155,260 results match your criteria cholesterol synthesis


Cellular cholesterol and how to find it.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Jun 9:158989. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center (BZH), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Cholesterol is an essential component of eukaryotic cellular membranes. Information about its subcellular localization and transport pathways inside cells are key for the understanding and treatment of cholesterol-related diseases. In this review we give an overview over the most commonly used methods that contributed to our current understanding of subcellular cholesterol localization and transport routes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

7-ketocholesterol: effects on viral infections and hypothetical contribution in COVID-19.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jun 9:105939. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Team 'Biochemistry of the Peroxisome, Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism' EA 7270 / Inserm, 21000 Dijon, France. Electronic address:

7-ketocholesterol, which is one of the earliest cholesterol oxidization products identified, is essentially formed by the auto-oxidation of cholesterol. In the body, 7-ketocholesterol is both provided by food and produced endogenously. This pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory molecule, which can activate apoptosis and autophagy at high concentrations, is an abundant component of oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Atherosclerosis-associated hepatic secretion of VLDL but not PCSK9 is dependent on cargo receptor protein Surf4.

J Lipid Res 2021 Jun 9:100091. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatrics and Group on the Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Plasma LDL is produced from catabolism of VLDL and is cleared from circulation mainly via the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes LDLR degradation, increasing plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Circulating PCSK9 is mainly secreted by the liver, while VLDL is exclusively secreted by hepatocytes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Biological activity of 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-ene on glucose homeostasis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 9:174250. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

We studied the effect and the mechanisms of action of 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-ene (THO), from Croton heterodoxus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), in glucose uptake in hyperglycemic rats. The effect of in vivo pretreatment with THO in hyperglycemic rats was analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cholesterol metabolism and tumor.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Feb;50(1):23-31

Institute of Translational Medicine,Zhejiang University School of Medicine,Hangzhou 310029,China.

Cholesterol is an important lipid in the body of mammals and an essential component of membrane structures. Cholesterol homeostasis is critical for the maintenance of cellular and body activities, and is mainly regulated by the balance of cholesterol biosynthesis and the exogenous cholesterol uptake. Aberrantly regulated cholesterol metabolism promotes tumor cell proliferation,survival,invasion and metastasis,and their adaptability into the tumor microenvironment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Cholesterol-dependent transcriptome remodeling reveals new insight into the contribution of cholesterol to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12396. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology of Mycobacterium, Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Łódź, Poland.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an obligate human pathogen that can adapt to the various nutrients available during its life cycle. However, in the nutritionally stringent environment of the macrophage phagolysosome, Mtb relies mainly on cholesterol. In previous studies, we demonstrated that Mtb can accumulate and utilize cholesterol as the sole carbon source. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The efficacy and safety of evinacumab for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. This author takes responsibility for all aspects of the reliability and freedom from bias of the data presented and their discussed interpretation. Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Xinjiang Medical University, 830000 Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. This author takes responsibility for all aspects of the reliability and freedom from bias of the data presented and their discussed interpretation.

Abstract: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) is essential in lipid metabolism regulation. However, the efficacy and safety of evinacumab (ANGPTL3 inhibition drug) for hypercholesterolemia treatment is unknown. In this study, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of evinacumab. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Selenogenome and AMPK signal insight into the protective effect of dietary selenium on chronic heat stress-induced hepatic metabolic disorder in growing pigs.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jun 12;12(1):68. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: Chronic heat stress (CHS) disrupts hepatic metabolic homeostasis and jeopardizes product quality of pigs. Selenium (Se) may regulate the metabolic state through affect selenoprotein. Thus, we investigate the protective effect of dietary hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) on CHS induced hepatic metabolic disorder in growing pigs, and the corresponding response of selenoprotein. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

MOF-enzyme hybrid nanosystem decorated 3D hollow fiber membranes for in-situ blood separation and biosensing array.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 5;190:113413. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China. Electronic address:

Modified metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) doping with enzymes exhibit high enzyme stability and catalytic performance, which is a research hotspot in the field of enzyme-based sensing. Although the MOF-enzyme constitutes a 3D structure in the nanoscale, the macroscopic assembly configuration still stays in 1D or 2D structures, limiting sensing applications towards complex biological targets. Herein, the MOF-enzyme hybrid nanosystem was assembled into 3D porous conductive supports via a controllable physical embedding method, displaying high enzymatic loading, stability and cascade catalytic performance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Danning tablets alleviate high fat diet-induced obesity and fatty liver in mice via modulating SREBP pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 8:114320. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, The State Administration of TCM (SATCM) Key Laboratory for New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Complex Prescriptions, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China; Shanghai R&D Center for Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The traditional Chinese formula Danningtablets exhibit wide clinical applications in liver and gallbladder diseases, and currently it is reported to be effective on fatty liver disease in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.

Aim Of The Study: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects and potential pharmacological mechanisms of Danning tablet against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, fatty liver, and related metabolic disorders in mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors related to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in bipolar disorder patients and major depression patients.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 Jun 10;21(1):301. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Peking University Huilongguan Clinical Medical School, Nandian Road, Changping District, Beijing, 100096, China.

