87,883 results match your criteria circulating levels


Genetically predicted circulating homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate levels and risk of multiple sclerosis: evidence from a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Sep 5;56:103255. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Nanshan School, Guangzhou Medical University, Jingxiu Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou, 511436, China; The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Yanjiang Road, Yuexiu Distinct, Guangzhou, 511436, China.

The association between homocysteine and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear. We implemented a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to comprehensively investigate the causal relationships between circulating homocysteine, vitamin B12 (VitB12), and folate levels and MS with data from large-scale genome-wide association studies. MR results demonstrated an inverse association between genetically predicted higher circulating homocysteine levels (per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase) and risk of MS (OR 0. Read More

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September 2021

Polycystic ovary syndrome and cardiovascular risk. Could trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) be a major player? A potential upgrade forward in the DOGMA theory.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Sep 15;143:112171. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

NGN Healthcare - New Generation Nutraceuticals s.r.l., Torrette Via Nazionale 207, 83013 Mercogliano, Avellino, Italy. Electronic address:

Several studies reported an increase in cardiovascular risk (CVR) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), considered primarily as the result of the combination of all the clinical features that characterize the syndrome, including hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity chronic low-grade inflammation. Interestingly, in 2012 it has been proposed the so-called DOGMA theory, suggesting the pivotal role played by microbiota alteration in the development of PCOS. Subsequently, several authors evidenced the existence in PCOS women of a marked dysbiosis, which is related to the development of metabolic diseases and cardiovascular complications, mainly due to the production of bacteria-derived metabolites that interfere with various pathways. Read More

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September 2021

How FGF23 shapes multiple organs in chronic kidney disease.

Mol Cell Pediatr 2021 Sep 18;8(1):12. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Pediatric Research Center, Hannover Medical School Children's Hospital, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with distinct alterations in mineral metabolism in children and adults resulting in multiple organ dysfunctions. Children with advanced CKD often suffer from impaired bone mineralization, bone deformities and fractures, growth failure, muscle weakness, and vascular and soft tissue calcification, a complex which was recently termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The latter is a major contributor to the enhanced cardiovascular disease comorbidity and mortality in these patients. Read More

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September 2021

Deconstructing the Pharmacological Contribution of Sphingosine-1 Phosphate Receptors to Mouse Models of Multiple Sclerosis Using the Species Selectivity of Ozanimod, a Dual Modulator of Human Sphingosine-1 Phosphate Receptor Subtypes 1 and 5.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Neuroscience TRC, Bristol Myers Squibb, United States.

Ozanimod, a sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator that binds with high affinity selectively to S1P receptor subtypes 1 (S1P) and 5 (S1P), is approved for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) in multiple countries. Ozanimod profiling revealed a species difference in its potency for S1P in mouse, rat, and canine compared with that for human and monkey. Site-directed mutagenesis identified amino acid alanine at position 120 to be responsible for loss of activity for mouse, rat, and canine S1P and mutation back to threonine as in human/monkey S1P restored activity. Read More

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September 2021

Plasma fibulin-1 levels during pregnancy and delivery: a longitudinal observational study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Sep 17;21(1):629. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital Holbaek, Holbaek, Denmark.

Background: Fibulin-1 is an extracellular matrix protein expressed at high levels in the placenta. Elevated circulating fibulin-1 have been observed in women with severe pre-eclampsia, whereas low levels have been found in the fetal membranes, prior to membrane rupture. The aim of the study was primarily to evaluate plasma fibulin-1 during expected normal pregnancy and delivery, and secondarily to explore fibulin-1 levels in women developing pre-eclampsia or preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes (PPROM). Read More

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September 2021

Microrna analysis of human decidua mesenchymal stromal cells from preeclampsia patients.

Placenta 2021 Sep 10;115:12-19. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Introduction: In preeclampsia (PE), human decidua mesenchymal stromal cells (hDMSCs) are exposed to abnormally high levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors circulating in the maternal blood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to have a significant impact on the differentiation, maturation and function of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Our aim in the present study is firstly to investigate differentially expressed miRNA levels to be used as a biomarker in the early detection of PE and secondly to investigate whether those differentially expressed miRNAs in hDMSCs have an effect on the pathogenesis of PE. Read More

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September 2021

Association of chemokines IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 with insulin resistance and enhance leukocyte endothelial arrest in obesity.

