41,629 results match your criteria choosing

Why energy access is not enough for choosing clean cooking fuels? Evidence from the multinomial logit model.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 11;290:112539. Epub 2021 May 11.

Asian Development Bank Institute, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

The transition to sustainable energy requires an assessment of drivers of the use of clean and dirty fuels for cooking. Literature highlights the importance of access to clean fuel for switching from dirty fuels to clean fuels. Though access to cleaner fuels, such as electricity promotes clean fuel use, it does not necessarily lead to a complete transition to the use of clean fuels. Read More

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Routine T4 No More? Reducing Excess Thyroid Hormone Testing at a Pediatric Tertiary Care Hospital.

J Pediatr 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Endocrinology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8; Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A8; Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A8.

Objectives: To promote resource stewardship in thyroid hormone testing at a pediatric tertiary care hospital.

Study Design: Quality improvement approaches generated three change ideas that were implemented simultaneously in the hospital electronic medical record (EMR): (1) a reflex free thyroxine (fT4), whereby fT4 is automatically reported if the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is outside the normal range; (2) a forced-function for thyroid hormone ordering, whereby a provider must select an appropriate indication for ordering fT4 or triiodothyronine (T3); and (3) a clinical decision support message displayed at the time of ordering thyroid function tests. Laboratory data were audited to determine the mean number of fT4 and T3 tests performed per week as well as indications for testing. Read More

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Temporal discounting when outcomes are experienced in the moment: Validation of a novel paradigm and comparison with a classic hypothetical intertemporal choice task.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251480. Epub 2021 May 14.

Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, United States of America.

When faced with intertemporal choices, people typically devalue rewards available in the future compared to rewards more immediately available, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting. Decisions involving intertemporal choices arise daily, with critical impact on health and financial wellbeing. Although many such decisions are "experiential" in that they involve delays and rewards that are experienced in real-time and can inform subsequent choices, most studies have focused on intertemporal choices with hypothetical outcomes (or outcomes delivered after all decisions are made). Read More

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Enhanced Evolutionary Feature Selection and Ensemble Method for Cardiovascular Disease Prediction.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Information Technology, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one among the main factors for the increase in mortality rate worldwide. The analysis and prediction of this disease is yet a highly formidable task in medical data analysis. Recent advancements in technology such as Big Data, Artificial Intelligence and the need for automated models have paved the way for developing a more reliable and efficient model for predicting heart disease. Read More

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Measuring refractive indices of a uniaxial crystal by structured light with non-uniform correlation.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2268-2271

We introduce an effective method for measuring the refractive indices of a uniaxial crystal based on the independent self-focusing property of non-uniformly correlated beams along the $x$ and $y$ directions. We demonstrate how the positions of the independent foci can be changed by adjusting coherence lengths to determine the characteristic coherence lengths of the beams in a uniaxial crystal, and how this information can be used to determine the refractive indices by relating the propagation characteristics of the beam in free space and in the crystal. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that, by choosing a high beam order, one can reduce the measuring error caused by CCD detection precision. Read More

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Older Patients' Competence, Preferences, and Attitudes Toward Digital Technology Use: Explorative Study.

JMIR Hum Factors 2021 May 14;8(2):e27005. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark.

Background: Malnutrition is prevalent in older patients, which is associated with severe consequences such as a decline in functional status, increased risk of readmission, and increased mortality. A tablet-based eHealth solution (Food'n'Go) was recently developed and introduced at our clinic to support older patients' involvement in nutritional interventions during their hospitalization, thereby enhancing their awareness and motivation for choosing the right food to obtain sufficient calorie and protein intake. To reap the full benefits from the eHealth solution, the technology should be introduced and accompanied by support that targets the end users' competence level and needs. Read More

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Piezo-Assisted Dorsal Preservation in Rhinoplasty: When and Why.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Plastic surgeon in private practice, Monterrey, Mexico.

