2,243 results match your criteria chronic radiation-induced

Cohort profile: an observational longitudinal data collection of health aspects in a cohort of female cancer survivors with a history of pelvic radiotherapy-a population-based cohort in the western region of Sweden.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 21;11(7):e049479. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Science, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Purpose: The study 'Health among women after pelvic radiotherapy' was conducted in response to the need for more advanced and longitudinal data concerning long-term radiotherapy-induced late effects and chronic states among female cancer survivors. The objective of this paper is to detail the cohort profile and the study procedure in order to provide a sound basis for future analyses of the study cohort.

Participants: Since 2011, and still currently ongoing, participants have been recruited from a population-based study cohort including all female patients with cancer, over 18 years of age, treated with pelvic radiotherapy with curative intent at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, in the western region of Sweden, which covers 1. Read More

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In vitro cellular and proteome assays identify Wnt pathway and CDKN2A-regulated senescence affected in mesenchymal stem cells from mice after a chronic LD gamma irradiation in utero.

Radiat Environ Biophys 2021 Aug 21;60(3):397-410. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Radiation Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München GmbH, German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH (HMGU), Ingolstaedter Landstraße 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

Reliable data on the effects of chronic prenatal exposure to low dose (LD) of ionizing radiation in humans are missing. There are concerns about adverse long-term effects that may persist throughout postnatal life of the offspring. Due to their slow cell cycle kinetics and life-long residence time in the organism, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are more susceptible to low level genotoxic stress caused by extrinsic multiple LD events. Read More

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Radiation-Induced Lung Injury-Current Perspectives and Management.

Clin Pract 2021 Jul 1;11(3):410-429. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care, Yale-New Haven Health Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610, USA.

Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of localized primary malignancies involving the chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. Secondary effects of radiotherapy on the lung result in radiation-induced lung disease. The phases of lung injury from radiation range from acute pneumonitis to chronic pulmonary fibrosis. Read More

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Proton Radiotherapy to Reduce Late Complications in Childhood Head and Neck Cancers.

Int J Part Ther 2021 25;8(1):155-167. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

In most childhood head and neck cancers, radiotherapy is an essential component of treatment; however, it can be associated with problematic long-term complications. Proton beam therapy is accepted as a preferred radiation modality in pediatric cancers to minimize the late radiation side effects. Given that childhood cancers are a rare and heterogeneous disease, the support for proton therapy comes from risk modeling and a limited number of cohort series. Read More

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The Biological Basis for Enhanced Effects of Proton Radiation Therapy Relative to Photon Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Int J Part Ther 2021 25;8(1):3-13. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) often present as local-regionally advanced disease at diagnosis, for which a current standard of care is x-ray-based radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy. This approach provides effective local regional tumor control, but at the cost of acute and late toxicity that can worsen quality of life and contribute to mortality. For patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in particular, for whom the prognosis is generally favorable, de-escalation of the radiation dose to surrounding normal tissues without diminishing the radiation dose to tumors is desired to mitigate radiation-related toxic effects. Read More

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Risk factors for radiation-induced lung injury in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: implication for treatment strategies.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 16;19(1):214. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Radiotherapy, Jiaozhou Central Hospital, No. 29 Xuzhou Road, Jiaozhou City, Qingdao, 266300, China.

Background: The radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLS) is very common in clinical settings; we aimed to evaluate the risk factors of RILI in NSCLS patients, to provide insights into the treatment of NSCLS.

Methods: NSCLC patients undergoing three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in our hospital from June 1, 2018, to June 30, 2020, were included. The characteristics and treatments of RILI and non-RILI patients were analyzed. Read More

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The Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Reverse Agonist AM251 Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Cognitive Decrements.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 28;15:668286. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Despite advancements in the radiotherapeutic management of brain malignancies, resultant sequelae include persistent cognitive dysfunction in the majority of survivors. Defining the precise causes of normal tissue toxicity has proven challenging, but the use of preclinical rodent models has suggested that reductions in neurogenesis and microvascular integrity, impaired synaptic plasticity, increased inflammation, and alterations in neuronal structure are contributory if not causal. As such, strategies to reverse these persistent radiotherapy-induced neurological disorders represent an unmet medical need. Read More

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Prebiotic Mannan Oligosaccharide Pretreatment Improves Mice Survival Against Lethal Effects of Gamma Radiation by Protecting GI Tract and Hematopoietic Systems.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:677781. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Division of Metabolic Cell Signaling Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences, Delhi, India.