Microvasc Res 2021 Sep 14:104254. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

INCLIVA Biomedical Research Institute, Valencia, Spain; Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, University Clinic Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; CIBERDEM: Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Diseases Networking Biomedical Research- ISCIII, Madrid, Spain; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Obesity is a key contributing factor to incidental type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. CXCR3 receptor and its ligands CXCL 10 and 11 are associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to analyse the role of the CXCR3 ligands on insulin resistance (IR) and endothelial dysfunction in human obesity. Read More

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September 2021

Dietary insulin index and load with risk of breast cancer in a case-control study.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Sep 17:e14883. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: Circulating insulin levels have been positively associated with risk of breast cancer (BrCa); however, it remains unclear whether a diet inducing an elevated insulin response influences Breast risk.

Methods: In this study, 250 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and 250 hospitalized controls were recruited using convenience sampling. The dietary insulin index (DII) was calculated by dividing the dietary insulin load by the total energy intake. Read More

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September 2021

Circulating levels of maternal vitamin D and risk of ADHD in offspring: results from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Low levels of circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] have been shown to associate with prevalent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have examined the association between 25(OH)D during fetal development and risk of childhood ADHD.

Methods: Maternal plasma 25(OH)D was measured at 10-18 and 32-38 weeks of gestation, with sufficiency defined as 25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/ml. Offspring ADHD status between ages 6-9 years was measured by parent report of clinical ADHD diagnosis among 680 mother-child pairs from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial. Read More

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September 2021

Unprotected water sources and low latrine coverage are contributing factors to persistent hotspots for schistosomiasis in western Kenya.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0253115. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

Background: Evidence indicates that whereas repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) programs have reduced schistosomiasis prevalence to appreciable levels in some communities referred to here as responding villages (R). However, prevalence has remained high or less than anticipated in other areas referred to here as persistent hotspot villages (PHS). Using a cross-sectional quantitative approach, this study investigated the factors associated with sustained high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in some villages despite repeated high annual treatment coverage in western Kenya. Read More

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September 2021

Preliminary study of genome-wide association identified novel susceptibility genes for thyroid-related hormones in Chinese population.

Genes Genomics 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, #19, Xiuhua Road, Xiuying District, Haikou, 570311, Hainan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Thyroid hormones are critical regulators of metabolism, development and growth in mammals. However, the genetic association of thyroid-related hormones in the Chinese Han population is not fully understood.

Objective: We aimed to identify the genetic loci associated with circulating thyroid-related hormones concentrations in the healthy Chinese Han population. Read More

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September 2021

Circulating heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and autoantibodies to Hsp90 are increased in patients with atopic dermatitis.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308, Gdańsk, Poland.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory dermatoses characterized by persistent itching and recurrent eczematous lesions. While the primary events and key drivers of AD are topics of ongoing debate, cutaneous inflammation due to inappropriate IgE (auto)antibody-related immune reactions is frequently considered. Highly conserved and immunogenic heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a key intra- and extracellular chaperone, can activate the immune response driving the generation of circulating anti-Hsp90 autoantibodies that are found to be elevated in several autoimmune disorders. Read More

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September 2021

The characteristics and novel clinical implications of CD4+CXCR5+Foxp3+ follicular regulatory T cells in breast cancer.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(16):1332

Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (ICBM), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Follicular regulatory T cells (Tfr) are a subset of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress the humoral immune response in the germinal center. They are associated with increased rates of disease stabilization and decreased autoantibody levels in a variety of tumor and autoimmune diseases. The binding of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM-3) and its ligand on the surface of Tfr cells could result in the depletion of T lymphocytes and the termination of the immune response mediated by helper T cell 1. Read More

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Application of Genetic Studies to Flow Cytometry Data and Its Impact on Therapeutic Intervention for Autoimmune Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:714461. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Institute for Genetic and Biomedical Research, National Research Council (CNR), Sardinia, Italy.

