1,585 results match your criteria chloroplast biogenesis


GUN control in retrograde signaling: How GENOMES UNCOUPLED proteins adjust nuclear gene expression to plastid biogenesis.

Plant Cell 2021 May;33(3):457-474

Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany.

Communication between cellular compartments is vital for development and environmental adaptation. Signals emanating from organelles, so-called retrograde signals, coordinate nuclear gene expression with the developmental stage and/or the functional status of the organelle. Plastids (best known in their green photosynthesizing differentiated form, the chloroplasts) are the primary energy-producing compartment of plant cells, and the site for the biosynthesis of many metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides, isoprenoids, tetrapyrroles, vitamins, and phytohormone precursors. Read More

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ZmPPR26, a DYW-type pentatricopeptide repeat protein, is required for C-to-U RNA editing at atpA-1148 in maize chloroplasts.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Lab of Plant Development and Environment Adaptation Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are involved in the C-to-U RNA editing of organellar transcripts. Maize genome contains over 600 PPR proteins and few have been found to function in the C-to-U RNA editing in chloroplasts. Here, we report the function of ZmPPR26 in the C-to-U RNA editing and chloroplast biogenesis in maize. Read More

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YbeY, éminence grise of ribosome biogenesis.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

UMR7156 - Génétique Moléculaire, Génomique et Microbiologie (GMGM), University of Strasbourg, CNRS, Strasbourg, France.

YbeY is an ultraconserved small protein belonging to the unique heritage shared by most existing bacteria and eukaryotic organelles of bacterial origin, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Studied in more than a dozen of evolutionarily distant species, YbeY is invariably critical for cellular physiology. However, the exact mechanisms by which it exerts such penetrating influence are not completely understood. Read More

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tRNA-Dependent Import of a Transit Sequence-Less Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase (LeuRS2) into the Mitochondria of Arabidopsis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 7;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cell Biochemistry, Institute for Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AaRS) charge tRNAs with amino acids for protein translation. In plants, cytoplasmic, mitochondrial, and chloroplast AaRS exist that are all coded for by nuclear genes and must be imported from the cytosol. In addition, only a few of the mitochondrial tRNAs needed for translation are encoded in mitochondrial DNA. Read More

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OsMORF9 is necessary for chloroplast development and seedling survival in rice.

Plant Sci 2021 Jun 7;307:110907. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Lab of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, 310006, China. Electronic address:

Chloroplasts are closely associated with the growth and development of higher plants. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORF) family of proteins influences plastidic and mitochondrial development through post-transcriptional regulation. However, the role of MORFs in regulating the development of chloroplasts in rice is still unclear. Read More

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In-vivo functional analysis of the structural domains of FLUORESCENT (FLU).

Plant J 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Lebenswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Institut für Biologie, AG Pflanzenphysiologie, Philippstrasse 13, 10115, Berlin, Germany.

The control of chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in angiosperms depends on the light-operating enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The interruption of Chl synthesis during darkness requires suppression of the synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the first precursor molecule specific for Chl synthesis. The inactivation of glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR), the first enzyme in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, accomplished the decreased ALA synthesis by the membrane-bound protein FLUORESCENT (FLU) and prevents over-accumulation of Pchlide in the dark. Read More

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Backbone phylogeny and evolution of Apioideae (Apiaceae): New insights from phylogenomic analyses of plastome data.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 20;161:107183. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Traditional phylogenies inferred from chloroplast DNA fragments have not obtained a well-resolved evolutionary history for the backbone of Apioideae, the largest subfamily of Apiaceae. In this study, we applied the genome skimming approach of next-generation sequencing to address whether the lack of resolution at the tip of the Apioideae phylogenetic tree is due to limited information loci or the footprint of ancient radiation. A total of 90 complete chloroplast genomes (including 23 newly sequenced genomes and covering 20 major clades of Apioideae) were analyzed (RAxML and MrBayes) to provide a phylogenomic reconstruction of Apioideae. Read More

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Constitutive expression of Ribosomal Protein L6 modulates salt tolerance in rice transgenic plants.

Gene 2021 Apr 20;789:145670. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India; Agri-Biotech Foundation, PJTS Agricultural University, Hyderabad 500030, India.