Total body irradiation (TBI) results in critical injuries in a dose dependent manner that primarily damages highly proliferating tissues including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and intestinal crypt stem cells This may result in hematopoietic syndrome leading to bone marrow failure and gastrointestinal syndrome leading to chronic intestinal functional alterations. Death results from the gastrointestinal syndrome due to sepsis, bleeding, dehydration, and multi-system organ failure. We demonstrate that the prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) pretreatment substantially prolongs survival in both male and female mice when administered 2 h prior to radiation either through oral or intraperitoneal route. Read More

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Irradiation Accelerates Plaque Formation and Cellular Senescence in Flow-Altered Carotid Arteries of Apolipoprotein E Knock-Out Mice.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 6;10(14):e020712. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Neurosurgery Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto Japan.

Background Chronic inflammation through cellular senescence, known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, is a mechanism of various organ diseases, including atherosclerosis. Particularly, ionizing radiation (IR) contributes to cellular senescence by causing DNA damage. Although previous clinical studies have demonstrated that radiotherapy causes atherosclerosis as a long-term side effect, the detailed mechanism is unclear. Read More

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[Analysis of factors influencing radiation-induced liver injury caused by stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(6):575-579

Radiation Oncology Department, Fifth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital (302 Hospital of PLA), Beijing 100039, China.

To analyze the factors influencing radiation-induced liver injury after receiving Cyberknife stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. 278 cases with primary hepatocellular carcinoma from July 2016 to April 2019 were prospectively enrolled. Stereotactic radiosurgery with a prescription dose of 48-55gy/5-8 times were given. Read More

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Treatment optimization of pelvic external beam radiation and/or vaginal brachytherapy for patients with stage I to II high-risk Endometrioid adenocarcinoma: a retrospective multi-institutional analysis.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jul 4;21(1):774. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing Dongcheng District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: For stage I to II high-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients, the optimal adjuvant radiotherapy modality remains controversial. The present study sought to optimize the treatment of pelvic external beam radiation (EBRT) with/or vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for high-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients in multiple radiation oncology centers across China.

Methods: This article retrospectively reviewed stage I to II patients with resected endometrioid adenocarcinoma treated at 13 radiation centers from 1999 to 2015. Read More

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Protons versus photons for the treatment of chordoma.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jul 1;7:CD013224. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, USA.

Background: Chordoma is a rare primary bone tumour with a high propensity for local recurrence. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, but complete resection is often morbid due to tumour location. Similarly, the dose of radiotherapy (RT) that surrounding healthy organs can tolerate is frequently below that required to provide effective tumour control. Read More

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Study of modifying effects of astaxanthin on cytogenetic manifestations of bystander response in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.

Exp Oncol 2021 06;43(2):173-176

State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv 04050, Ukraine.

Aim: To study the possible impact of astaxanthin on the cytogenetic manifestations of the simultaneous development of radiation-induced (RIBE) and tumor-induced bystander effect (TIBE) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Materials And Methods: Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy persons and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were cultured separately or cocultured with or without previous irradiation in vitro by Cs at a dose of 0.5 Gy. Read More

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DNAPK inhibition preferentially compromises the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in chronically hypoxic tumor cells in xenograft models.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Oncology, University of Oxford.

Radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Recently, it has been found that chronic tumor hypoxia compromises HR repair of DNA DSBs, but activates the NHEJ protein DNAPK. We therefore hypothesized that inhibition of DNAPK can preferentially potentiate the sensitivity of chronically hypoxic cancer cells to radiation through contextual synthetic lethality in vivo. Read More

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A "Failed" Assay Development for the Discovery of Rescuing Small Molecules from the Radiation Damage.

