5,512 results match your criteria cholesterol efflux


High Dietary Intervention of Lauric Triglyceride Might be Harmful to Its Improvement of Cholesterol Metabolism in Obese Rats.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Edible and Medicinal Resources Exploitation, School of Resource and Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China.

Hypercholesterolemia is often considered to be a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, and medium-chain fatty acids have been found to reduce the total cholesterol (TC) level and maintain low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) stability. However, we unexpectedly found that the levels of TC and LDL-c were increased in obese rats treated with high-dose lauric triglycerides (LT). The study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of LT on cholesterol metabolism in obese rats. Read More

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The benzoate plant metabolite ethyl gallate prevents cellular- and vascular-lipid accumulation in experimental models of atherosclerosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 8;556:65-71. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China. Electronic address:

Ethyl gallate (EG) is a well-known constituent of medicinal plants, but its effects on atherosclerosis development are not clear. In the present study, the anti-atherosclerosis effects of EG and the underlying mechanisms were explored using macrophage cultures, zebrafish and apolipoprotein (apo) E deficient mice. Treatment of macrophages with EG (20 μM) enhanced cellular cholesterol efflux to HDL, and reduced net lipid accumulation in response to oxidized LDL. Read More

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HDL: Fact, fiction, or function? HDL cholesterol and cardiovascular risk.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):166-173

Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, USA.

The measurement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is highly utilized by clinicians to help predict cardiovascular risk, but this measure is not causally associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events. The use of Mendelian randomization studies has led to a change in investigative attention from the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration to its physiological functions. High-density lipoprotein plays key roles in important pathways related to the development of atherosclerotic disease including reverse cholesterol transport, oxidation and inflammation, and endothelial function as well as in other physiological systems including immune system modulation, cellular apoptosis, and endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis. Read More

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The effect of transgender hormonal treatment on high density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Mar 13;323:44-53. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Background And Aims: A decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations during transgender hormone therapy has been shown. However, the ability of HDL to remove cholesterol from arterial wall macrophages, termed cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), has proven to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) largely independently of HDL-concentrations. In addition, the serum capacity to load macrophages with cholesterol (cholesterol loading capacity, CLC) represents an index of pro-atherogenic potential. Read More

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High-density lipoproteins, reverse cholesterol transport and atherogenesis.

Nat Rev Cardiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations correlate negatively with the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). According to a widely cited model, HDL elicits its atheroprotective effect through its role in reverse cholesterol transport, which comprises the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages to early forms of HDL, followed by the conversion of free cholesterol (FCh) contained in HDL into cholesteryl esters, which are hepatically extracted from the plasma by HDL receptors and transferred to the bile for intestinal excretion. Given that increasing plasma HDL-cholesterol levels by genetic approaches does not reduce the risk of ASCVD, the focus of research has shifted to HDL function, especially in the context of macrophage cholesterol efflux. Read More

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Apolipoprotein M promotes cholesterol uptake and efflux from mouse macrophages.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Clinical Medical Research Center, Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, 213003, China.

Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) exhibits various anti-atherosclerotic functions as a component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a classic HDL receptor that mediates selective cholesterol uptake and enhances the efflux of cellular cholesterol to HDL. However, the effect of ApoM on cholesterol transport in macrophages remains unclear. Read More

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Diagnostic and prognostic value of ABC transporter family member ABCG1 gene in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Channels (Austin) 2021 Dec;15(1):375-385

Department of Infection Control, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

As the most common histologic subtype of renal cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) poses a serious threat to public health. However, there are no specific molecular-targeted drugs for ccRCC at present. Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family plays an important role in homeostasis maintenance. Read More

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December 2021

MicroRNA-325 facilitates atherosclerosis progression by mediating the SREBF1/LXR axis via KDM1A.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 31;277:119464. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Ultrasound Diagnosis, The Fourth Hospital of Jinan, Jinan 250031, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: MicroRNA-325 (miR-325) was significantly upregulated in diabetic atherosclerosis, while its specific role in atherosclerosis has not been established. The present study was set to probe the effects of miR-325 on the atherosclerosis progression and to explore the mechanisms.

