20,653 results match your criteria chronic eye


A Review of Filamentary Keratitis.

Surv Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas. Electronic address:

Filamentary keratitis (FK) is characterized by presence of filaments on the corneal surface that are often associated with symptoms of foreign body sensation, irritation, and eye pain. FK is associated with a variety of ocular and systemic conditions, most notably dry eye disease. These filaments are composed primarily of epithelium, mucus, and cellular debris; however, their pathogenesis remains an area of debate. Read More

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Clinical Presentation and Management Strategies in Intraorbital Foreign Bodies.

Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2021 30;2021:6645952. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Guru Nanak Eye Centre, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

The authors present a retrospective, observational case study of seven patients, who presented with retained Intra-Orbital Foreign Bodies (IOrbFBs) following penetrating orbital injury at a tertiary eye hospital over a period of one year. Cases were reviewed for epidemiological features, mechanism of injury, nature of foreign body, clinical features, imaging modality, associated complications, management outcomes, and the final prognosis. The mean age of presentation was 27. Read More

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Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending the Diabetic Clinic of the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

J Ophthalmol 2021 31;2021:6696548. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Objective: To investigate the level of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital (UGH) Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: An audit was carried out involving a total of 739 T2DM patients attending at the diabetic clinic of UGH. They represented approximately 90% and 50% of all T2DM patients under regular review at the urban and rural diabetic clinics of UGH, respectively. Read More

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Investigation of type I interferon responses in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8272. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Gerontology, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Type I interferon (IFN) dysregulation is a major contributory factor in the development of several autoimmune diseases, termed type I interferonopathies, and is thought to be the pathogenic link with chronic inflammation in these conditions. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis (AAV) is an autoimmune disease characterised by necrotising inflammation of small blood vessels. The underlying biology of AAV is not well understood, however several studies have noted abnormalities in type I IFN responses. Read More

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Eye amputation following lifitegrast treatment for ocular graft-versus-host disease: First case report.

J Fr Ophtalmol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Ophthalmology department, University Hospital of Nice, 30, voie Romaine, 06000 Nice, France. Electronic address:

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloblastic leukemia that could be very difficult to treat. Lifitegrast 5% (Xiidra@, Novartis), a new immunosuppressive eye drop, was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of severe dry eye and is currently under review by the European Medicines Agency. In France, lifitegrast has been approved by the French authorities for temporary use in refractory dry eye syndrome resistant to tear substitutes and topical cyclosporine. Read More

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Comments on "OCT Risk Factors for 3-Year Development of Macular Complications in eyes with "Resolved" Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy".

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Smt. Kanuri Santhamma Center for Vitreoretinal Diseases, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

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Novel non-Invasive Biomarkers of Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease: the Role of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT-Angiography (OCT-A).

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Section of Neurology, Laboratory of Clinical Neurochemistry, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Background: A reduction of retinal thickness and an alteration of retinal perfusion have been found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nowadays retinal layers and retinal perfusion can be evaluated by means of non-invasive imaging techniques, i.e. Read More

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Case Report: Idiopathic Sclerosing Orbital Inflammation.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Apr;98(4):409-417

Eye Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Significance: Idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation (ISOI) is characterized by insidious, chronic, progressive inflammation and fibrosis that damage ocular structures and produce a mass effect. This case highlights the challenges in diagnosis and management of ISOI, as well as the associated ocular morbidities, including potential vision loss.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide education regarding a rare condition that exhibits variable presentation and has an unpredictable success rate with regard to treatment paradigm. Read More

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Evaluation of Online Information on Complementary and Alternative Treatments for Dry Eye Disease.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Apr;98(4):355-361

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Significance: Dry eye disease is a common condition with many complementary and alternative therapies promoted online. Patients may inquire about these therapies, and clinicians should be aware of the existence, safety, and efficacy of these therapies, as well as the quality of available online information.

Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine is a multibillion-dollar industry with increasing popularity. Read More

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RhoG-Rac1 Signaling Pathway Mediates Metabolic Dysfunction of the Pancreatic Beta-Cells Under Chronic Hyperglycemic Conditions.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr;55(2):180-192

Biomedical Research Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA,

Background/aims: Published evidence suggests regulatory roles for small G proteins (Cdc42 and Rac1) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. More recent evidence suggests novel roles for these G proteins, specifically Rac1, in the induction of metabolic dysfunction of the islet beta-cell under the duress of a variety of stress conditions. However, potential upstream regulators of sustained activation of Rac1 have not been identified in the beta-cell. Read More

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Involvement of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux in Ocular Diseases: A State-of-the-Art Review.

