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Intermediate vs Standard-dose Prophylactic Anticoagulation in Patients with COVID-19 Admitted to ICU: Ninety-day Results from the INSPIRATION Trial.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Tehran, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

Background: Thrombotic complications are considered among the main extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The optimal type and duration of prophylactic antithrombotic therapy in these patients remain unknown.

Methods: This manuscript reports the final (90-day) results of the Intermediate versus Standard-dose Prophylactic anticoagulation In cRitically-ill pATIents with COVID-19: An opeN label randomized controlled trial (INSPIRATION) study. Read More

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease as a Precondition for Stroke or TIA: A Matter of Crohn's Disease Rather than Ulcerative Colitis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Apr 14;30(7):105787. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Epidemiology, IQVIA, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Background: As a chronic systemic inflammation may be associated with an increased risk of vascular events, the aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease over a period of 15 years.

Methods: This cohort study included patients for whom the initial diagnosis of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease: CD and ulcerative colitis: UC) was documented anonymously between 2000 and 2015 in 1,262 general practices in Germany. IBD patients were matched to patients without IBD using propensity scores based on age, sex, physician, co-diagnoses and co-therapies. Read More

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The effects of stroboscopic balance training on cortical activities in athletes with chronic ankle instability.

Phys Ther Sport 2021 Apr 14;50:50-58. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Faculty of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Hacettepe University, Ankara, 06100, Turkey. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the effect of a 6-week stroboscopic balance training program on cortical activities in athletes with chronic ankle instability.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Single-center. Read More

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Real-world experience with botulinum toxin A for the treatment of hemifacial spasm: A study of 1138 injections.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 2;205:106632. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Section of Neurology, Institute for Neurosciences, St. Luke's Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines; Movement Disorders Service and Section of Neurology, Institute for Neurosciences, St. Luke's Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines; Department of Neurosciences, College of Medicine - Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila, Philippines; Movement Disorders Service and Section of Neurology, Institute for Neurosciences, St. Luke's Medical Center, Global City, Philippines. Electronic address:

Background: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a chronic, potentially disabling disorder that often requires long-term management with botulinum toxin (BoNT). In a country where healthcare costs limit compliance to medical follow-up and treatment, the study aims to provide a real-world experience on the use of BoNT for HFS among Filipinos.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data from 162 HFS patients who received 1138 botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections from 2006 to 2019 in our movement disorders center in the Philippines. Read More

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Effect of chronic binge-like ethanol consumption on subsequent cocaine reinforcement in rhesus monkeys.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 10;223:108707. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Although most individuals with cocaine use disorder also abuse alcohol, little is known about the behavioral and pharmacological mechanisms that promote co-abuse. For example, it is unclear whether prior experience with alcohol renders individuals more sensitive to cocaine when it is subsequently experienced.

Methods: This study examined the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on subsequent cocaine reinforcement in rhesus monkeys. Read More

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Chronical rhino-orbital mucormycosis in an immunocompetent host: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 10;82:105882. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Faculté de Médecine et Pharmacie, Hassan II University of Casablanca, B.P 5696, Casablanca, Morocco; Service de Stomatologie et chirurgie Maxillo-faciale, Hôpital 20 Août, CHU Ibn Rochd, B.P 2698, Casablanca, Morocco.

Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by molds within the order Mucorales. The rhino-orbital-cerebral localization is the most frequent. It is a destructive, necrotizing and potentially fatal disease. Read More

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Adult Hirschsprung's disease: A case report and literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 10;82:105881. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Trumbull Regional Medical Center, USA.

Introduction & Importance: Adult Hirschsprung's disease (AHD) is a difficult diagnosis to make due to its rarity, frequently after emergency interventions have been conducted. We present a case of possible AHD and sketch a classic presentation of Adult Hirschsprung's Disease. This would help recognize and include AHD in the differential diagnoses of chronic constipation where appropriate. Read More

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Placenta pathology in recipient versus donor oocyte derivation for in vitro fertilization in a setting of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and IUGR.

Placenta 2021 Mar 23;108:114-121. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Pathology, University of Ottawa, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, 401 Smyth Rd, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Assisted reproductive technology including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and oocyte donation (OD) may increase risk for placenta-mediated diseases. Comprehensive analysis of histopathological placental lesions according to source of oocytes used in the IVF procedure - recipient derived (RD-IVF) vs oocyte donation (OD-IVF), has not been conducted in a population with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of archived placenta specimens from RD-IVF and OD-IVF pregnancies affected by HDP and/or IUGR was conducted with blinded histopathological placental examination. Read More

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Determinants of health-related quality of life among homeless individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public Health 2021 Mar 6;194:60-66. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Health Economics and Health Services Research, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: To clarify which variables are associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among homeless individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Study Design: Cross-sectional research.

Methods: Data were taken from the Hamburg survey of homeless individuals (n = 151). Read More

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Ins and outs of cadmium-induced carcinogenesis: Mechanism and prevention.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Apr 8;27:100372. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a highly toxic pollutant that is released into the environment as a byproduct of most modern factories and industries. Cd enters our body in significant quantities from contaminated water, cigarette smoke, or food product to many detrimental health hazards. Based on causal association all the Cd-related or derived compounds have been classified as carcinogens. Read More

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Does Ostmann's fat pad size correlate with development of chronic otitis media in children?

