539 results match your criteria cholesterol sensor

SIRT1/NFκB pathway mediates anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of rosmarinic acid on in a mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

J Recept Signal Transduct Res 2021 Mar 31:1-10. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered as a common liver disease. SIRT1, a pivotal sensor, controls activation of metabolic, inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Rosmarinic acid (RA) has positive effects on the liver injuries; nevertheless, its mechanisms are not completely studied. Read More

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LXR stimulates a metabolic switch and reveals cholesterol homeostasis as a statin target in Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease.

Cell Rep 2021 Mar;34(11):108851

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Hepatic Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies (IMDEA) Food, Madrid 28049, Spain. Electronic address:

Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) and its lack of available therapies are propelling the Tasmanian devil population toward extinction. This study demonstrates that cholesterol homeostasis and carbohydrate energy metabolism sustain the proliferation of DFTD cells in a cell-type-dependent manner. In addition, we show that the liver-X nuclear receptor-β (LXRβ), a major cholesterol cellular sensor, and its natural ligand 24S-hydroxycholesterol promote the proliferation of DFTD cells via a metabolic switch toward aerobic glycolysis. Read More

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4β-Hydroxycholesterol is a prolipogenic factor that promotes SREBP1c expression and activity through the liver X receptor.

J Lipid Res 2021 Feb 23;62:100051. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; The Paul F. Glenn Center for Aging Research, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol that play regulatory roles in lipid biosynthesis and homeostasis. How oxysterol signaling coordinates different lipid classes such as sterols and triglycerides remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that 4β-hydroxycholesterol (HC) (4β-HC), a liver and serum abundant oxysterol of poorly defined functions, is a potent and selective inducer of the master lipogenic transcription factor, SREBP1c, but not the related steroidogenic transcription factor SREBP2. Read More

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February 2021

Molecular basis of accessible plasma membrane cholesterol recognition by the GRAM domain of GRAMD1b.

EMBO J 2021 Mar 19;40(6):e106524. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Cholesterol is essential for cell physiology. Transport of the "accessible" pool of cholesterol from the plasma membrane (PM) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by ER-localized GRAMD1 proteins (GRAMD1a/1b/1c) contributes to cholesterol homeostasis. However, how cells detect accessible cholesterol within the PM remains unclear. Read More

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A highly-specific photoelectrochemical platform based on carbon nanodots and polymers functionalized organic-inorganic perovskite for cholesterol sensing.

Talanta 2021 Apr 27;225:122050. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225002, China. Electronic address:

Herein, we reported the introduction of carbon nanodots (CNDs) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as additives into perovskite CHNHPbI through in situ synthesis to prepare PVDF-CHNHPbI@CNDs composite, which demonstrated improved water tolerance and mechanical stability. The application of PVDF-CHNHPbI@CNDs for photoelectrochemical sensing was then explored. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) that could specifically recognize cholesterol (CHO) was anchored to PVDF-CHNHPbI@CNDs via a simple thermal polymerization process, followed by elution with hexane. Read More

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Tumor-Targeting Cholesterol-Decorated DNA Nanoflowers for Intracellular Ratiometric Aptasensing.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 8;33(11):e2007738. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Materials, Department of Bioengineering and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

Probing endogenous molecular profiles is of fundamental importance to understand cellular function and processes. Despite the promise of programmable nucleic-acid-based aptasensors across the breadth of biomolecular detection, target-responsive aptasensors enabling intracellular detection are as of yet infrequently realized. Several challenges remain, including the difficulties in quantification/normalization of quencher-based intensiometric signals, stability issues of the probe architecture, and complex sensor operations often necessitating extensive structural modeling. Read More

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Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway ameliorates steatosis in laying hen hepatocytes.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 4;100(3):100805. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Animal Health, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

The fatty liver hemorrhage syndrome in laying hens is a disease of lipid metabolism disorders. Importantly, energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an essential role in homeostasis regulation of liver lipid. The current research aims to investigate the relationship between AMPK signaling pathway and lipid metabolism in laying hen hepatocytes and explore the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Voltage-Switchable Biosensor with Gold Nanoparticles on TiO Nanotubes Decorated with CdS Quantum Dots for the Detection of Cholesterol and HO.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 13;13(3):3653-3668. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Nanomaterials Research Group (NRG), Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

A thin layer of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) sputtered on cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) decorated anodic titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) (Au/CdS QDs/TNTs) was fabricated and explored for the nonenzymatic detection of cholesterol and hydrogen peroxide (HO). Morphological studies of the sensor revealed the formation of uniform nanotubes decorated with a homogeneously dispersed CdS QDs and Au NPs layer. The electrochemical measurements showed an enhanced electrocatalytic performance with a fast electron transfer (∼2 s) between the redox centers of each analyte and electrode surface. Read More

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January 2021

Lipid metabolism in colon cancer: Role of Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1).