Background: We analyzed the correlation of the clinical data with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular thickness in bipolar disorder patients and major depression patients. The aim of this study is to explore factors that affect RNFL thickness in bipolar disorder patients and major depression patients, with a view to providing a new diagnostic strategy.

Methods: Eighty-two bipolar disorder patients, 35 major depression patients and 274 people who were age and gender matched with the patients were enrolled. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification of neolignans with PCSK9 downregulatory and LDLR upregulatory activities from Penthorum chinense and the potential in cholesterol uptake by transcriptional regulation of LDLR via SREBP2.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 7:114265. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Seoul National University, 1, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu,Seoul 08826,Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Penthorum chinense has been used in East Asia for the treatment of cholecystitis, infectious hepatitis, jaundice and to treat liver problems. Recent evidences provided the potential for the clinical use of P. chinense in the treatment of metabolic disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lipolysis and lipophagy play individual and interactive roles in regulating triacylglycerol and cholesterol homeostasis and mitochondrial form in zebrafish.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Jun 7:158988. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

LANEH, School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Neutral lipases-mediated lipolysis and acid lipases-moderated lipophagy are two main processes for degradation of lipid droplets (LDs). However, the individual and interactive roles of these metabolic pathways are not well known across vertebrates. This study explored the roles of lipolysis and lipophagy from the aspect of neutral and acid lipases in zebrafish. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sterol regulation of developmental and oncogenic Hedgehog signaling.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Jun 7:114647. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The Hedgehog (Hh) family of lipid-modified signaling proteins directs embryonic tissue patterning and postembryonic tissue homeostasis, and dysregulated Hh signaling drives familial and sporadic cancers. Hh ligands bind to and inhibit the tumor suppressor Patched and allow the oncoprotein Smoothened (SMO) to accumulate in cilia, which in turn activates the GLI family of transcription factors. Recent work has demonstrated that endogenous cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol derivatives (oxysterols) bind and modulate SMO activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comprehensive Proteomic Profiling of Aqueous Humor Proteins in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 May;10(6)

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Purpose: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a serious ocular disease that can lead to retinal microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. To date, no studies have explored PDR development by analyzing the aqueous humor (AH). Therefore we carried out tandem mass tag (TMT) proteomic quantification to compare AH protein profiles between PDR and non-PDR subjects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Replication and cross-validation of type 2 diabetes subtypes based on clinical variables: an IMI-RHAPSODY study.

Diabetologia 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Section of Cell Biology and Functional Genomics, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: Five clusters based on clinical characteristics have been suggested as diabetes subtypes: one autoimmune and four subtypes of type 2 diabetes. In the current study we replicate and cross-validate these type 2 diabetes clusters in three large cohorts using variables readily measured in the clinic.

Methods: In three independent cohorts, in total 15,940 individuals were clustered based on age, BMI, HbA, random or fasting C-peptide, and HDL-cholesterol. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Murine deficiency of peroxisomal L-bifunctional protein (EHHADH) causes medium-chain 3-hydroxydicarboxylic aciduria and perturbs hepatic cholesterol homeostasis.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn Institute for Data Science and Genomic Technology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, Box 1498, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Peroxisomes play an essential role in the β-oxidation of dicarboxylic acids (DCAs), which are metabolites formed upon ω-oxidation of fatty acids. Genetic evidence linking transporters and enzymes to specific DCA β-oxidation steps is generally lacking. Moreover, the physiological functions of DCA metabolism remain largely unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical significance of serum gonadotropin and androgen levels among Egyptian overweight/obese pubertal girls.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biological Anthropology Dept., National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.

Objectives: Evaluate the association between overweight/obesity with serum gonadotropin and androgen levels in Egyptian pubertal girls.

Subjects And Methods: A case-control study carried out in "Obesity Clinic" of "Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Pediatric Unit (DEMPU)", Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University. It included 40 overweight and obese girls and 40 age-matching normal weight (control) ones, aged 12-18 years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inhibition of Improve Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Hyperandrogenic Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 24;9:669189. Epub 2021 May 24.

Center for Energy Metabolism and Reproduction, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Hyperandrogenism is a key pathological feature of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Excess androgen can lead to PCOS-like cell hypertrophy in the ovaries and adipose tissue of rodents. Here, we established a dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced hyperandrogenic mouse model to analyze the differences in gene expression and signaling pathways of the ovaries and gonad fat pads of mice treated with or without DHT by RNA microarray analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spatiotemporal Developmental Upregulation of Prestin Correlates With the Severity and Location of Cyclodextrin-Induced Outer Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 24;9:643709. Epub 2021 May 24.

Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States.