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 14;145:110710. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare Ostmann's fat pad (OFP) size between healthy ears and ears with chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma (COMwC) in children, to assess its role in the disease.

Methods: MRI scans of 29 children with unilateral COMwC with conductive hearing loss were used to measure OFP, represented by the maximal diameter of the high intensity area medial to the tensor veli palatini muscle (TVP): M1. A reference diameter was defined from the medial border of OFP reaching the medial border of the medial pterygoid muscle: M2. Read More

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Commensal flora triggered target anti-inflammation of alginate-curcumin micelle for ulcerative colitis treatment.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Apr 8;203:111756. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 109 Xueyuan West Road, Wenzhou, 325027, PR China. Electronic address:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by dysregulation of colon immune response. Curcumin (Cur) has strong anti-inflammatory activities, but the application is severely hindered by the extremely hydrophobicity and pitiful bioavailability. Alginate (Alg), a natural polysaccharide with ideal solubility and biosafety, was introduced to prepare the esterified alginate-curcumin conjugate (Alg-Cur) and constructed stable Alg-Cur micelle in physiological solutions. Read More

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Indacaterol/glycopyrronium affects lung function and cardiovascular events in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: A meta-analysis.

Heart Lung 2021 Apr 13;50(4):532-541. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310015, China. Electronic address:

Background: Bronchodilators are the cornerstone for treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), although some studies have shown that dual bronchodilators may exacerbate incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we evaluated the cardiopulmonary safety of indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) using a meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched PubMed, OVID, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases, using "indacaterol/glycopyrronium", "indacaterol/glycopyrrolate", "IND/GLY", "QVA149", "chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases", "COPD", "chronic obstructive airway disease", "chronic obstructive lung disease" as key words. Read More

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Engaging vulnerable populations in drug treatment court: Six month outcomes from a co-occurring disorder wraparound intervention.

Int J Law Psychiatry 2021 Apr 14;76:101700. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Objective: Although drug treatment courts (DTCs) have demonstrated positive outcomes, participants with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (CODs) are a high-risk group that often struggle with treatment engagement not previously examined. This pilot study fills this gap by looking at six-month behavioral health and criminal justice outcomes among a hard to engage DTC COD participant sample in two Massachusetts DTCs receiving a wraparound-treatment (Maintaining Independence and Sobriety through Systems Integration, Outreach, and Networking-Criminal Justice - MISSION-CJ).

Methods: Participants were evaluated at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Read More

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Long-term exposure to the fluoride blocks the development of chondrocytes in the ducks: The molecular mechanism of fluoride regulating autophagy and apoptosis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 14;217:112225. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

Long-term exposure to excessive fluoride causes chronic damage in the body tissues and could lead to skeletal and dental fluorosis. Cartilage damage caused by excessive fluoride intake has gained wide attention, but how fluoride accumulation blocks the development of chondrocytes is still unclear. Here, we report a negative correlation between the length and growth plate width after NaF treatments via apoptosis and autophagy, with shrinkage of cells, nuclear retraction, dissolution of chondrocytes. Read More

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Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) based on cystatin C was associated with increased risk of hip and proximal humerus fractures in women and decreased risk of hip fracture in men, whereas eGFR based on creatinine was not associated with fracture risk in both sexes: The Tromsø Study.

Bone 2021 Apr 14:115960. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Women's Health and Perinatalogy Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Norwegian Research Centre for Women's Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Purpose: Patients with end-stage kidney disease have an increased fracture risk. Whether mild to moderate reductions in kidney function is associated with increased fracture risk is uncertain. Results from previous studies may be confounded by muscle mass because of the use of creatinine-based estimates of the glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcre). Read More

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Unwrapping the mechanisms of ceramide and fatty acid-initiated signals leading to immune-inflammatory responses in obesity.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Apr 14:105972. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Electronic address:

Obesity is considered a global epidemic developed in part as a consequence of the overconsumption of a high fat diet. One of the main negative outcomes of obesity is the development of low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, induced by dysregulated immune responses, which can lead to multiple obesity-related diseases. Ceramides are a group of bioactive lipids known to be elevated in obesity and obesity-associated conditions, including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Read More

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Comparison of different prognostic scores for patients with cirrhosis hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Ann Hepatol 2021 Apr 14:100350. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit, Hospital Universitario Austral, Pilar, Argentina; Latin American Liver Research Educational and Awareness Network (LALREAN), Argentina; Instituto de Efectividad Clínica y Sanitaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction And Objectives: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality.