SLAS Discov 2021 Jun 19:24725552211020678. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

University of Iowa High Throughput Screening (UIHTS) Core, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

With improving survival rates for cancer patients, the side effects of radiation therapy, especially for pediatric or more sensitive adult patients, have raised interest in preventive or rescue treatment to overcome the detrimental effects of efficient radiation therapies. For the discovery of rescuing small molecules for radiation damage to the endothelium, we have been developing a 96-well microplate-based in vitro assay for high-throughput compatible measurement of radiation-induced cell damage and its rescue by phenotypic high-content imaging. In contrast to traditional radiation assays with detached cells for clonogenic formation, we observed cells with live-cell imaging in two different kinds of endothelial cells, up to three different cell densities, two gamma-infrared radiation dose rates, more than four different radiation doses, and acute (within 24 h with one to two h intervals) and chronic (up to 7 days) responses by phenotypic changes (digital phase contrast) and functional assays (nuclear, live-cell, and dead-cell staining) at the end of the assay. Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles for the Treatment of Radiation Injuries.

Front Pharmacol 2021 18;12:662437. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, New York, NY, United States.

Normal tissue injury from accidental or therapeutic exposure to high-dose radiation can cause severe acute and delayed toxicities, which result in mortality and chronic morbidity. Exposure to single high-dose radiation leads to a multi-organ failure, known as acute radiation syndrome, which is caused by radiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to tissue stem cells. The radiation exposure results in acute cell loss, cell cycle arrest, senescence, and early damage to bone marrow and intestine with high mortality from sepsis. Read More

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The role of melatonin in preventing radiation-induced intestinal injury.

J BUON 2021 Mar-Apr;26(2):626-633

Ataturk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erzurum, Turkey.

Purpose: Despite the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy on tumor cells, it has potential severe adverse effects on the surrounding normal tissues. Acute or chronic intestinal adverse effects that are likely to occur in patients undergoing radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal cancers lead to increased morbidity, significant impairment of the quality of life, and economic losses. Various biological, chemical and pharmacological agents are being tested to protect from and to treat radiation enteritis. Read More

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Deferoxamine to Minimize Fibrosis During Radiation Therapy.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, and Stanford University School of Medicine,Stanford, California, USA.

By 2030, there will be >4 million radiation-treated cancer survivors living in the United States. Irradiation triggers inflammation, fibroblast activation, and extracellular matrix deposition in addition to reactive oxygen species generation, leading to a chronic inflammatory response. Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a progressive pathology resulting in skin pigmentation, reduced elasticity, ulceration and dermal thickening, cosmetic deformity, pain, and the need for reconstructive surgery. Read More

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Update on the management of the gastrointestinal effects of radiation.

World J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 May;13(5):400-408

Department of Gastroenterology, Altnagelvin Area Hospital, Londonderry BT47 6SB, United Kingdom.

Radiation therapy is a long-established and essential modality in the treatment of many cancers. It is well known that tissue within a field of radiation can suffer indiscriminate effects, leading to acute and chronic problems. The gastrointestinal tract may be adversely affected by radiation. Read More

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The role of mitochondrial oxidative stress and the tumor microenvironment in radiation-related cancer.

Tsutomu Shimura

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(Supplement_1):i36-i43

Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama, 351-0197, Japan.

The health risks associated with low-dose radiation, which are a major concern after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (the Fukushima accident), have been extensively investigated, and the cancer risks from low-dose radiation exposure (below ~ 100 mSv) are thought to be negligible. According to World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation reports, the level of radiation exposure from the Fukushima accident is limited, estimating no significant increased risk from the accident. Radiation-induced cell injury is mainly caused by oxidative damage to biomolecules, including DNA, lipids and proteins. Read More

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Case review of severe acute radiation syndrome from whole body exposure: concepts of radiation-induced multi-organ dysfunction and failure.

Koichi Tanigawa

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(Supplement_1):i15-i20

Futaba Medical Center, Fukushima Prefecture.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) due to whole body exposure (WBE) presents various clinical pictures, occasionally leading to fatal consequences. In this report, the literature providing details of the clinical course of severe ARS owing to WBE is reviewed and the lessons learned from recent accidents are discussed, to better prepare for another radiological event. Studies investigating radiological accidents that provided details of medical care for severe ARS were searched in official reports from the International Atomic Energy Agency and through the databases of PubMed, Medline, CiNii and Google Scholar and reviewed. Read More

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Mechanistic Rationale and Clinical Efficacy of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Chronic Neuropathic Pain: An Evidence-Based Narrative Review.

Pain Res Manag 2021 22;2021:8817504. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Hyperbaric Medicine Unit, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Chronic neuropathic pain is a condition affecting an increasing proportion of the general population and its management requires a comprehensive, multidisciplinary program. A growing body of evidence supports the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in several chronic neuropathic pain conditions; however, its role and efficacy remain unclear.