Mol Aspects Med 2021 04 17;78:100933. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy; INBB, National Institute for Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome, Italy; National Cancer Center, IRCCS Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring cancers worldwide. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with CRC onset and progression, nowadays the reprogramming of cellular metabolism has been recognized as a fundamental step of the carcinogenic process. Intestinal tumor cells frequently display an aberrant activation of lipid metabolism. Read More

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The ER cholesterol sensor SCAP promotes CARTS biogenesis at ER-Golgi membrane contact sites.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jan;220(1)

School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.

In response to cholesterol deprivation, SCAP escorts SREBP transcription factors from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex for their proteolytic activation, leading to gene expression for cholesterol synthesis and uptake. Here, we show that in cholesterol-fed cells, ER-localized SCAP interacts through Sac1 phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) phosphatase with a VAP-OSBP complex, which mediates counter-transport of ER cholesterol and Golgi PI4P at ER-Golgi membrane contact sites (MCSs). SCAP knockdown inhibited the turnover of PI4P, perhaps due to a cholesterol transport defect, and altered the subcellular distribution of the VAP-OSBP complex. Read More

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January 2021

Identification of a Novel Link between the Intermediate Filament Organizer IFO-1 and Cholesterol Metabolism in the Intestine.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 11 3;21(21). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Anatomy, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

The intestine is an organ essential to organismal nutrient absorption, metabolic control, barrier function and immunoprotection. The intestine consists of 20 cells harboring a dense intermediate filament network positioned below the apical plasma membrane that forms a junction-anchored sheath around the intestinal lumen. This evolutionarily conserved arrangement provides mechanical and overall stress-protection, and it serves as an important model for deciphering the role of intestinal architecture in metazoan biology. Read More

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November 2020

Live-Cell Imaging of Neurotransmitter Release with a Cell-Surface-Anchored DNA-Nanoprism Fluorescent Sensor.

Anal Chem 2020 11 2;92(22):15194-15201. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

Neurotransmitters are essential chemical mediators for neuronal communication in variable neuromodulations. However, the progress of neuroscience is hampered by the shortage of suitable sensors to track neurotransmitters with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we introduce a self-assembled DNA-nanoprism fluorescent probe capable of nongenetically engineering the cell surface for ultrasensitive imaging of the neurotransmitter release at a single live-cell level. Read More

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November 2020

Direct assessment of very-low-density lipoprotein by mass sensitive sensor with molecularly imprinted polymers.

Talanta 2021 Jan 1;221:121549. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

University of Vienna, Faculty for Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry, Vienna 1090, Austria.

Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) contributes to the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque in the arteries and can lead to coronary heart disease. In clinical laboratory testing, the cholesterol content of VLDL (VLDL-C) cannot be assessed directly by the enzymatic colorimetric assay as it can for other lipoproteins, due to lack of a specific sample pretreatment technique. VLDL concentration relies on analyzing the endogenous triglycerides (TGs) bound in its particles and then converting to the VLDL-C estimate TGs/5. Read More

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January 2021

A Key Motif in the Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysins Reveals a Large Family of Related Proteins.

mBio 2020 09 29;11(5). Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA

The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are bacterial, β-barrel, pore-forming toxins. A central enigma of the pore-forming mechanism is how completion of the prepore is sensed to initiate its conversion to the pore. We identified a motif that is conserved between the CDCs and a diverse family of nearly 300 uncharacterized proteins present in over 220 species that span at least 10 bacterial and 2 eukaryotic phyla. Read More

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September 2020

Reagent-Free Colorimetric Cholesterol Test Strip Based on Self Color-Changing Property of Nanoceria.

Front Chem 2020 2;8:798. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam-si, South Korea.