We have functionally characterized the RPL6, a Ribosomal Protein Large subunit gene for salt stress tolerance in rice. The overexpression of RPL6 resulted in tolerance to moderate (150 mM) to high (200 mM) levels of salt (NaCl). The transgenic rice plants expressing RPL6 constitutively showed better phenotypic and physiological responses with high quantum efficiency, accumulation of higher chlorophyll and proline contents, and an overall increase in seed yield compared with the wild type in salt stress treatments. Read More

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TGD5 is required for normal morphogenesis of non-mesophyll plastids, but not mesophyll chloroplasts, in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 102-8554, Japan.

Stromules are dynamic membrane-bound tubular structures that emanate from plastids. Stromule formation is triggered in response to various stresses and during plant development, suggesting that stromules may have physiological and developmental roles in these processes. Despite the possible biological importance of stromules and their prevalence in green plants, however, their exact roles and formation mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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The DnaJ proteins DJA6 and DJA5 are essential for chloroplast iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis.

EMBO J 2021 Apr 15:e106742. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Adaption and Improvement, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

Fe-S clusters are ancient, ubiquitous and highly essential prosthetic groups for numerous fundamental processes of life. The biogenesis of Fe-S clusters is a multistep process including iron acquisition, sulfur mobilization, and cluster formation. Extensive studies have provided deep insights into the mechanism of the latter two assembly steps. Read More

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RCB initiates Arabidopsis thermomorphogenesis by stabilizing the thermoregulator PIF4 in the daytime.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2042. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, Institute for Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

Daytime warm temperature elicits thermomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis by stabilizing the central thermoregulator PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING transcription FACTOR 4 (PIF4), whose degradation is otherwise promoted by the photoreceptor and thermosensor phytochrome B. PIF4 stabilization in the light requires a transcriptional activator, HEMERA (HMR), and is abrogated when HMR's transactivation activity is impaired in hmr-22. Here, we report the identification of a hmr-22 suppressor mutant, rcb-101, which surprisingly carries an A275V mutation in REGULATOR OF CHLOROPLAST BIOGENESIS (RCB). Read More

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A PPR Protein ACM1 Is Involved in Chloroplast Gene Expression and Early Plastid Development in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 3;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

Chloroplasts cannot develop normally without the coordinated action of various proteins and signaling connections between the nucleus and the chloroplast genome. Many questions regarding these processes remain unanswered. Here, we report a novel P-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) factor, named Albino Cotyledon Mutant1 (ACM1), which is encoded by a nuclear gene and involved in chloroplast development. Read More

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The availability of neither D2 nor CP43 limits the biogenesis of photosystem II in tobacco.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr;185(3):1111-1130

Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.

The pathway of photosystem II (PSII) assembly is well understood, and multiple auxiliary proteins supporting it have been identified, but little is known about rate-limiting steps controlling PSII biogenesis. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, indications exist that the biosynthesis of the chloroplast-encoded D2 reaction center subunit (PsbD) limits PSII accumulation. To determine the importance of D2 synthesis for PSII accumulation in vascular plants and elucidate the contributions of transcriptional and translational regulation, we modified the 5'-untranslated region of psbD via chloroplast transformation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Read More

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GUN control in retrograde signaling: How GENOMES UNCOUPLED proteins adjust nuclear gene expression to plastid biogenesis.

Plant Cell 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany.

Communication between cellular compartments is vital for development and environmental adaptation. Signals emanating from organelles, so-called retrograde signals, coordinate nuclear gene expression with the developmental stage and/or the functional status of the organelle. Plastids (best known in their green photosynthesizing differentiated form, the chloroplasts) are the primary energy-producing compartment of plant cells, and the site for the biosynthesis of many metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides, isoprenoids, tetrapyrroles, vitamins, and phytohormone precursors. Read More

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January 2021

RNA methylation in chloroplasts or mitochondria in plants.

RNA Biol 2021 Apr 5:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Applied Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

Recent advances in our understanding of epitranscriptomic RNA methylation have expanded the complexity of gene expression regulation beyond epigenetic regulation involving DNA methylation and histone modifications. The instalment, removal, and interpretation of methylation marks on RNAs are carried out by writers (methyltransferases), erasers (demethylases), and readers (RNA-binding proteins), respectively. Contrary to an emerging body of evidence demonstrating the importance of RNA methylation in the diverse fates of RNA molecules, including splicing, export, translation, and decay in the nucleus and cytoplasm, their roles in plant organelles remain largely unclear and are only now being discovered. Read More

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Genetic analysis of the barley variegation mutant, grandpa1.a.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Mar 13;21(1):134. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

USDA-ARS Cereals Research Unit, Edward T. Schafer Agriculture Research Center, Fargo, ND, 58102, USA.