J Voice 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Anatomy and Cell Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Research Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, University of Mons (UMONS), 7000, Mons, Belgium; Pediatrics Department. Complexo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña (CHUAC), 15006, A Coruña, Galicia, Spain.

Background: Laryngopharyngeal reflux-associated symptoms embrace a wide variety of head and neck manifestations. Its participation in eye disorders has recently been postulated, and there is currently no consensus in this regard. The aim of this manuscript is to review the role of reflux in the development of ocular signs and symptoms, and its physio-pathological mechanisms. Read More

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Macular Mobilization with a Flexible Nitinol Loop for Chronic or Recurrent Macular Holes.

Ophthalmol Retina 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Retina Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

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Abnormal patterns of sleep and EEG power distribution during non-rapid eye movement sleep in the sheep model of Huntington's disease.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Apr 10:105367. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Sleep disruption is a common invisible symptom of neurological dysfunction in Huntington's disease (HD) that takes an insidious toll on well-being of patients. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine sleep in 6 year old OVT73 transgenic sheep (Ovis aries) that we used as a presymptomatic model of HD. We hypothesized that despite the lack of overt symptoms of HD at this age, early alterations of the sleep-wake pattern and EEG powers may already be present. Read More

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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma induce inflammasome-mediated corneal endothelial cell death.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 10:108574. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: Chronic corneal endothelial cell (CEC) loss results in corneal edema and vision loss in conditions such as pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK), Fuchs' dystrophy, and corneal graft failure. Low CEC density has been associated with an elevation of intraocular pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (INF)-γ. These cytokines are capable of triggering pyroptosis, a programmed cell death mechanism mediated by the inflammasome, prompting the activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β, the perpetuation of inflammation, and subsequent damage of corneal endothelial tissue. Read More

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Immunological Aspects of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1256:143-189

Department of Ophthalmology, Duke Center for Macular Diseases, Duke Eye Center, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Increasing evidence over the past two decades points to a pivotal role for immune mechanisms in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathobiology. In this chapter, we will explore immunological aspects of AMD, with a specific focus on how immune mechanisms modulate clinical phenotypes of disease and severity and how components of the immune system may serve as triggers for disease progression in both dry and neovascular AMD. We will briefly review the biology of the immune system, defining the role of immune mechanisms in chronic degenerative disease and differentiating from immune responses to acute injury or infection. Read More

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Association of Sleepwalking and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder With Parkinson Disease in Men.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215713. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

Importance: Previous studies conducted among patients with Parkinson disease (PD) reported that parasomnias other than rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), particularly sleepwalking (SW), are associated with PD severity. However, it remains unclear whether the presence of SW is associated with altered odds of having PD in a population-based study.

Objective: To evaluate whether probable SW, either alone or co-occurring with probable RBD, is associated with higher odds of PD in men. Read More

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Chronic kidney disease as a potential risk factor for retinal vascular disease: A 13-year nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25224

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Center, China Medical University Hospital.

Abstract: We investigate whether patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of retinal vascular disease (RVD). Data was collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance system and included patients newly diagnosed with CKD between 2000 and 2012. The endpoint of interest was a diagnosis of RVD. Read More

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Citicoline Modulates Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Through Intraocular Pressure-Independent Control.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

UPMC Eye Center, Eye and Ear Institute, Ophthalmology and Visual Science Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive, irreversible vision loss. Currently, intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. However, glaucomatous degeneration may continue despite adequate IOP control. Read More

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Risk of COVID-19 Infection Among Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Receiving Oral Corticosteroids.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Apr 13:1945998211006931. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) management frequently comprises conservative treatment, including a combination of topical and oral corticosteroids (OCSs). However, in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, providers may have been reluctant to prescribe OCSs out of possible concern for an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 or developing more severe COVID-19 symptoms. This study thus sought to explore the association between the use of OCSs and the development of COVID-19 in patients with CRS. Read More

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Classification criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated chronic anterior uveitis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Purpose: To determine classification criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated chronic anterior uveitis (CAU).

Design: Machine learning of cases with JIA CAU and 8 other anterior uveitides.

Methods: Cases of anterior uveitides were collected in an informatics-designed preliminary database, and a final database was constructed of cases achieving supermajority agreement on the diagnosis, using formal consensus techniques. Read More

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Classification criteria for spondyloarthritis/HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

the Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Purpose: To determine classification criteria for spondyloarthritis/HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis DESIGN: Machine learning of cases with spondyloarthritis/HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis and 8 other anterior uveitides.