Background: Preservation rhinoplasty philosophy with its "down techniques" is currently undergoing a renaissance. Its goal is to spare and preserve noble nasal structures such as ligaments, nerves and vessels, reducing to a minimum local tissue manipulation and avoiding the drawbacks and pitfalls associated with classic dorsal reconstruction techniques often resulting in irregularities which often lead to an increased rhinoplasty revision rate.

Methods: In this article, we reviewed 107 consecutive cases in which a variety of preservation techniques were used. Read More

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Hemodynamic testing using three-dimensional printing and computational fluid dynamics preoperatively may provide more information in mitral repair than traditional image dataset.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):632

Department of Ultrasound Imaging, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Mitral valve repair (MVR) has been considered superior to mitral replacement for degenerative MV disease and even rheumatic diseases. However, the repair rate varies widely depending on the medical center and the surgeons' experience. The aim of our study was to apply three-dimensional printing (3DP) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in surgical simulation to provide reference for surgical decision-making, especially for inexperienced surgeons. Read More

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Essentials for aerosol delivery to term and pre-term infants.

Andrew R Clark

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):594

Aerogen Pharma Corporation, San Mateo, CA, USA.

Effectively delivering pharmaceutical aerosols to the lungs of preterm and term infants represents a considerable technical challenge. Small infants are obligatory nose breathers, they have small airways, low tidal volumes and rapid respiration rates. It is ethically unacceptable to investigate aerosol deposition in newborns due to ethical concerns about the radiation exposure involved in imaging studies and drug delivery and blood draws in pharmacokinetics studies. Read More

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Lymphocyte subset analysis to evaluate the prognosis of HIV-negative patients with pneumocystis pneumonia.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 14;21(1):441. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No.1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Objectives: We analysed the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients infected with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) to determine the relationships between the levels of different types of lymphocytes and the prognosis of patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HIV-negative patients with PCP diagnosed in our department. All the eligible patients underwent lymphocyte subset analysis on admission. Read More

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Tunable dual-band mid-infrared absorber based on the coupling of a graphene surface plasmon polariton and Tamm phonon-polariton.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(10):15228-15238

We propose and demonstrate a tunable dual-band mid-infrared absorber structure based on the coupling effect of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and Tamm phonon-polariton (TPhP). The structure is composed of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), air layer, SiC and graphene ribbons. In the air layer, the graphene ribbons are embedded to realize the localized SPP (LSPP), which makes the structure support both the graphene LSPP (GLSPP) and TPhP. Read More

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Unification of functional annotation descriptions using text mining.

Biol Chem 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Bioinformatics Core, Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, 4362, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

A common approach to genome annotation involves the use of homology-based tools for the prediction of the functional role of proteins. The quality of functional annotations is dependent on the reference data used, as such, choosing the appropriate sources is crucial. Unfortunately, no single reference data source can be universally considered the gold standard, thus using multiple references could potentially increase annotation quality and coverage. Read More

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The dilemma of choosing obstetrics and anesthesia techniques in a patient with cerebral cavernomatosis: a case report.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

This report describes the case of a pregnant woman who arrived for pre-anesthetic assessment of External Cephalic Version (ECV) for fetus in breech presentation and cesarean section in case of ECV failure. Although the technique seems simple, attempts to rotate the fetus can result in elevated intracranial pressure, which might cause malformation bleeding. The most appropriate anesthetic technique in cases of arteriovenous malformations during C-sections has not been determined. Read More

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PRF versus xenograft in sinus augmentation in case of HA-coating implant placement: A 36-months retrospective study.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Oral Surgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Sinus lift with a simultaneous implant placement in the residual maxilla is a common technique used worldwide. Nevertheless, choosing an ideal grafting material remains an object of dispute. The use of an autologous blood-derived graft, known as platelet rich fibrin (PRF), has not yet been recognized to be as good as xenografts and alloplastic materials. Read More

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Implementation of ICH E9 (R1): A Few Points Learned During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.

