701 results match your criteria cholangitis necrosis

Challenging diagnostic work-up of a massive fluid-filled structure in the cranial abdomen of a cat.

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation.

A 9-year-old female, neutered European shorthair cat was presented with acute vomiting, obvious jaundice and painful enlargement of the abdomen. Icteric skin and mucous membranes in addition to severe bilirubinaemia (mainly direct bilirubin) and a large increase in liver enzyme activities were the main findings at the initial examination. Radio- and ultrasonographic evaluation revealed a massive fluid-filled structure caudal to the liver displacing abdominal organs, in particular the stomach. Read More

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October 2021

Histopathological examination of the impact of sodium hypochlorite on the hepatobiliary system. An experimental study.

Ann Ital Chir 2021 ;92:412-418

Background: The liver is the most common organ for settlement of hydatic cyst disease. All acknowledged protoscolicidals that are used for echinococcus degeneration have a risk of caustic secondary sclerosing cholangitis. The sodium hypochlorite is an effective protoscolicidal agent for treatment of hydatid liver cysts in vitro. Read More

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September 2021

Classification of Distinct Patterns of Ischemic Cholangiopathy Following DCD Liver Transplantation: Distinct Clinical Courses and Long-term Outcomes From a Multicenter Cohort.

Transplantation 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Transplant, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL. Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ. Division of Gastroenterology and hepatology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ. Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN. Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: As the number of donation after circulatory death(DCD) liver transplants(LTs) performed in the United States continues to increase annually, there has been interest by policy makers to develop a more robust exception point safety net for patients who develop ischemic cholangiopathy(IC) following DCD LT. As such, there is a need for better understanding of the clinical course and long-term outcomes in patients who develop IC, as well as determining if IC can be classified into distinct categories with distinctly different clinical outcomes.

Methods: All DCD LT performed at Mayo Clinic-Florida, Mayo Clinic-Arizona and Mayo Clinic-Rochester from 1/1999-3/2020 were included(N=770). Read More

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Mast Cells in Liver Disease Progression: An Update on Current Studies and Implications.

Hepatology 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Mast cells (MCs) induce the progression of liver diseases including, but not limited to, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (ALD/NAFLD), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The effects of MCs during disease progression includes alterations in ductular reaction, steatosis, hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. In addition, there is significant crosstalk between MCs, MC mediators (histamine, tryptase, chymase) and MC-derived cytokines (transforming growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins). Read More

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Clinical course of liver injury induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced malignancies.

Hepatol Int 2021 Oct 9;15(5):1278-1287. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Background: The clinical course of liver injury induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) varies among individuals, and there were few reports on the therapeutic effects of corticosteroids based on the patterns of liver injury.

Methods: We evaluated the characteristics and clinical course of immune-related liver injury in 1214 patients treated with ICIs for advanced malignancies except for hepatocellular carcinoma between August 2014 and May 2021.

Results: During the follow-up period (median, 252 days), 58 patients (4. Read More

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October 2021

The Salivary Microbiota of Patients With Primary Biliary Cholangitis Is Distinctive and Pathogenic.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:713647. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The role of host-microbiota interactions in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) has received increased attention. However, the impact of PBC on the oral microbiota and contribution of the oral microbiota to PBC are unclear. In this study, thirty-nine PBC patients without other diseases and 37 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and tested for liver functions and haematological variables. Read More

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Acute oesophageal necrosis: an important differential in the elderly population with haematemesis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 27;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Gastroenterology, Southend University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Westcliff-on-Sea, UK.

Acute oesophageal necrosis is a rare cause of haematemesis associated with high mortality and morbidity in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. Acute oesophageal necrosis is thought to be caused by a combination of hypoperfusion, vascular disease and duodenal disease causing transient gastric outlet obstruction and therefore reflux of gastric contents. The subsequent necrosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Acute autoimmune-like hepatitis with atypical anti-mitochondrial antibody after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination: A novel clinical entity?

J Autoimmun 2021 09 15;123:102706. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Epatocentro Ticino, Via Soldino 5, 6900, Lugano, Switzerland; King's College London Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, Institute of Liver Studies, MowatLabs, London, UK; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università Della Svizzera Italiana, 6900, Lugano, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Autoimmune phenomena and clinically apparent autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis, are increasingly been reported not only after natural infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but also after vaccination against it. We report the case of a 63-year old man without a history of autoimmunity or SARS-CoV-2 natural infection who experienced acute severe autoimmune-like hepatitis seven days after the first dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Liver histology showed inflammatory portal infiltrate with interface hepatitis, lobular and centrilobular inflammation with centrilobular necrosis, in absence of fibrosis and steatosis. Read More

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September 2021

Severe liver disease resembling PSC in mice with K5-Cre mediated deletion of Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5).