In recent years, systematic genome-wide association studies of quantitative immune cell traits, represented by circulating levels of cell subtypes established by flow cytometry, have revealed numerous association signals, a large fraction of which overlap perfectly with genetic signals associated with autoimmune diseases. By identifying further overlaps with association signals influencing gene expression and cell surface protein levels, it has also been possible, in several cases, to identify causal genes and infer candidate proteins affecting immune cell traits linked to autoimmune disease risk. Overall, these results provide a more detailed picture of how genetic variation affects the human immune system and autoimmune disease risk. Read More

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Soluble B7-CD28 Family Inhibitory Immune Checkpoint Proteins and Anti-Cancer Immunotherapy.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:651634. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Co-inhibitory B7-CD28 family member proteins negatively regulate T cell responses and are extensively involved in tumor immune evasion. Blockade of classical CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4) and PD-1 (programmed cell death protein-1) checkpoint pathways have become the cornerstone of anti-cancer immunotherapy. New inhibitory checkpoint proteins such as B7-H3, B7-H4, and BTLA (B and T lymphocyte attenuator) are being discovered and investigated for their potential in anti-cancer immunotherapy. Read More

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Endocannabinoid Levels in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Correlate With Clinical Parameters and Are Affected by Cannabis Consumption.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 31;12:685289. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal disorders. The endocannabinoid system may have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. We aimed to assess whether cannabis treatment influences endocannabinoids (eCBs) level and clinical symptoms of IBD patients. Read More

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Glucose Metabolism Reprogramming of Regulatory T Cells in Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 31;12:726128. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Sichuan University-University of Oxford Huaxi Joint Centre for Gastrointestinal Cancer, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory liver disease caused by a dysregulated immune response. Although the pathogenesis of AIH remains unclear, impaired regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been considered a driver of AIH development. Unlike autoreactive T cells, Tregs mainly utilize oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as their energy supply. Read More

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Identification of circulating sphingosine kinase-related metabolites for prediction of type 2 diabetes.

J Transl Med 2021 Sep 16;19(1):393. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Fudan Institute for Metabolic Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Sphingosine Kinase (SphK) that catalyzes sphingosine (Sph) to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), plays a key role in both sphingolipid metabolism and cellular signaling. While SphK has been implicated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it is unexplored in humans. Herein, we investigated whether circulating SphK-related metabolites are associated with T2DM incidence in an established prospective cohort. Read More

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September 2021

Calcium signaling and regulation of ecdysteroidogenesis in crustacean Y-organs.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Sep 13:113901. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294, United States. Electronic address:

Crustacean Y-organs secrete ecdysteroid molting hormones. Ecdysteroids are released in increased amount during premolt, circulate in hemolymph, and stimulate the events in target cells that lead to molting. During much of the molting cycle, ecdysteroid production is suppressed by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a peptide neurohormone produced in the eyestalks. Read More

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September 2021

Aerobic interval training improves irisin and chemerin levels of both liver and visceral adipose tissues and circulating asprosin in rats with metabolic syndrome.

Physiol Int 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

3 Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, United States.

The perturbation of adipokinetic hormones, such as irisin, chemerin, and asprosin has been reported to participate in pathological conditions (e.g., insulin resistance) and chronic inflammation. Read More

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September 2021

Modulation of endothelium function by fatty acids.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The endothelium acts as the barrier that prevents circulating lipids such as lipoproteins and fatty acids into the arterial wall; it also regulates normal functioning in the circulatory system by balancing vasodilation and vasoconstriction, modulating the several responses and signals. Plasma lipids can interact with endothelium via different mechanisms and produce different phenotypes. Increased plasma-free fatty acids (FFAs) levels are associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Read More

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September 2021

Circulating tumour DNA is a promising biomarker for risk stratification of central chondrosarcoma with IDH1/2 and GNAS mutations.

Mol Oncol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Research Department of Pathology, University College London, UCL Cancer Institute, London, UK.