Paper-based test strip consisting of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) as hydrogen peroxide (HO)-dependent color-changing nanozymes and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been developed for convenient colorimetric determination of cholesterol without the need for chromogenic substrate. The construction of the cholesterol strip begins with physical adsorption of nanoceria on the paper surface, followed by covalent immobilization of ChOx via silanization, chitosan-mediated activation, and glutaraldehyde treatment of the nanoceria-embedded paper matrices. In the presence of cholesterol, ChOx catalyzes its oxidation to produce HO, which forms peroxide complex on the nanoceria surface and induces visual color change of the nanoceria-embedded paper from white/light yellow into intense yellow/orange, which was conveniently quantified with an image acquired by a conventional smartphone with the ImageJ software. Read More

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September 2020

MondoA regulates gene expression in cholesterol biosynthesis-associated pathways required for zebrafish epiboly.

Elife 2020 09 24;9. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Institute of Biological and Chemical Systems - Biological Information Processing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.

The glucose-sensing Mondo pathway regulates expression of metabolic genes in mammals. Here, we characterized its function in the zebrafish and revealed an unexpected role of this pathway in vertebrate embryonic development. We showed that knockdown of impaired the early morphogenetic movement of epiboly in zebrafish embryos and caused microtubule defects. Read More

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September 2020

High Performance Molecular Detection Biosensor Using Plasmonic Spiral Nanoantenna Based on Optical Fiber.

Ali Elrashidi

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2020 May;16(5):715-720

Biomedical sensor that sense different molecules with a high refractive index sensitivity is proposed in this work. Plasmonic nanospiral antenna is mounted on a top surface of an optical fiber to reflect the incident optical signal back to the fiber. The reflected signal depends on the nanospiral antenna material, dimensions and the surrounding medium. Read More

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Glycemic Outcomes in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Participating in a Continuous Glucose Monitor-Driven Virtual Diabetes Clinic: Prospective Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2020 08 28;22(8):e21778. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Verily Life Sciences, South San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: The Onduo virtual diabetes clinic (VDC) for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) combines a mobile app, remote personalized lifestyle coaching, connected devices, and live video consultations with board-certified endocrinologists for medication management and prescription of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) devices for intermittent use.

Objective: This prospective single-arm study evaluated glycemic outcomes associated with participation in the Onduo VDC for 4 months.

Methods: Adults aged ≥18 years with T2D and a baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of ≥8% to ≤12% were enrolled from 2 primary care centers from February 2019 to October 2019. Read More

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How to use the development of individual Drosophila larvae as a metabolic sensor.

J Insect Physiol 2020 10 9;126:104095. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Biotechnology Center (BIOTEC) of the Technische Universitat Dresden (TUD), Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Metabolic research is a challenge because of the variety of data within experimental series and the difficulty of replicating results among scientific groups. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a cost-effective and reliable pioneer model to screen dietary variables for metabolic research. One of the main reasons for problems in this field are differences in food recipes, diet-associated microbial environments and the pharmacokinetic behavior of nutrients across the gut-blood barrier. Read More

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October 2020

Liver X receptor regulates Th17 and RORγt Treg cells by distinct mechanisms.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 03 17;14(2):411-419. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

The gastrointestinal microenvironment, dominated by dietary compounds and the commensal bacteria, is a major driver of intestinal CD4 T helper (Th) cell differentiation. Dietary compounds can be sensed by nuclear receptors (NRs) that consequently exert pleiotropic effects including immune modulation. Here, we found that under homeostatic conditions the NR Liver X receptor (LXR), a sensor of cholesterol metabolites, regulates RORγt CD4 T cells in the intestine draining mesenteric lymph node (MLN). Read More

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β-Cyclodextrin/FeO nanocomposites for an electrochemical non-enzymatic cholesterol sensor.

Anal Methods 2020 07;12(27):3454-3461

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (FMIPA), Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.

A sensitive, specific, and miniaturized non-enzymatic cholesterol sensor was prepared based on the competition of inclusion complex formation between β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and cholesterol, and between BCD and methylene blue (MB). BCD was immobilized on the surface of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles instead of the electrode surface to increase the kinetic rate and enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. Furthermore, the use of magnetic nanocomposites and a screen-printed carbon electrode reduces the overall analysis time and simplifies the sample measurement procedures, making the sensor suitable for point-of-care analysis. Read More

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Construction of Whole-Cell Biosensors for Statin Efficacy and Production Test.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 28;8:404. Epub 2020 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs. Their potential application in anti-cancer treatment is also under investigation. The individual variance in statin response has been observed, which may be caused by the variation in human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR)-the inhibition target of statin drugs. Read More

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Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on peroxidase mimetic activity of GoldMag nanocomposites.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 Nov 1;241:118675. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

College of Food Engineering, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150076, People's Republic of China.

Herein, Gold and magnetic particles (GoldMag), an enzyme mimetic of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), have been designed to construct a colorimetric sensor for cholesterol (Cho). The well-dispersed GoldMag was successfully prepared by green reduction using a self-assembly method based on the surface amino groups, and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) techniques. In the presence of HO, the resulting nanocomposites possessed enhanced intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and could catalytically oxidize 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) to produce a green colored product, which could be observed apparently by the naked eye. Read More

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November 2020

Activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Reduces the Onset of Diet-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice.

Hepatol Commun 2020 Jul 15;4(7):1056-1072. Epub 2020 May 15.

Sanofi R&D Frankfurt Germany.

The worldwide obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemics have led to an increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD covers a spectrum of hepatic pathologies ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, characterized by fibrosis and hepatic inflammation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis predisposes to the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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Bisphosphonate esters interact with HMG-CoA reductase membrane domain to induce its degradation.

Bioorg Med Chem 2020 07 31;28(14):115576. Epub 2020 May 31.

Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 0032, Japan. Electronic address:

HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, and its catalytic domain is the well-known target of cholesterol-lowering drugs, statins. HMGCR is subject to layers of negative feedback loops; excess cholesterol inhibits transcription of the gene, and lanosterols and oxysterols accelerate degradation of HMGCR. A class of synthetic small molecules, bisphosphonate esters exemplified by SR12813, has been known to induce accelerated degradation of HMGCR and reduce the serum cholesterol level. Read More

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IRE1A Stimulates Hepatocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles That Promote Inflammation in Mice With Steatohepatitis.

Gastroenterology 2020 10 20;159(4):1487-1503.e17. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 (ERN1, also called IRE1A) is a sensor of the unfolded protein response that is activated in the livers of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Hepatocytes release ceramide-enriched inflammatory extracellular vesicles (EVs) after activation of IRE1A. We studied the effects of inhibiting IRE1A on release of inflammatory EVs in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis. Read More

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October 2020

A novel electrochemical sensor based on double-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene hybrid thin film for arsenic(V) detection.

J Hazard Mater 2020 12 12;400:123185. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam; Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam. Electronic address:

In this work, we demonstrate the preparation of hybrid thin films based on double-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene for electrochemical sensing applications. The hybrid films were synthesized on polycrystalline copper foil by thermal chemical vapor deposition under low pressure. This carbonaceous hybrid film has exhibited high transparency with a transmittance of 94. Read More

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December 2020

Lipids, inflammasomes, metabolism, and disease.

Paras K Anand

Immunol Rev 2020 09 20;297(1):108-122. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that regulate the cleavage of cysteine protease caspase-1, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and induction of inflammatory cell death, pyroptosis. Several members of the nod-like receptor family assemble inflammasome in response to specific ligands. An exception to this is the NLRP3 inflammasome which is activated by structurally diverse entities. Read More

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September 2020

NOD2 in hepatocytes engages a liver-gut axis to protect against steatosis, fibrosis, and gut dysbiosis during fatty liver disease in mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 08 9;319(2):E305-E314. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Obesity promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The intestinal microbiota contributes to NAFLD progression through a gut-to-liver pathway that promotes inflammation and fibrosis. Gut microbiota-derived factors can travel to the liver and activate immune responses in liver resident cells to promote inflammation and NAFLD. Read More

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The SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin suppresses lipid synthesis and interleukin-1 beta in ApoE deficient mice.

Biochem J 2020 06;477(12):2347-2361

Department of Medicine, Centre for Metabolism, Obesity and Diabetes Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors such as canagliflozin lower blood glucose and reduce cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Canagliflozin has been shown to increase the activity of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic energy sensor important for increasing fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure and suppressing lipogenesis and inflammation, but whether AMPK activation is important for mediating some of the beneficial metabolic effects of canagliflozin has not been determined. We, therefore, evaluated the effects of canagliflozin in female ApoE-/- and ApoE-/-AMPK β1-/- mice fed a western diet. Read More

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