Patients: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. Read More

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Transcriptional regulator BOB.1: Molecular mechanisms and emerging role in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Apr 14:102833. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Centre de Recherche en Transplantation et Immunologie UMR1064, INSERM, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Lymphocytes constitute an essential and potent effector compartment of the immune system. Therefore, their development and functions must be strictly regulated to avoid inappropriate immune responses, such as autoimmune reactions. Several lines of evidence from genetics (e. Read More

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Gut microbiota-microRNA interactions in ankylosing spondylitis.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Apr 14:102827. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Spondylitis Program, Division of Rheumatology, Schroeder Arthritis Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Departments of Medicine and Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disability that is part of the rheumatic disease group of spondyloarthropathies. AS commonly influences the joints of the axial skeleton. The contributions to AS pathogenesis of genetic susceptibility (particularly HLA-B27 and ERAP-1) and epigenetic modifications, like non-coding RNAs, as well as environmental factors, have been investigated over the last few years. Read More

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LAMP Assay Targeted RLEP for Detection of Mycobacterium Leprae in leprosy patients.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Science, Nanjing University, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and remains a significant health problem in several parts of the world. Early and accurate diagnosis of this disease is therefore important. Previously published LAMP protocols for detection of mycobacterial species used conventional specific primers and targeted the 16S rRNA, gyrB, and insertion sequence genes. Read More

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Cross National Comparison of Medical Students' Attitudes and Beliefs about Medical Cannabis and its Application for Pain Management.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Apr 14:102720. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Regional Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research (RADAR) Center, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Objectives: To examine attitudes and beliefs about medical cannabis (MC), and specifically about its application for pain management, across medical students in Israel and Thailand.

Design: Cross-sectional survey which measured attitudes and beliefs about MC. Participants were additionally asked to rate the perceived efficacy of MC for different medical conditions that are related to pain (arthritis, chronic pain, fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis). Read More

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GENERALIZED AND TISSUE SPECIFIC GLUCOCORTICOID RESISTANCE.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 Apr 14:111277. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine - Ribeirao Preto Medical School - University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that influence several physiologic functions and are among the most frequently prescribed drugs worldwide. Resistance to GCs has been observed in the context of the familial generalized GC resistance (Chrousos' syndrome) or tissue specific GC resistance in chronic inflammatory states. In this review, we have summarized the major factors that influence individual glucocorticoid sensitivity/resistance. Read More

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Maternal apical periodontitis increases insulin resistance and modulates the antioxidant defense system in gastrocnemius muscle of adult offspring.

J Endod 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Basic Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação Multicêntrico em Ciências Fisiológicas/SBFis, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, Brazil.

Introduction: Maternal apical periodontitis (AP) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) in adult offspring. Oxidative stress has been linked to IR. This study investigated insulin sensitivity (IS) and oxidative stress in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of adult offspring of rats with AP. Read More

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Buprenorphine for chronic pain in a pediatric patient with sickle-cell disease.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

University of Michigan College of Pharmacy; Michigan Medicine, Department of Pharmacy Services. Electronic address:

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Reduced anterior cingulate cortex volume induced by chronic stress correlates with increased behavioral emotionality and decreased synaptic puncta density.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Apr 14:108562. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, Canada; Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Clinical and preclinical studies report that chronic stress induces behavioral deficits as well as volumetric and synaptic alterations in corticolimbic brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus (HPC). Here, we aimed to investigate the volumetric changes associated with chronic restraint stress (CRS) and link these changes to the CRS-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. We first confirmed that CRS increases behavioral emotionality, defined as collective scoring of anxiety- and anhedonia-like behaviors. Read More

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Temporal trends and patient characteristics associated with 30-day hospital readmission rates after a first acute myocardial infarction.

Am J Med 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Meyers Primary Care Institute, Worcester, MA 01655; Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01655.

Background: Limited data exists about relatively recent trends in the magnitude and characteristics of patients who are re-hospitalized after hospital admission for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study examined trends in the frequency and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients readmitted to the hospital within 30 days after an initial acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 3,116 individuals who were hospitalized for a validated first acute myocardial infarction in six study periods between 2003 and 2015 at the three major medical centers in central Massachusetts. Read More

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Characterization of chronic active multiple sclerosis lesions with sodium ( Na) MRI - preliminary observations.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim and Mannheim Center for Translational Neurosciences (MCTN), University of Heidelberg, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: There has been an increasing interest in chronic active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions as a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of disease progression. Chronic active lesions are characterized by progressive tissue matrix damage, axonal loss and chronic inflammation. Sodium ( Na) MRI provides a biochemical marker of cell integrity and tissue viability in a quantitative manner. Read More

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Incidence, risk factors, treatment, and consequences of antibody-mediated kidney transplant rejection: A systematic review.

Clin Transplant 2021 Apr 17:e14320. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Hennepin Healthcare, Minneapolis Minnesota.

Background: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a leading cause of kidney allograft failure, but its incidence, risk factors, and outcomes are not well understood.

Methods: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Scopus from January 2000-January 2020 to identify published cohorts of ≥ 500 incident adult or 75 pediatric kidney transplant recipients followed for ≥ 1 year posttransplant.

Results: At least two reviewers screened 5061 articles and abstracts; 28 met inclusion criteria. Read More

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Psychometric properties of the brief version of the questionnaire of olfactory disorders in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Rhinology and Sinus Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Background: The Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (QOD-NS) is a 17-item instrument measuring olfactory-specific quality of life (QOL). However, in clinical research patients can be overwhelmed with multiple questionnaires. We recently developed the 7-item brief QOD-NS (B-QOD). Read More

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