential cause for apparent dural puncture during caudal epidural block.

Paediatr Anaesth 2019 09 1;29(9):959-961. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Anaesthesia, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

We report a complication from caudal epidural block for anesthesia in a 4-year-old child with Marfan syndrome who was undergoing lensectomy, orchidopexy, and circumcision resulting in apparent accidental dural puncture. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lumbosacral spinal meningeal cyst. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13702DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

Constructions of sexuality and HIV risk among young people in Venda, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention.

Afr J AIDS Res 2019 Jul;18(2):158-167

a Department of Psychology , University of Pretoria , Pretoria , South Africa.

The study explored constructions of sexuality among young people of Venda in Limpopo, South Africa, and cultural practices that can be used to develop context-specific HIV prevention programmes. HIV prevention can be promoted by including some cultural practices in prevention programmes and changing some aspects of culture that may contribute negatively to health. Six focus group discussions were held with school-going young people (Grades 10 to 12) in urban and rural areas to explore their constructions of sexuality and HIV risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2019.1630449DOI Listing

The Problem of Female Genital Cutting: Bridging Secular and Islamic Bioethical Perspectives.

Perspect Biol Med 2019 ;62(2):273-300

Recent events, including the arrest of physicians in Michigan, have renewed bioethical debates surrounding the practice of female genital cutting (FGC). The secular discourse remains divided between zero-tolerance activists and harm-reduction strategists, while Islamic bioethical debates on FGC similarly comprise two camps. "Traditionalists" find normative grounds for a minor genital procedure in statements from the Prophet Muhammad and in classical law manuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2019.0014DOI Listing
January 2020

Evaluation of Male Circumcision: Retrospective Analysis of One Hundred and Ninety-eight Patients.

Cureus 2019 Apr 27;11(4):e4555. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

General Surgery, Okan University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, TUR.

Introduction Circumcision is the oldest and most frequently used surgical procedure. It dates back to at least 10,000 years from today. The debate on the benefits and necessity of circumcision is ongoing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6592839PMC
April 2019
1 Read

A rare cause of clitoromegaly: Epidermoid cyst.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2019 Jul 2;91(2). Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Trabzon Kanuni Research and Training Hospital, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Trabzon.

Clitoromegaly due to non-hormonal causes is rare. In this case, we aimed to present an epidermal cyst that caused clitoromegaly after traditional female circumcision. A 22-year-old African female was referred to our clinic with enlarged clitoris. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/aiua.2019.2.137DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Does voluntary medical male circumcision protect against sexually transmitted infections among men and women in real-world scale-up settings? Findings of a household survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

BMJ Glob Health 2019 30;4(3):e001389. Epub 2019 May 30.

Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, Durban, South Africa.

Introduction: Male circumcision (MC) confers partial protection to men against HIV and, in research settings, some sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is also associated with protection from some STIs among female partners. However, real-world data on changes in STI transmission associated with large-scale public African medical male circumcision (MMC) conducted for HIV prevention are lacking and would improve estimates of the health impact of MMC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570991PMC
May 2019
7 Reads

Comprehensive HIV risk reduction interventions for 2020 and beyond: product choices and effective service-delivery platforms for individual needs and population-level impact.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2019 09;14(5):423-432

Department of Global Health, University of Washington.

Purpose Of Review: This review summarizes key HIV prevention strategies in the 2020 toolkit and discusses opportunities to maximize the public health impact of these prevention interventions at a population level.

Recent Findings: HIV prevention has relied on counseling, HIV testing, and condom distribution for the past three decades. Recent exciting work has provided evidence on effective HIV prevention interventions, including antiretroviral therapy for HIV prevention, expanding preexposure prophylaxis modalities, and voluntary medical male circumcision which all reduce individual-level HIV risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COH.0000000000000567DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

A rare presentation of penile keloids after traditional circumcision: Case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2019 11;60:261-264. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Surgery and Anaesthetics, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Electronic address:

Introduction: Only few cases of penile keloids have been reported in the literature. There have been no published reports on penile keloids following traditional circumcision in Africa.

Case Report: We present a case of a 13-year-old boy with penile keloids following traditional circumcision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.05.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610228PMC
June 2019
6 Reads

Female genital mutilation in the UK: considerations for best nursing practice.

Authors:
Bethany Rose

Br J Nurs 2019 Jun;28(12):788-791

Staff Nurse, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Sheffield.

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is any process that injures or removes part or all of the external female genital organs for non-medical reasons. FGM is a growing public health concern in the UK because of an increase in migration from countries where it is widely practised. Education on FGM for nurses is key to supporting women who have undergone the practice, as well as safeguarding girls and women who are at risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2019.28.12.788DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Antiretroviral Medications for the Prevention of HIV Infection: A Clinical Approach to Preexposure Prophylaxis, Postexposure Prophylaxis, and Treatment as Prevention.

Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 09 22;33(3):629-646. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 190 Elizabeth Street, R. Fraser Elliott Building, 3-805, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Division of General Internal Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is essential to halting the global pandemic. HIV prevention strategies include integrating both nonpharmacologic (eg, safe sexual counseling, circumcision) and pharmacologic approaches. Several pharmacologic HIV prevention strategies are increasingly used globally and include postexposure prophylaxis, preexposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2019.04.002DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Premature ejaculation-operative management after failure of conservative treatment.

Urol Case Rep 2019 Sep 7;26:100937. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Medical University Pleven, "Georgi Kochev"8A str., 5800, Bulgaria.

We report 1 case of microsurgical denervation of penis in men with lifelong premature ejaculation after failing to be treated conservatively. Although premature ejaculation is the most common sexual dysfunction in men, it is not well studied. Our aim was to investigate Micro-surgical denervation of penis (MSDP) as a method of treatment in men with lifelong PE after failure of different conservative treatment and to analyse the results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2019.100937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582233PMC
September 2019
7 Reads

Association of Circumcision Status with Genital Lichen Planus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Acta Derm Venereol 2019 Oct;99(11):1049-1050

Department of Dermatology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3242DOI Listing
October 2019
5 Reads