Purpose: To summarize current evidence for the mechanistic rationale of HBOT in chronic neuropathic pain conditions and to evaluate its clinical efficacy. Read More

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The effects of secondary iron overload and iron chelation on a radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia mouse model.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 6;21(1):509. Epub 2021 May 6.

Biological Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) require chronic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion due to anemia. Multiple RBC transfusions cause secondary iron overload and subsequent excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to mutations, cell death, organ failure, and inferior disease outcomes. We hypothesize that iron loading promotes AML development by increasing oxidative stress and disrupting important signaling pathways in the bone marrow cells (BMCs). Read More

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Regional and organ-level responses to local lung irradiation in sheep.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9553. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, Edinburgh, EH25 9RG, UK.

Lung is a dose-limiting organ in radiotherapy. This may limit tumour control when effort is made in planning to limit the likelihood of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI). Understanding the factors that dictate susceptibility to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis will aid in the prevention and management of RILI, and may lead to more effective personalized radiotherapy treatment. Read More

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Radiomics analysis on CT images for prediction of radiation-induced kidney damage by machine learning models.

Comput Biol Med 2021 06 19;133:104409. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Radiation Biology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: We aimed to assess the power of radiomic features based on computed tomography to predict risk of chronic kidney disease in patients undergoing radiation therapy of abdominal cancers.

Methods: 50 patients were evaluated for chronic kidney disease 12 months after completion of abdominal radiation therapy. At the first step, the region of interest was automatically extracted using deep learning models in computed tomography images. Read More

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Regenerative Properties of Autologous Fat Grafting in a Complicated Radiation-Induced Wound.

Wounds 2021 Feb;33(2):E20-E23

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Introduction: Delayed wound healing and ulceration in radiated tissue is a surgical challenge. Autologous fat grafting can reverse skin changes secondary to radiation such as fibrosis, scarring, contracture, and pain. Adipose-derived stem cells are thought to contribute to the regenerative properties of fat. Read More

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February 2021

DNA damage response in vascular endothelial senescence: Implication for radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases.

J Radiat Res 2021 Jul;62(4):564-573

Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Applied Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan.

A post-exposure cohort study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki reported that low-dose exposure to radiation heightened the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as stroke and myocardial infarction, by 14-18% per Gy. Moreover, the risk of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries reportedly increases with radiation therapy of the chest, including breast and lung cancer treatment. Cellular senescence of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) is believed to play an important role in radiation-induced CVDs. Read More

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Screening of chronic radiation proctitis and colorectal cancer using periodic total colonoscopy after external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Urology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama, Japan.

Objective: To investigate the incidence of colorectal cancer and chronic radiation proctitis after prostate radiotherapy using periodic total colonoscopy screening.

Methods: From February 2013 to January 2018, 270 patients who underwent external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were advised to receive periodic total colonoscopy screening annually. We evaluated the incidence and characteristics of colorectal cancer and chronic radiation proctitis. Read More

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Real versus simulated galactic cosmic radiation for investigating cancer risk in the hematopoietic system - are we comparing apples to apples?

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2021 May 16;29:8-14. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, FL, United States.

Deep space exploration missions need strategies to mitigate the potentially harmful exposure to galactic cosmic radiation. This form of radiation can cause significant damage to biological systems and organisms, which include radiation-induced carcinogenesis in the hematopoietic system. Ongoing studies investigate these effects using cell- and animal-based studies in low earth orbit. Read More

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Antioxidant Nanomedicine Significantly Enhances the Survival Benefit of Radiation Cancer Therapy by Mitigating Oxidative Stress-Induced Side Effects.

Small 2021 05 15;17(21):e2008210. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8573, Japan.

Oxidative stress-induced off-target effects limit the therapeutic window of radiation therapy. Although many antioxidants have been evaluated as radioprotective agents, none of them are in widespread clinical use, owing to the side effects of the antioxidants themselves and the lack of apparent benefit. Aiming for a truly effective radioprotective agent in radiation cancer therapy, the performance of a self-assembling antioxidant nanoparticle (herein denoted as redox nanoparticle; RNP) is evaluated in the local irradiation of a subcutaneous tumor-bearing mouse model. Read More

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