Materials And Methods: The ApoE mouse with atherosclerosis was developed to detect the miR-325 expression in atherosclerotic plaques. Read More

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Effect of Tocilizumab on LDL and HDL Characteristics in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. An Observational Study.

Rheumatol Ther 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Lipids and Atherosclerosis, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, INFIBIOC, University of Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), qualitative alterations of low and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) might partially explain their increased cardiovascular risk. Tocilizumab has been associated with an increase in lipids, including triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tocilizumab on certain LDL and HDL characteristics (oxidized LDL levels, HDL-associated enzymes, chemical composition of both total HDL and HDL3c subpopulation, and their capacity to promote cellular cholesterol efflux) at baseline and 3 months after the start of treatment in patients with RA. Read More

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High-Density Lipoproteins and Mediterranean Diet: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 16;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Seville, 41009 Seville, Spain.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality and the study of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) particle composition and functionality has become a matter of high interest, particularly in light to the disappointing clinical data for HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) raising therapies in CVD secondary prevention and the lack of association between HDL-C and the risk of CVD. Recent evidences suggest that HDL composition and functionality could be modulated by diet. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of Mediterranean diet (MD) on changes in HDL structure and functionality in humans. Read More

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High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Efflux Capacity and Atherosclerosis in Cardiovascular Disease: Pathophysiological Aspects and Pharmacological Perspectives.

Cells 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, 43124 Parma, Italy.

Over the years, the relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and atherosclerosis, initially highlighted by the Framingham study, has been revealed to be extremely complex, due to the multiple HDL functions involved in atheroprotection. Among them, HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), the ability of HDL to promote cell cholesterol efflux from cells, has emerged as a better predictor of cardiovascular (CV) risk compared to merely plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. HDL CEC is impaired in many genetic and pathological conditions associated to high CV risk such as dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, endocrine disorders, etc. Read More

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High-Density Lipoproteins and the Kidney.

Cells 2021 Mar 31;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centro E. Grossi Paoletti, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Dyslipidemia is a typical trait of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is typically characterized by reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol(c) levels. The low HDL-c concentration is the only lipid alteration associated with the progression of renal disease in mild-to-moderate CKD patients. Plasma HDL levels are not only reduced but also characterized by alterations in composition and structure, which are responsible for the loss of atheroprotective functions, like the ability to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties. Read More

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P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors Differently Affect , and Proliferation in Bovine Primary Endothelial Cells.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 25;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Biomedical Research Center Seltersberg, Institute of Parasitology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Apicomplexan parasites are obligatory intracellular protozoa. In the case of , or , to ensure proper tachyzoite production, they need nutrients and cell building blocks. However, apicomplexans are auxotrophic for cholesterol, which is required for membrane biosynthesis. Read More

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Protection against Glucolipotoxicity by High Density Lipoprotein in Human PANC-1 Hybrid 1.1B4 Pancreatic Beta Cells: The Role of microRNA.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK.

High-density lipoproteins provide protection against the damaging effects of glucolipotoxicity in beta cells, a factor which sustains insulin secretion and staves off onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examines epigenetic changes in small non-coding microRNA sequences induced by high density lipoproteins in a human hybrid beta cell model, and tests the impact of delivery of a single sequence in protecting against glucolipotoxicity. Human PANC-1. Read More

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Foam Cells as Therapeutic Targets in Atherosclerosis with a Focus on the Regulatory Roles of Non-Coding RNAs.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 3;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 9177948564, Iran.

Atherosclerosis is a major cause of human cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality around the world. Various physiological and pathological processes are involved, including chronic inflammation, dysregulation of lipid metabolism, development of an environment characterized by oxidative stress and improper immune responses. Accordingly, the expansion of novel targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis is necessary. Read More

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GCase and LIMP2 Abnormalities in the Liver of Niemann Pick Type C Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 3;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department Medical Biochemistry, Leiden University, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

The lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is caused by impaired cholesterol efflux from lysosomes, which is accompanied by secondary lysosomal accumulation of sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide (GlcCer). Similar to Gaucher disease (GD), patients deficient in glucocerebrosidase (GCase) degrading GlcCer, NPC patients show an elevated glucosylsphingosine and glucosylated cholesterol. In livers of mice lacking the lysosomal cholesterol efflux transporter NPC1, we investigated the expression of established biomarkers of lipid-laden macrophages of GD patients, their GCase status, and content on the cytosol facing glucosylceramidase GBA2 and lysosomal integral membrane protein type B (LIMP2), a transporter of newly formed GCase to lysosomes. Read More

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, , , and Polymorphisms Are Associated with Increased Serum Coenzyme Q after Long-Term Supplementation in Women.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Graduate School of Human Ecology, Wayo Women's University, 2-3-1 Konodai, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-8533, Japan.

Coenzyme Q (CoQ), an essential component for energy production that exhibits antioxidant activity, is considered a health-supporting and antiaging supplement. However, intervention-controlled studies have provided variable results on CoQ supplementation benefits, which may be attributed to individual CoQ bioavailability differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and CoQ serum levels after long-term supplementation. Read More

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Role of Adenylate Cyclase 9 in the Pharmacogenomic Response to Dalcetrapib: Clinical Paradigm and Molecular Mechanisms in Precision Cardiovascular Medicine.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Apr 2:CIRCGEN121003219. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Montreal Heart Institute (D.R., M.R.B., M.-P.D., J.-C.T.).

Following the neutral results of the dal-OUTCOMES trial, a genome-wide study identified the rs1967309 variant in the adenylate cyclase type 9 () gene on chromosome 16 as being associated with the risk of future cardiovascular events only in subjects taking dalcetrapib, a CETP (cholesterol ester transfer protein) modulator. Homozygotes for the minor A allele (AA) were protected from recurrent cardiovascular events when treated with dalcetrapib, while homozygotes for the major G allele (GG) had increased risk. Here, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of rs1967309 in on clinical observations and biomarkers in dalcetrapib trials and the effects of mouse gene inactivation on cardiovascular physiology. Read More

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Systemic metabolite profiling reveals sexual dimorphism of AIBP control of metabolism in mice.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(4):e0248964. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Cardiovascular Regeneration, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States of America.

Emerging studies indicate that APOA-I binding protein (AIBP) is a secreted protein and functions extracellularly to promote cellular cholesterol efflux, thereby disrupting lipid rafts on the plasma membrane. AIBP is also present in the mitochondria and acts as an epimerase, facilitating the repair of dysfunctional hydrated NAD(P)H, known as NAD(P)H(X). Importantly, AIBP deficiency contributes to lethal neurometabolic disorder, reminiscent of the Leigh syndrome in humans. Read More

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Loss of TIMP4 (Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 4) Promotes Atherosclerotic Plaque Deposition in the Abdominal Aorta Despite Suppressed Plasma Cholesterol Levels.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Apr 1:ATVBAHA120315522. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Center (M.H., S.J., T.K., F.W., M.S., G.Y.O., Z.K.).

Objective: Atherosclerosis is accumulation of lipids and extracellular matrix in the arterial wall. TIMPs (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases) can impact plaque deposition by regulating ECM (extracellular matrix) turnover. TIMP4 also influences lipid metabolism and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Read More

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Low LAL (Lysosomal Acid Lipase) Expression by Smooth Muscle Cells Relative to Macrophages as a Mechanism for Arterial Foam Cell Formation.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Apr 1:ATVBAHA120316063. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Departments of Medicine, Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, Providence Healthcare Research Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. (J.A.D., S.A., K.J.B., C.O., C.S.P., K.B., T.C., G.A.F.).

Objective: We previously reported smooth muscle cells (SMCs) represent ≥50% of foam cells in human coronary and ≈70% in apoE (apolipoprotein E)-deficient mouse aortic atheromas and exhibit reduced expression of the cholesterol exporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1). A major stimulus for ABCA1 expression is flux of cholesterol out of lysosomes, generated by hydrolysis of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters by LAL (lysosomal acid lipase). In this study, we investigated the potential role lysosomal dysfunction might play in foam cell formation by arterial SMCs. Read More

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Warburg's Ghost-Cancer's Self-Sustaining Phenotype: The Aberrant Carbon Flux in Cholesterol-Enriched Tumor Mitochondria via Deregulated Cholesterogenesis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 12;9:626316. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Kingsborough Community College, Brooklyn, NY, United States.