The current COVID-19 pandemic poses numerous challenges for ongoing clinical trials and provides a stress-testing environment for the existing principles and practice of estimands in clinical trials. The pandemic may increase the rate of intercurrent events (ICEs) and missing values, spurring a great deal of discussion on amending protocols and statistical analysis plans to address these issues. In this article, we revisit recent research on estimands and handling of missing values, especially the ICH E9 (R1) Addendum on Estimands and Sensitivity Analysis in Clinical Trials. Read More

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High-efficiency transmissive invisibility cloaking based on all-dielectric multilayer frame structure metasurfaces.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3909-3916

Metasurfaces provide a completely new path to realize the cloaking effect due to their excellent electromagnetic wavefront manipulation. However, most previous metasurfaces realized cloaking by using phase compensation, which is limited by the reflection phase formula and can be used only for reflection mode. We use the generalized Snell's law to propose a free-space transmission stealth device, consisting of multilayer all-dielectric metasurfaces. Read More

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Airy beam propagation: autofocusing, quasi-adiffractional propagation, and self-healing.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2021 May;38(5):711-718

We study the propagation of superpositions of Airy beams and show that, by adequately choosing the parameters in the superposition, effects as opposite as autofocusing and quasi-adiffractional propagation may be obtained. We also give a simple analytical expression for free propagation of any initial field, based on so-called number states (eigenstates of the quantum harmonic oscillator), that allows us to study their self-healing properties. Read More

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Expectations, experiences, perceptions of oral and maxillofacial surgery residents to training in Nigeria.

Eur J Dent Educ 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University/Teaching Hospital, Ile Ife, Nigeria.

Purpose: How surgical residents fare during their training could enhance job satisfaction and fulfillment post training. But there is paucity of literature on the experiences of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) trainees during residency training. The aim of this study was to report the expectations, experiences and perceptions of OMS residents towards training in Nigeria. Read More

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Development of an HPLC-MS method for the determination of four terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba leaf extract via quality by design.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 May 13:e5170. Epub 2021 May 13.

Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Previously reported HPLC-evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) methods for terpene trilactone determination in Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGBL) with complicated sample preparation are time-consuming. Thus, in this work, an HPLC-MS method for the determination of terpene trilactones in EGBL was developed with a novel analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach to provide robust and simple measurements. For this purpose, analytical target profiles and systematic risk analyses were performed to identify potential critical method attributes (CMAs) and critical method parameters (CMPs). Read More

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Reactions to reduced nicotine content cigarettes in a sample of young adult, low-frequency smokers.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, 2608 Erwin Rd., Suite 300, Durham, NC, 27705, USA.

Rationale: Reducing nicotine content in cigarettes to ≤ 2.4 mg per g of tobacco [mg/g] reduces smoking behavior and toxicant exposure among adult daily smokers. However, cigarettes with similar nicotine content could support continued experimentation and smoking progression among young adults who smoke infrequently. Read More

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Addressing Fairness, Bias, and Appropriate Use of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Global Health.

Front Artif Intell 2020 15;3:561802. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States.

In Low- and Middle- Income Countries (LMICs), machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) offer attractive solutions to address the shortage of health care resources and improve the capacity of the local health care infrastructure. However, AI and ML should also be used cautiously, due to potential issues of fairness and algorithmic bias that may arise if not applied properly. Furthermore, populations in LMICs can be particularly vulnerable to bias and fairness in AI algorithms, due to a lack of technical capacity, existing social bias against minority groups, and a lack of legal protections. Read More

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Problematizing Perceptions of STEM Potential: Differences by Cognitive Disability Status in High School and Postsecondary Educational Outcomes.

Socius 2021 Jan-Dec;7. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA.

The STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) potential of youth with cognitive disabilities is often dismissed through problematic perceptions of STEM ability as natural and of youth with cognitive disabilities as unable. National data on more than 15,000 adolescents from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 first suggest that, among youth with disabilities, youth with medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have the highest levels of STEM achievement, and youth with learning or intellectual disabilities typically have the lowest. Undergraduates with medicated ADHD or autism appear to be more likely to major in STEM than youth without cognitive disabilities, and youth with autism have the most positive STEM attitudes. Read More

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Screening Status as a Determinant of Choice of Colorectal Cancer Screening Method: A Population-Based Informed Survey.

Gastrointest Tumors 2021 Apr 5;8(2):63-70. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Unit of Population Epidemiology, Division of Primary Care Medicine, Department of Primary Care Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objectives: Fecal blood testing is a noninvasive alternative to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and is preferred by a substantial proportion of individuals. However, participant-related determinants of the choice of screening method, particularly up-to-date screening status, remain less studied. We aimed to determine if up-to-date screening status was related to choosing a fecal blood test over colonoscopy. Read More

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Visual response of ventrolateral prefrontal neurons and their behavior-related modulation.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10118. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, via Volturno 39, 43125, Parma, Italy.

The ventral part of lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPF) of the monkey receives strong visual input, mainly from inferotemporal cortex. It has been shown that VLPF neurons can show visual responses during paradigms requiring to associate arbitrary visual cues to behavioral reactions. Further studies showed that there are also VLPF neurons responding to the presentation of specific visual stimuli, such as objects and faces. Read More

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Migrant physicians' choice of employment and the medical specialty general practice: a mixed-methods study.

Hum Resour Health 2021 May 12;19(1):63. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: In many countries, migrant physicians (MP) tend to fill staff shortages in medical specialties perceived as low status. The aim of this study was to explore aspects that influence MPs', with a medical degree from outside EU/EEA, choice of employment and medical specialty in Sweden, and to explore and understand a potential over-representation in general practice (family medicine), a specialty suffering from staff shortages in Sweden.

Methods: A mixed-methods approach was applied. Read More

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The Potential Role of Psychedelic Drugs in Mental Health Care of the Future.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

OVID Health Systems GmbH, Berlin, Germany.

Serotonergic psychedelics such as psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), or dimethyltryptamine (DMT), as well as psychoactive drugs that trigger phenomenologically- related experiences like 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and ketamine, belong to the most promising treatment approaches in contemporary psychiatry. Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy is not only a new treatment paradigm in psychopharmacology, but it also requires a redefinition of psychotherapeutic processes and the contextualization of psychopharmacological interventions within a new treatment infrastructure. Crucial for future practice and research in the field are (1) informed patient referral and co-treatment practices, (2) screening (e. Read More

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Organic matter interference with steroid hormone removal by single-walled carbon nanotubes - ultrafiltration composite membrane.

Water Res 2021 Apr 14;199:117148. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute for Advanced Membrane Technology (IAMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

Composite adsorbent-ultrafiltration membranes for micropollutant removal are an interesting concept, although water matrix compounds, such as organic matter (OM), may interfere with micropollutant adsorption. To prevent this interference, the adsorbents such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be deposited on the permeate side of an ultrafiltration membrane (UF) that can retain OM. In this study, the 'shielding' effect by different UF MWCOs of such an SWCNT-UF composite was evaluated for nine different types of OM. Read More

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Effortless Retaliation: the Neural Dynamics of Interpersonal Intentions in a Chicken Game Using Brain-Computer Interface.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Psychology, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158, China.

The desire for retaliation is a common response across a majority of human societies. However, the neural mechanisms underlying aggression and retaliation remain unclear. Previous studies on social intentions are confounded by low-level response related brain activity. Read More

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Consumer preferences for low-salt foods - a Danish case study based on a comprehensive supermarket intervention.

Public Health Nutr 2021 May 12:1-26. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 25, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Objective: The objective is to analyze Danish consumers' attitudes to buying food with reduced salt content.

Design: The study is based on a comprehensive store intervention that included 114 stores belonging to the same supermarket chain. Three different salt claims were tested for eight weeks on six test products within the categories bread, cornflakes and frozen pizzas. Read More

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