Background: Providing the photosynthesis factory for plants, chloroplasts are critical for crop biomass and economic yield. However, chloroplast development is a complicated process, coordinated by the cross-communication between the nucleus and plastids, and the underlying biogenesis mechanism has not been fully revealed. Variegation mutants have provided ideal models to identify genes or factors involved in chloroplast development. Read More

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Friendly mediates membrane depolarization-induced mitophagy in Arabidopsis.

Curr Biol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of Life Sciences, Centre for Cell & Developmental Biology and State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

The oxidative environment within the mitochondria makes them particularly vulnerable to proteotoxic stress. To maintain a healthy mitochondrial network, eukaryotes have evolved multi-tiered quality control pathways. If the stress cannot be alleviated, defective mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy via a process termed mitophagy. Read More

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A RanBP2-type zinc finger protein functions in intron splicing in Arabidopsis mitochondria and is involved in the biogenesis of respiratory complex I.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 04;49(6):3490-3506

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

The RanBP2 zinc finger (Znf) domain is a prevalent domain that mediates protein interaction and RNA binding. In Arabidopsis, a clade of four RanBP2 Znf-containing proteins, named the Organelle Zinc (OZ) finger family, are known or predicted to be targeted to either the mitochondria or the plastids. Previously we reported that OZ1 is absolutely required for the editing of 14 sites in chloroplasts. Read More

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Building Better Barrels - β-barrel Biogenesis and Insertion in Bacteria and Mitochondria.

J Mol Biol 2021 Feb 24:166894. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

β-barrel proteins are folded and inserted into outer membranes by multi-subunit protein complexes that are conserved across different types of outer membranes. In Gram-negative bacteria this complex is the barrel-assembly machinery (BAM), in mitochondria it is the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) complex, and in chloroplasts it is the outer envelope protein Oep80. Mitochondrial β-barrel precursor proteins are translocated from the cytoplasm to the intermembrane space by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex, and stabilized by molecular chaperones before interaction with the assembly machinery. Read More

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February 2021

Functioning of PPR Proteins in Organelle RNA Metabolism and Chloroplast Biogenesis.

Front Plant Sci 2021 9;12:627501. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest nuclear-encoded protein families in higher plants, with over 400 members in most sequenced plant species. The molecular functions of these proteins and their physiological roles during plant growth and development have been widely studied. Generally, there is mounting evidence that PPR proteins are involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of chloroplast and/or mitochondrial genes, including RNA maturation, editing, intron splicing, transcripts' stabilization, and translation initiation. Read More

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February 2021

A multifaceted analysis reveals two distinct phases of chloroplast biogenesis during de-etiolation in .

Elife 2021 Feb 25;10. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Plant Physiology Laboratory, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Light triggers chloroplast differentiation whereby the etioplast transforms into a photosynthesizing chloroplast and the thylakoid rapidly emerges. However, the sequence of events during chloroplast differentiation remains poorly understood. Using Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM), we generated a series of chloroplast 3D reconstructions during differentiation, revealing chloroplast number and volume and the extent of envelope and thylakoid membrane surfaces. Read More

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February 2021

Experimental taphonomy of organelles and the fossil record of early eukaryote evolution.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 27;7(5). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK.

The timing of origin of eukaryotes and the sequence of eukaryogenesis are poorly constrained because their fossil record is difficult to interpret. Claims of fossilized organelles have been discounted on the unsubstantiated perception that they decay too quickly for fossilization. We experimentally characterized the pattern and time scale of decay of nuclei, chloroplasts, and pyrenoids in red and green algae, demonstrating that they persist for many weeks postmortem as physical substrates available for preservation, a time scale consistent with known mechanisms of fossilization. Read More

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January 2021

Assessing the reliability of medicinal Dendrobium sequences in GenBank for botanical species identification.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 9;11(1):3439. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Li Dak Sum Yip Yio Chin R&D Centre for Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

DNA-based method is a promising tool in species identification and is widely used in various fields. DNA barcoding method has already been included in different pharmacopoeias for identification of medicinal materials or botanicals. Accuracy and validity of DNA-based methods rely on the accuracy and taxonomic reliability of the DNA sequences in the database to be compared against. Read More

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February 2021

A Core Module of Nuclear Genes Regulated by Biogenic Retrograde Signals from Plastids.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 4;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Pflanzenphysiologie, Institut für Botanik, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Leibniz-Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover, Germany.