Interpreting connections between the multiple networks of cell metabolism is indispensable for understanding how cells maintain homeostasis or transform into the decontrolled proliferation phenotype of cancer. Situated at a critical metabolic intersection, citrate, derived via glycolysis, serves as either a combustible fuel for aerobic mitochondrial bioenergetics or as a continuously replenished cytosolic carbon source for lipid biosynthesis, an essentially anaerobic process. Therein lies the paradox: under what conditions do cells control the metabolic route by which they process citrate? The Warburg effect exposes essentially the same dilemma-why do cancer cells, despite an abundance of oxygen needed for energy-generating mitochondrial respiration with citrate as fuel, avoid catabolizing mitochondrial citrate and instead rely upon accelerated glycolysis to support their energy requirements? This review details the genesis and consequences of the metabolic paradigm of a "truncated" Krebs/TCA cycle. Read More

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PPARα agonist fenofibrate relieves acquired resistance to gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer by promoting apoptosis via PPARα/AMPK/AKT/FoxO1 pathway.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Recent studies show that intracellular accumulation of cholesterol leads to acquired resistance to gefitinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. In this study we investigated how to regulate the cholesterol levels in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells. We showed that intracellular cholesterol levels in gefitinib-resistant cell lines (PC-9/GR, H1975, H1650, and A549) were significantly higher than that in gefitinib-sensitive cell line (PC-9). Read More

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Overexpression of STARD3 attenuates oxidized LDL-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Mar 24;1866(7):158927. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, United Kingdom; Department of Vision Science, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, United Kingdom; School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang, Hunan 422000, PR China. Electronic address:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of visual disorder in aged people and may lead to complete blindness with ageing. The major clinical feature of AMD is the presence of cholesterol enriched deposits underneath the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The deposits can induce oxidative stress and inflammation. Read More

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Association between cholesterol efflux capacity and peripheral artery disease in coronary heart disease patients with and without type 2 diabetes: from the CORDIOPREV study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 Mar 25;20(1):72. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit. Servicio de Medicina Interna, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research in Córdoba, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is recognized as a significant predictor of mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). In fact, coexisting PAD and CHD is strongly associated with a greater coronary event recurrence compared with either one of them alone. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is found to be inversely associated with an increased risk of incident CHD. Read More

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Sexually Dimorphic Relationships Among Saa3 (Serum Amyloid A3) Inflammation, and Cholesterol Metabolism Modulate Atherosclerosis in Mice.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Mar 25:ATVBAHA121316066. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition (A.C., S.W., L.G., D.G., K.E.T., J.T., C.S., K.B.R., C.T., T.V., L.J.D.H.).

Objective: Expression of the extrahepatic acute-phase protein Saa3 (serum amyloid A3) increases in response to acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli and is elevated in adipose tissue and macrophages in obese mice. A recent report suggested that Saa3 is proatherogenic in male mice. Because of our previous observation that female but not male Saa3-deficient mice are protected from obesity, adipose inflammation, and hyperlipidemia, we sought to determine whether Saa3 differentially modulates atherosclerosis in mice of both sexes. Read More

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Hepatic expression of cholesterol regulating genes favour increased circulating low-density lipoprotein in HIV infected patients with gallstone disease: a preliminary study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Mar 23;21(1):294. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Science, College of Health Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, Glenwood, 4041, South Africa.

Background: HIV endemic populations are displaying higher incidence of metabolic disorders. HIV and the standard treatment are both associated with altered lipid and cholesterol metabolism, however gallstone disease (a cholesterol related disorder) in Sub-Saharan African populations is rarely investigated.

Methods: This study sought to evaluate hepatic expression of key genes in cholesterol metabolism (LDLr, HMGCR, ABCA1) and transcriptional regulators of these genes (microRNA-148a, SREBP2) in HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy presenting with gallstones. Read More

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