Transgenic Res 2021 10 11;30(5):701-707. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Chronic cholestatic liver diseases including primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) present a complex spectrum with regards to the cause, age of manifestation and histopathological features. Current treatment options are severely limited primarily due to a paucity of model systems mirroring the disease. Here, we describe the Keratin 5 (K5)-Cre; Klf5 mouse that spontaneously develops severe liver disease during the postnatal period with features resembling PSC including a prominent ductular reaction, fibrotic obliteration of the bile ducts and secondary degeneration/necrosis of liver parenchyma. Read More

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October 2021

Boosting mitochondria activity by silencing MCJ overcomes cholestasis-induced liver injury.

JHEP Rep 2021 Jun 18;3(3):100276. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Liver Disease and Liver Metabolism Laboratory, CIC bioGUNE-BRTA (Basque Research & Technology Alliance), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Derio, Bizkaia, Spain.

Background & Aims: Mitochondria are the major organelles for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been described as a key factor in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease. The methylation-controlled J-protein (MCJ) is a mitochondrial protein that interacts with and represses the function of complex I of the electron transport chain. The relevance of MCJ in the pathology of cholestasis has not yet been explored. Read More

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Effective use of switching biologics for ulcerative colitis complicated with pyoderma gangrenosum and primary sclerosing cholangitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 6;14(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Gastroenterology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.

Although prednisolone, granulocyte/monocyte apheresis, calcineurin inhibitor and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy are generally used, no treatment strategy for inflammatory bowel disease complicated with pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) has been established yet. Herein, we present the case of a 29-year-old man with ulcerative colitis (UC) complicated with primary sclerosing cholangitis. When UC relapsed and PG developed, prednisolone and granulocyte/monocyte apheresis were used; however, their therapeutic effects were deemed insufficient. Read More

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Genetic or pharmacological reduction of cholangiocyte senescence improves inflammation and fibrosis in the  mouse.

JHEP Rep 2021 Jun 27;3(3):100250. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and the Mayo Clinic Center for Cell Signaling in Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background & Aims: Cholangiocyte senescence is important in the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We found that CDKN2A (p16), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and mediator of senescence, was increased in cholangiocytes of patients with PSC and from a PSC mouse model (multidrug resistance 2; ). Given that recent data suggest that a reduction of senescent cells is beneficial in different diseases, we hypothesised that inhibition of cholangiocyte senescence would ameliorate disease in mice. Read More

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CXCL12-CXCR4-Mediated Chemotaxis Supports Accumulation of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells Into the Liver of Patients With PBC.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:578548. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

To explore the potential role of CD3CD8CD161 TCRVα7.2 mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We enrolled 55 patients with PBC, 69 healthy controls (HCs), and 8 patients with hepatic hemangioma. Read More

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Isotschimgine alleviates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis via FXR agonism in mice.

Phytother Res 2021 Jun 30;35(6):3351-3364. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) has emerged as a potential therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the side effects of OCA may limit its application in clinics. We identified previously that isotschimgine (ITG) is a non-steroidal FXR selective agonist and has potent therapeutic effects on NAFLD in mice. Read More

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Predicting Therapeutic Response in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis-A Journey Towards Precision Medicine.

Front Pediatr 2021 17;9:634739. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disabling disease, characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon, with a rising prevalence worldwide in the pediatric age group. Although UC presents in children with varying severity, disease extent, and comorbidities, initial treatment is essentially uniform, consisting of 5-aminosalicylate drugs with corticosteroid induction for those with moderately to severely active disease. With the advent of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biologic therapy and several new biologics and small-molecule drugs for UC, precision medicine approaches to treatment are needed to more rapidly achieve sustained remission, restore quality of life, normalize development, and limit exposure to toxic corticosteroids in children with UC. Read More

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February 2021

Secretes Outer Membrane Vesicles and Promotes Intestinal Inflammation.

mBio 2021 03 2;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Multiple studies have implicated microbes in the development of inflammation, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Bacteria in the genus have been identified in the intestinal mucosa of patients with digestive diseases; thus, we hypothesized that promotes intestinal inflammation. The addition of >50 kDa conditioned media, which contain outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), to colonic epithelial cells stimulated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Read More

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Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis-Associated Pouchitis: A Distinct Clinical Phenotype.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) commonly undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for medically-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) or colorectal dysplasia. Pouchitis develops more frequently in patients with PSC, potentially leading to increased morbidity. We aimed to assess clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes for pouchitis in patients with PSC compared to a matched, non-PSC cohort. Read More

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February 2021

An Autopsy Case of Primary Biliary Cholangitis with Histological Submassive Hepatic Necrosis Caused by Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection.

Intern Med 2021 Jun 1;60(12):1863-1870. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Japan.

A 59-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with cirrhotic primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) 5 years earlier was admitted for severe jaundice (total bilirubin: 30.1 mg/dL). We suspected that her cirrhotic PBC had deteriorated acutely for some reason. Read More

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Vedolizumab and Extraintestinal Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Drugs 2021 Feb;81(3):333-347

Alimentiv, #200, 100 Dundas Street, London, N6A 5B6, ON, Canada.

In Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, inflammation is not limited to the digestive tract. Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs), which affect up to 50% of patients, can substantially impair quality of life. EIMs may parallel luminal disease activity or have an independent course. Read More

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February 2021

Association of Anti-TNF Therapy With Increased Risk of Acute Cholangitis in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Background: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are at increased risk of developing acute cholangitis. The majority of patients with PSC have comorbid inflammatory bowel disease, and many take immunosuppressive medications. The epidemiological risks for the development of acute cholangitis in patients with PSC, including the impact of immunosuppressive therapy, are unknown. Read More

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December 2020

Current understanding of primary biliary cholangitis.

Atsushi Tanaka

Clin Mol Hepatol 2021 01 3;27(1):1-21. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) causes chronic and persistent cholestasis in the liver, eventually resulting in cirrhosis and hepatic failure without appropriate treatment. PBC mainly develops in middle-aged women, but it is also common in young women and men. PBC is considered a model of autoimmune disease because of the presence of diseasespecific autoantibodies, that is, antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs), intense infiltration of mononuclear cells into the bile ducts, and a high prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as comorbidities. Read More

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January 2021

Management of Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2020 Nov 19:1-12. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 410 W 10th Street, 2nd floor, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.

Purpose Of Review: There have been significant advancements in different aspects of management of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Our review of the most recent literature focuses on severity prediction, fluid resuscitation, analgesic administration, nutrition, and endoscopic intervention for SAP and its extra-pancreatic complications.

Recent Findings: Recent studies on serum cytokines for the prediction of SAP have shown superior prognostic performance when compared with conventional laboratory tests and clinical scoring systems. Read More

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November 2020

Characterization and prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations in a cohort of patients with inflammatory intestinal disease in Medellin, Colombia.

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun-Jul;44(6):398-404. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, Medellín, Colombia; Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.

Introduction: Extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) are frequent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our objective is to characterize and determine the prevalence of MEIs in our cohort of patients with IBD.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in adult patients with IBD at the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital in Medellín. Read More

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November 2020

Purinergic signalling in liver diseases: Pathological functions and therapeutic opportunities.

JHEP Rep 2020 Dec 30;2(6):100165. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Experimental and Translational Research Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tolerance Induction and Organ Protection in Transplantation & National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Diseases, Beijing 100050, China.

Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, are essential regulators of liver function and serve as danger signals that trigger inflammation upon injury. Ectonucleotidases, which are expressed by liver-resident cells and recruited immune cells sequentially hydrolyse nucleotides to adenosine. The nucleotide/nucleoside balance orchestrates liver homeostasis, tissue repair, and functional restoration by regulating the crosstalk between liver-resident cells and recruited immune cells. Read More

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December 2020

Gut Microbiota-Dependent Trimethylamine N-Oxide Associates With Inflammation in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

Front Immunol 2020 16;11:574500. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Division of Surgery, Inflammatory Diseases and Transplantation, Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

A substantial proportion of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have inflammatory and autoimmune complications of unknown etiology. We have previously shown that systemic inflammation in CVID correlates with their gut microbial dysbiosis. The gut microbiota dependent metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to several metabolic and inflammatory disorders, but has hitherto not been investigated in relation to CVID. Read More

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Isolation of from free-range poultry with spotty liver disease in New Zealand.

N Z Vet J 2021 Jan 2;69(1):58-64. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

EpiLab, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

In October 2019, a free-range egg laying flock suffering an outbreak of spotty liver disease was investigated. Eight 32-week-old hens were examined post-mortem. Five of the eight hens had sparse, focal, gross hepatic lesions typical of spotty liver disease. Read More

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January 2021

Cerebral Vascular Thrombosis Associated With Ulcerative Colitis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2021 Mar;42(1):81-84

Abstract: We report a case of a sudden death of a 23-year-old man with a history of ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis due to cerebral vascular thrombosis. He was found supine in bed with no signs of trauma or drug use. Three days before being found, he had complained of fever and excessive diarrhea. Read More

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Transcutaneous Neuromodulation improved inflammation and sympathovagal ratio in patients with primary biliary ssscholangitis and inadequate response to Ursodeoxycholic acid: a pilot study.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Aug 1;20(1):242. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

The Second Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, No. 222 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116011, Liaoning, China.

Background: At present, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is internationally recognized as a therapeutic drug in clinic. However, about 40% Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) patients are poor responders to UDCA. It has been demonstrated that Transcutaneous Neuromodulation (TN) can be involved in gut motility, metabolism of bile acids, immune inflammation, and autonomic nerve. Read More

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Urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy versus conservative treatment in predicted severe acute gallstone pancreatitis (APEC): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2020 07;396(10245):167-176

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort, Netherlands.

Background: It remains unclear whether urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with biliary sphincterotomy improves the outcome of patients with gallstone pancreatitis without concomitant cholangitis. We did a randomised trial to compare urgent ERCP with sphincterotomy versus conservative treatment in patients with predicted severe acute gallstone pancreatitis.

Methods: In this multicentre, parallel-group, assessor-masked, randomised controlled superiority trial, patients with predicted severe (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score ≥8, Imrie score ≥3, or C-reactive protein concentration >150 mg/L) gallstone pancreatitis without cholangitis were assessed for eligibility in 26 hospitals in the Netherlands. Read More

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