Chondrosarcoma (CS) is a rare tumour type and the most common primary malignant bone cancer in adults. The prognosis, currently based on tumour grade, imaging and anatomical location, is not reliable and more objective biomarkers are required. We aimed to determine whether the level of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in the blood of CS patients could be used to predict outcome. Read More

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September 2021

Lung function trajectory and biomarkers in the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 13;7(3). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Allergy and Lung Health Unit, School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Objective: Different lung function trajectories through life can lead to COPD in adulthood. This study investigated whether circulating levels of biomarkers can differentiate those with accelerated (AD) from normal decline (ND) trajectories.

Methods: The Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) is a general population study that measured spirometry and followed up participants from ages 7 to 53 years. Read More

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Inflammatory parameters and pulmonary biomarkers in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

J Thorac Dis 2021 Aug;13(8):4812-4829

Institute of Health and Society, Université Catholique de Louvain, IRSS, Clos Chapelle-aux-Champs, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: We organized this study in order to investigate differences in serum inflammatory profiles and circulating serum pneumoproteins between smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Methods: Patients aged 35-70 years with COPD and a smoking history ≥10 pack-years (cases, n=38) and 38 participants with the same smoking history without COPD (controls) were included in a comparative study conducted as part of a population-based cross-sectional study with 2,388 individuals in northwestern Russia. Cases and controls were matched for age and smoking history. Read More

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Higher circulating α-carotene was associated with better cognitive function: an evaluation among the MIND trial participants.

J Nutr Sci 2021 16;10:e64. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

There is emerging evidence linking fruit and vegetable consumption and cognitive function. However, studies focusing on the nutrients underlying this relationship are lacking. We aim to examine the association between plasma nutrients and cognition in a population at risk for cognitive decline with a suboptimal diet. Read More

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Urinary Steroid Profile in Elite Female Athletes in Relation to Serum Androgens and in Comparison With Untrained Controls.

Front Physiol 2021 30;12:702305. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Division of Neonatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Introduction: In female athletes, the interpretation of doping tests is complex due to hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptive use, both influencing the urinary steroid profile. Exercise is suggested to affect circulating steroid hormone levels, and in women, the urinary steroid profile differs between in competition testing and out of competition testing. No previous study has investigated the relationship between amount of exercise and the urinary steroid profile in female elite athletes. Read More

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The Effects of Statin Dose, Lipophilicity, and Combination of Statins plus Ezetimibe on Circulating Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 4;2021:9661752. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Applied Biomedical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the main risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Statins are the drugs of choice for decreasing LDL-C and are used for the prevention and management of ASCVD. Guidelines recommend that subjects with high and very high ASCVD risk should be treated with high-intensity statins or a combination of high-intensity statins and ezetimibe. Read More

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September 2021

The newborn metabolome: associations with gestational diabetes, sex, gestation, birth mode, and birth weight.

Pediatr Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Background: Pathways towards many adult-onset conditions begin early in life, even in utero. Maternal health in pregnancy influences this process, but little is known how it affects neonatal metabolism. We investigated associations between pregnancy and birth factors and cord blood metabolomic profile in a large, population-derived cohort. Read More

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September 2021

Stress-induced FGF21 and GDF15 in obesity and obesity resistance.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) are established as stress-responsive cytokines that can modulate energy balance by increasing energy expenditure or suppressing food intake, respectively. Despite their pharmacologically induced beneficial effects on obesity and comorbidities, circulating levels of both cytokines are elevated during obesity and related metabolic complications. On the other hand, endocrine crosstalk via FGF21 and GDF15 was also reported to play a crucial role in genetically modified mouse models of mitochondrial perturbations leading to diet-induced obesity (DIO) resistance. Read More

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September 2021

Association between circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin polymers and lung and liver disease.

Respir Res 2021 Sep 15;22(1):244. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d´Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, P. Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is considered one of the most common genetic diseases and is characterised by the misfolding and polymerisation of the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein within hepatocytes. The relevance of circulating polymers (CP) of AAT in the pathogenesis of lung and liver disease is not completely understood. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to determine whether there is an association between the levels of CP of AAT and the severity of lung and liver disease. Read More

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September 2021