Chloroplast biogenesis during seedling development of angiosperms is a rapid and highly dynamic process that parallels the light-dependent photomorphogenic programme. Pre-treatments of dark-grown seedlings with lincomyin or norflurazon prevent chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination yielding albino seedlings. A comparable phenotype was found for the mutant () being defective in the prokaryotic-type plastid RNA polymerase. Read More

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February 2021

Functional relationships of three NFU proteins in the biogenesis of chloroplastic iron-sulfur clusters.

Plant Direct 2021 Jan 2;5(1):e00303. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Biological Sciences Western Michigan University Kalamazoo MI USA.

Iron-sulfur clusters are required in a variety of biological processes. Biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters includes assembly of iron-sulfur clusters on scaffold complexes and transfer of iron-sulfur clusters to recipient apoproteins by iron-sulfur carriers, such as nitrogen-fixation-subunit-U (NFU)-type proteins. has three plastid-targeted NFUs: NFU1, NFU2, and NFU3. Read More

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January 2021

Complete chloroplast genomes shed light on phylogenetic relationships, divergence time, and biogeography of Allioideae (Amaryllidaceae).

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 5;11(1):3262. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam, 13120, Republic of Korea.

Allioideae includes economically important bulb crops such as garlic, onion, leeks, and some ornamental plants in Amaryllidaceae. Here, we reported the complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequences of 17 species of Allioideae, five of Amaryllidoideae, and one of Agapanthoideae. These cpDNA sequences represent 80 protein-coding, 30 tRNA, and four rRNA genes, and range from 151,808 to 159,998 bp in length. Read More

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February 2021

Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor mTERF2 Promotes Splicing of Group IIB Introns.

Cells 2021 Feb 3;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Plant Molecular Biology (Botany), Department Biology I, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Plastid gene expression (PGE) is essential for chloroplast biogenesis and function and, hence, for plant development. However, many aspects of PGE remain obscure due to the complexity of the process. A hallmark of nuclear-organellar coordination of gene expression is the emergence of nucleus-encoded protein families, including nucleic-acid binding proteins, during the evolution of the green plant lineage. Read More

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February 2021

Hybridization History and Repetitive Element Content in the Genome of a Homoploid Hybrid, (Asparagaceae).

Front Plant Sci 2020 15;11:573767. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Hybridization in plants results in phenotypic and genotypic perturbations that can have dramatic effects on hybrid physiology, ecology, and overall fitness. Hybridization can also perturb epigenetic control of transposable elements, resulting in their proliferation. Understanding the mechanisms that maintain genomic integrity after hybridization is often confounded by changes in ploidy that occur in hybrid plant species. Read More

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January 2021

The Rubisco small subunits in the green algal genus Chloromonas provide insights into evolutionary loss of the eukaryotic carbon-concentrating organelle, the pyrenoid.

BMC Ecol Evol 2021 01 25;21(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

Background: Pyrenoids are protein microcompartments composed mainly of Rubisco that are localized in the chloroplasts of many photosynthetic organisms. Pyrenoids contribute to the CO-concentrating mechanism. This organelle has been lost many times during algal/plant evolution, including with the origin of land plants. Read More

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January 2021

Phylogeographic and demographic modeling analyses of the multiple origins of the rheophytic goldenrod Solidago yokusaiana Makino.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 May 28;126(5):831-845. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Botanical Gardens, Tohoku University, 12-2 Kawauchi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-0862, Japan.

Understanding adaptation mechanisms is important in evolutionary biology. Parallel adaptation provides good opportunities to investigate adaptive evolution. To confirm parallel adaptation, it is effective to examine whether the phenotypic similarity has one or multiple origins and to use demographic modeling to consider the gene flow between ecotypes. Read More

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