Methods: Cases of anterior uveitides were collected in an informatics-designed preliminary database, and a final database was constructed of cases achieving supermajority agreement on the diagnosis, using formal consensus techniques. Cases were split into a training set and a validation set. Read More

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Netarsudil: A new ophthalmic drug in the treatment of chronic primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 10:11206721211008783. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

College of Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Vision impairment remains a major health problem worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is a prime risk factor for blindness in the elderly. Netarsudil is a Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, which also inhibits norepinephrine transport. Read More

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An association between stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis, peripheral retinoschisis and posterior hyaloid attachment.

Retina 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, United Kingdom Wellcome EPSRC Centre for Interventional and Surgical Sciences, University College London, United Kingdom Department of Ophthalmology, Luton and Dunstable University Hospital, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) is a disorder characterized by splitting of the retina at the macula, without a known underlying mechanical or inherited cause. This study investigates demographic, anatomical and functional characteristics of subjects with SNIFR, to explore potential underlying mechanisms.

Methods: In this single-site, retrospective and cross-sectional, observational study, data were collected from 28 eyes from 24 subjects with SNIFR. Read More

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New obstacles and widening gaps: A qualitative study of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on U.S. adults with disabilities.

Disabil Health J 2021 Mar 30:101103. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Johns Hopkins Disability Health Research Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; The Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Prior research has demonstrated that the needs of the disability community have not been met during public health emergencies. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated existing inequities for many populations including people with disabilities, and data is needed to develop inclusive public health response policies.

Objective: To identify how COVID-19 has uniquely impacted the lives of adults with disabilities. Read More

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Relationship between chronic gingivitis and subsequent depression in 13,088 patients followed in general practices.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Mar 31;138:103-106. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Epidemiology, IQVIA, Unterschweinstiege 2-14, 60549 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Goal: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between chronic gingivitis and subsequent depression in patients aged ≥14 years who were followed up in general practices in the UK.

Methods: This study included patients aged ≥14 years who had received an initial diagnosis of chronic gingivitis in one of 256 general practices in the United Kingdom between January 2000 and December 2016 (index date). Patients without chronic gingivitis were matched (1:1) to those with chronic gingivitis by sex, age, index year, treating physician, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Read More

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National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: IIa. The 2020 Clinical Implementation and Early Diagnosis Working Group Report: NIH cGVHD WG2a.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Recognition of the earliest signs and symptoms of chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) that lead to severe manifestations remains a challenge. The standardization provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2005 and 2014 consensus projects have helped improve diagnostic accuracy and severity scoring for clinical trials, but utilization of these tools in routine clinical practice is variable. Additionally, when patients meet the NIH diagnostic criteria, many already have significant morbidity and possibly irreversible organ damage. Read More

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Vergence, accommodation, and visual tracking in children and adolescents evaluated in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic.

Vision Res 2021 Apr 7;184:30-36. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Many patients with concussion experience visual symptoms following injury that lead to a diagnosis of convergence insufficiency, accommodative insufficiency, or saccadic dysfunction. However, these diagnostic categories are based on aggregates of clinical tests developed from a non-concussed population and therefore may not accurately describe visual deficits in the concussed population. Thus, we sought to understand individual metrics of visual dysfunction in chronically symptomatic post-concussion patients. Read More

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Unraveling a cephalalgic quagmire from a cavern to a cave.

J Postgrad Med 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Headache in women in their late forties can be primary or secondary. We report a 48-year-old female with chronic slowly progressive left temporal headache for 1 year. She also had ipsilateral eye pain and facial numbness for 1 month, with restricted abduction in the left eye and diplopia. Read More

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A review of diseases of the retina for neurologists.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;178:1-11

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Diseases of the retina are common and numerous, with causes ranging over inherited, inflammatory, vascular, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, toxic, and idiopathic etiologies. A key issue in the diagnosis of retinal disease is the duration of symptoms, which can be acute, chronic, or acute presentations of chronic disease. Clinical examination with direct ophthalmoscopy or, even better, biomicroscopy with a slit lamp and condensing lens, is a key component of diagnosis, which can be enhanced through investigational methods such as fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, or electroretinography. Read More

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January 2021

Association between aging-dependent gut microbiome dysbiosis and dry eye severity in C57BL/6 male mouse model: a pilot study.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Apr 9;21(1):106. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.

Background: While aging is a potent risk factor of dry eye disease, age-related gut dysbiosis is associated with inflammation and chronic geriatric diseases. Emerging evidence have demonstrated that gut dysbiosis contributes to the pathophysiology or exacerbation of ocular diseases including dry eye disease. However, the relationship between aging-related changes in gut microbiota and dry eye disease has not been elucidated. Read More

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