2-Hyroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is being used to treat Niemann-Pick C1, a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal cholesterol metabolism. HPβCD slows disease progression, but unfortunately causes severe, rapid onset hearing loss by destroying the outer hair cells (OHC). HPβCD-induced damage is believed to be related to the expression of prestin in OHCs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cholesterol Metabolic Reprogramming in Cancer and Its Pharmacological Modulation as Therapeutic Strategy.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:682911. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Cholesterol is a ubiquitous sterol with many biological functions, which are crucial for proper cellular signaling and physiology. Indeed, cholesterol is essential in maintaining membrane physical properties, while its metabolism is involved in bile acid production and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Additionally, isoprenoids metabolites of the mevalonate pathway support protein-prenylation and dolichol, ubiquinone and the heme biosynthesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Increasing glycaemia is associated with a significant decline in HDL cholesterol in women with prediabetes in two national populations.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12194. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama VI Rd., Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand.

Internationally, studies have shown associations between lipids and glycemia; however, whether the link varies by gender and population has been rarely examined. We investigated relationships between glycemia and HDL- and Non-HDL-cholesterol and their modification by gender. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis from the National Health Examination Survey for Thailand (NHES-Thailand) and the Health Survey for England (HS-England) in adults aged 18-75 year. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis and Achilles Tendon Thickness in Japanese Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Subanalysis of the Familial Hypercholesterolemia Expert Forum (FAME) Study.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

Aims: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, xanthomas including Achilles tendon thickening, and premature coronary artery disease (CAD). Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a well-established surrogate marker for CAD in FH and Achilles tendon thickening is a specific physical finding in patients with FH. The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with carotid IMT and Achilles tendon thickness in FH heterozygotes on lipid-lowering therapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TARGETING THE T-CELL LYMPHOMA EPIGENOME INDUCES CELL DEATH, CANCER TESTES ANTIGENS, IMMUNE MODULATORY SIGNALING PATHWAYS.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Dept. of Medicine,, University of Virginia

The peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) could be considered the prototypical epigenetic disease. As a disease, they are uniquely sensitive to histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors, both alone and in combination, are characterized by a host of mutations in epigenetic genes, and can develop spontaneously in genetically engineered murine models predicated on established recurring mutations in (RHOAG17V) and TET2, an epigenetic gene governing DNA methylation. Given the clinical benefit of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) and hypomethlyation agents (HMA) alone and in combination in PTCL, we sought to explore a mechanistic basis for these agents in PTCL. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Carotid Plaques From Symptomatic Patients Are Characterized by Local Increase in Xanthine Oxidase Expression.

Stroke 2021 Jun 10:STROKEAHA120032964. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. (M.G., V.N., M.P., F.F., M.D.Y., A.L.).

Background And Purpose: XO (xanthine oxidase) is a key enzyme of uric acid metabolism and is thought to contribute to oxidative pathways that promote atherosclerotic plaque progression, yet its role in plaque destabilization is not well elucidated. We hypothesized that XO is expressed in carotid plaque from symptomatic patients in association with cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: Patients were stratified by symptoms, defined as presentation with an ipsilateral cerebral ischemic event. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of combined supplementation with vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids on blood glucose and blood lipid levels in patients with gestational diabetes.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5652-5658

Obstetrics Department, Haikou Hospital of the Maternal and Child Health, Haikou, China.

Background: To investigate the effects of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids on glucose and blood lipid metabolism in gestational diabetes (GDM) women.

Methods: A total of 150 patients with GDM aged 18-40 who were admitted to our hospital from May 2019 to December 2020 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into test and control groups according to whether they took vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of anthracycline-based postoperative chemotherapy on blood glucose and lipid profiles in patients with invasive breast cancer.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5502-5508

Department of General Surgery, the First Medical Center of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Recent studies have shown that chemotherapy can cause abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in breast cancer patients; however, the effects of different chemotherapy regimens on the glucose and lipid profiles in this population remain unclear.

Methods: The clinical data of 141 invasive breast cancer patients who were treated in our center from January 2019 to December 2020 were retrospectively collected. All patients received surgical treatment and postoperative chemotherapy in our center. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Viral and host transcriptomes in SARS-CoV-2 infected human lung cells.

J Virol 2021 Jun 9:JVI0060021. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Military Veterinary Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, 130122, P. R. China.

Coronaviruses are commonly characterized by a unique discontinuous RNA transcriptional synthesis strategy guided by transcription-regulating sequences (TRSs). However, the details of RNA synthesis in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present a time-scaled, gene-comparable transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating that ACGAAC functions as a core TRS guiding the discontinuous RNA synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 from a holistic perspective. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) suppresses endogenous cholesterol synthesis pathway to oppose gammaherpesvirus replication in primary macrophages.

J Virol 2021 Jun 9:JVI0064921. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Gammaherpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that establish life-long infections in >95% of adults worldwide and are associated with several cancers. We showed that endogenous cholesterol synthesis supports gammaherpesvirus replication. However, the role of exogenous cholesterol exchange and signaling during infection remains poorly understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Growth hormone treatment for adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: a meta-analysis.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Internal Medicine, division of Endocrinology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Context: Features of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) overlap with features of growth hormone (GH) deficiency, like small hands and feet, short stature, increased body fat and low muscle mass and strength. In children with PWS, GH treatment (GHt) improves physical health and cognition. GHt has become standard of care in PWS children, but in adults this is not yet the case. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF