18,729 results match your criteria chitin synthesis


Chromosome-scale assembly and whole-genome sequencing of 266 giant panda roundworms provide insights into their evolution, adaptation and potential drug targets.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Wildlife and Protected Area, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China.

Helminth diseases have long been a threat to the health of humans and animals. Roundworms are important organisms for studying parasitic mechanisms, disease transmission and prevention. The study of parasites in the giant panda is of importance for understanding how roundworms adapt to the host. Read More

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September 2021

The citron homology domain as a scaffold for Rho1 signaling.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 09;118(39)

School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom;

is a human opportunistic pathogen showing emerging resistance against a limited repertoire of antifungal agents available. The GTPase Rho1 has been identified as an important regulator of the cell wall integrity signaling pathway that regulates the composition of the cell wall, a structure that is unique to fungi and serves as a target for antifungal compounds. Rom2, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor to Rho1, contains a C-terminal citron homology (CNH) domain of unknown function that is found in many other eukaryotic genes. Read More

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September 2021

AP-2 complex contributes to hyphal-tip-localization of a chitin synthase in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

Fungal Biol 2021 Oct 5;125(10):806-814. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan; Collaborative Research Institute for Innovative Microbiology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address:

Filamentous fungi maintain hyphal growth to continually internalize membrane proteins related to cell wall synthesis, transporting them to the hyphal tips. Endocytosis mediates protein internalization via target recognition by the adaptor protein 2 complex (AP-2 complex). The AP-2 complex specifically promotes the internalization of proteins important for hyphal growth, and loss of AP-2 complex function results in abnormal hyphal growth. Read More

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October 2021

Synthesis of mixed chitin esters with long fatty and bulky acyl substituents in ionic liquid.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 13;190:763-768. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan. Electronic address:

This study revealed that mixed chitin esters with long fatty and bulky acyl substituents were efficiently synthesized by acylation using acyl chlorides in the presence of pyridine and N,N-dimethyl-4-aminopyridine in an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (AMIMBr), at 100 °C for 24 h. A stearoyl group was selected as the first substituent, which was combined with different long fatty and bulky acyl groups as the second substituents. In addition to IR analysis of the products, which suggested progress of the acylation, H NMR measurement was allowed for structural confirmation for high degrees of substitution (DSs) of the desired derivatives in CDCl/CFCOH solvents. Read More

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September 2021

sp. nov., a chitin-decomposing anaerobic bacterium isolated from anoxic soil subjected to biological soil disinfestation.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Sep;71(9)

Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, Wakaba-machi 1-23, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-8555, Japan.

An obligately anaerobic bacterial strain (CTTW) belonging to the family within the class was isolated from an anoxic soil sample subjected to biological or reductive soil disinfestation. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-positive, short rods with peritrichous flagella. The strain was saccharolytic and decomposed polysaccharides, chitin, xylan and β-1,3-glucan. Read More

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September 2021

Pyomelanin Synthesis in Inhibits DHN-Melanin Synthesis and Decreases Cell Wall Chitin Content and Thickness.

Front Microbiol 2021 27;12:691433. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

The genus includes several of fungi that are darkly pigmented by DHN-melanin. These are pathogenic to plants but are also associated with human respiratory allergic diseases and with serious infections in immunocompromised individuals. The present work focuses on the alterations of the composition and structure of the hyphal cell wall of occuring under the catabolism of L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine when cultured in minimal salt medium (MM). Read More

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Chitosan (CTS) Alleviates Heat-Induced Leaf Senescence in Creeping Bentgrass by Regulating Chlorophyll Metabolism, Antioxidant Defense, and the Heat Shock Pathway.

Molecules 2021 Sep 2;26(17). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 610066, China.

Chitosan (CTS) is a deacetylated derivative of chitin that is involved in adaptive response to abiotic stresses. However, the regulatory role of CTS in heat tolerance is still not fully understood in plants, especially in grass species. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the CTS could reduce heat-induced senescence and damage to creeping bentgrass associated with alterations in antioxidant defense, chlorophyll (Chl) metabolism, and the heat shock pathway. Read More

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September 2021

Protective effect and mechanism of chitooligosaccharides on acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Guangdong Engineering Research Center of Natural Products and New Drugs, Guangdong Provincial University Engineering Technology Research Center of Natural Products and Drugs, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Currently, drug-induced liver injury caused by acetaminophen (APAP) is the second leading cause of human liver transplantation. The only clinical antidote treatment for APAP-induced liver injury is -acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), which has many side effects. Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are processed from naturally occurring chitin through chemical desalting and deproteinization, biological enzymatic hydrolysis and other processes. Read More

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September 2021

Chitin metabolism as a potential target for RNAi-based control of the forestry pest Hyblaea puera Cramer (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Plant Biotechnology and Cytogenetics Division, Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India.

Background: Hyblaea puera, commonly known as the teak defoliator, is a serious pest in teak plantations. Despite the availability of control measures, this pest causes losses in yield and quality of timber through voracious feeding. RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising strategy for the control of this pest. Read More

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September 2021

BSC2 induces multidrug resistance via contributing to the formation of biofilm in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Cell Microbiol 2021 Sep 5:e13391. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

Biofilm plays an important role in fungal multidrug resistance (MDR). Our previous studies showed that BSC2 is involved in resistance to amphotericin B (AMB) through antioxidation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the overexpression of BSC2 and IRC23 induced strong MDR in S. Read More

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September 2021

[Effects of chitosan oligosaccharide on alveolar bone resorption, Th17/Treg balance and OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway in periodontitis rats].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2021 Jun;30(3):237-242

School of Stomatology, Hainan Medical College. Haikou 571101, China. E-mail:

Purpose: To investigate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharide on alveolar bone resorption, Th17/Treg balance and OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway in rats with periodontitis.

Methods: Rat model of periodontitis was established, and the periodontitis rats were randomly divided into model group, low-dose chitosan oligosaccharide group, middle-dose chitosan oligosaccharide group, high-dose chitosan oligosaccharide group and metronidazole group, with 12 rats in each group, another 12 rats were set as control group. After treatment, gingival index and alveolar bone absorption were evaluated. Read More

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Comparative study of gut microbiota from captive and confiscated-rescued wild pangolins.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China. Electronic address:

Pangolins are among the most critically endangered animals due to widespread poaching and worldwide trafficking. Captive breeding is considered to be one way to protect them and increase the sizes of their populations. However, comparative studies of captive and wild pangolins in the context of gut microbiota are rare. Read More

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Biological fabrication and electrostatic attractions of new layered silver/talc nanocomposite using Lawsonia inermis L. and its chitosan-capped inorganic/organic hybrid: Investigation on acceleration of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected wound healing.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Sep 3;128:112294. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of organic and biochemistry, Faculty of chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; Research center of bioscience and biotechnology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

In the present study, new-layered inorganic/organic hybrid of silver/talc nanocomposites (Ag/Tlc-NPs) and its chitosan-capped derivative (Ag/Tlc/Csn NCs) were biochemically synthesized utilizing Lawsonia inermis L. extract. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized employing green method on the exterior surface layer of talc mineral as a solid substrate. Read More

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September 2021

Chitin-biocalcium as a novel superior composite for ciprofloxacin removal: Synergism of adsorption and flocculation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 17;423(Pt A):126917. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, State Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, PR China. Electronic address:

The ubiquitous present antibiotics in aquatic environment is attracting increasing concern due to the dual problems of bioaccumulation toxicity and antibiotic resistance. In this study, a low-cost chitin-biocalcium (CC) composite was developed by a facile alkali activation process from shell waste for typical antibiotics ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize synthesis methodology. Read More

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Statewide Efficacy Assessment of Insect Growth Regulators Against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sabah, Malaysia: An Alternative Control Strategy?

J Med Entomol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The efficacy of three groups of insect growth regulators, namely juvenile hormone mimics (methoprene and pyriproxyfen), chitin synthesis inhibitors (diflubenzuron and novaluron), and molting disruptor (cyromazine) was evaluated for the first time, against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae from 14 districts in Sabah, Malaysia. The results showed that all field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible towards methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, novaluron, and cyromazine, with resistance ratio values ranging from 0. Read More

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A ras-related nuclear protein Ran participates in the 20E signaling pathway and is essential for the growth and development of Locusta migratoria.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Oct 4;178:104945. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China. Electronic address:

The small GTPase Ran is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, which plays a key role in the translocation of RNA and proteins through the nuclear pore complex. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of LmRan gene was obtained, which consists of 648-nucleotides open reading frame (ORF) and encodes 215 amino acids. RT-qPCR results revealed that LmRan was expressed in all developmental days and tissues investigated. Read More

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October 2021

RNAi for chitin synthase 1 rather than 2 causes growth delay and molting defect in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Oct 17;178:104934. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Chitin synthase (CHS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In most insects, CHSs have been segregated into 1 and 2 classes. CHS1 is responsible for chitin production in the ectodermally-derived epidermal cells. Read More

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October 2021

Endogenous Enzymatic Activity in Dentin Treated with a Chitosan Primer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 17;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, DIBINEM, University of Bologna-Alma Mater Studiorum, Via San Vitale 59, 40125 Bologna, Italy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of chitosan polymer on dentinal enzymatic activity by means of gelatin and in situ zymography. Human dentin was frozen and ground in a miller. Dentin powder aliquots were demineralized with phosphoric acid and treated with three different concentrations of lyophilized chitosan polymer (1, 0. Read More

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Chitin-Derived AVR-48 Prevents Experimental Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) and BPD-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension in Newborn Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 9;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ 08103, USA.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of prematurity and a key contributor to the large health care burden associated with prematurity, longer hospital stays, higher hospital costs, and frequent re-hospitalizations of affected patients through the first year of life and increased resource utilization throughout childhood. This disease is associated with abnormal pulmonary function that may lead to BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH), a major contributor to neonatal mortality and morbidity. In the absence of any definitive treatment options, this life-threatening disease is associated with high resource utilization during and after neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. Read More

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Influence of Dietary Chitosan Feeding Duration on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Diabetic Rat Model.

Molecules 2021 Aug 19;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan.

This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary chitosan feeding-duration on glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin and nicotinamide [a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model]. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals and divided into short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (11 weeks) feeding durations, and each duration contained five groups: (1) control, (2) control + 5% chitosan, (3) diabetes, (4) diabetes + 0.8 mg/kg rosiglitazone (a positive control), and (5) diabetes + 5% chitosan. Read More

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Biocompatibility Study of Electrospun Nanocomposite Membranes Based on Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol/Oxidized Carbon Nano-Onions.

Molecules 2021 Aug 6;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Grupo de Investigación de Fotoquímica y Fotobiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Atlántico, Carrera 30 Número 8-49, 081008 Puerto Colombia, Colombia.

In recent decades, the number of patients requiring biocompatible and resistant implants that differ from conventional alternatives dramatically increased. Among the most promising are the nanocomposites of biopolymers and nanomaterials, which pretend to combine the biocompatibility of biopolymers with the resistance of nanomaterials. However, few studies have focused on the in vivo study of the biocompatibility of these materials. Read More

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Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases as Chitin-Specific Virulence Factors in Crayfish Plague.

Biomolecules 2021 08 9;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.

The oomycete pathogen , also known as "crayfish plague", is an obligate fungal-like parasite of freshwater crustaceans and is considered responsible for the ongoing decline of native European crayfish populations. is thought to secrete a wide array of effectors and enzymes that facilitate infection, however their molecular mechanisms have been poorly characterized. Here, we report the identification of AA15 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) as a new group of secreted virulence factors in . Read More

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A Chitosan-Agarose Polysaccharide-Based Hydrogel for Biomimetic Remineralization of Dental Enamel.

Biomolecules 2021 08 2;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Nanostructures and Functional Materials-CNMF, "Dunărea de Jos" University of Galaţi, 800201 Galaţi, Romania.

Developing multifunctional systems for the biomimetic remineralization of human enamel is a challenging task, since hydroxyapatite (HAP) rod structures of tooth enamel are difficult to replicate artificially. The paper presents the first report on the simultaneous use of chitosan (CS) and agarose (A) in a biopolymer-based hydrogel for the biomimetic remineralization of an acid-etched native enamel surface during 4-10-day immersion in artificial saliva with or without (control group) fluoride. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness tests were applied to investigate the properties of the acid-etched and remineralized dental enamel layers under A and CS-A hydrogels. Read More

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Multilayer regulatory landscape during pattern-triggered immunity in rice.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Upon fungal and bacterial pathogen attack, plants launch pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to defend against pathogens. Although PTI-mediated response has been widely studied, a systematic understanding of the reprogrammed cellular processes during PTI by multi-omics analysis is lacking. In this study, we generated metabolome, transcriptome, proteome, ubiquitome and acetylome data to investigate rice (Oryza sativa) PTI responses to two PAMPs, the fungi-derived chitin and the bacteria-derived flg22. Read More

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Injectable, Self-Healing, and Biocompatible ,-Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Multialdehyde Guar Gum Hydrogels for Sustained Anticancer Drug Delivery.

Biomacromolecules 2021 09 26;22(9):3731-3745. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary University, Gurugram 122505, Haryana, India.

Local delivery of anticancer agents via injectable hydrogels could be a promising method for achieving spatiotemporal control on drug release as well as minimizing the disadvantages related to the systemic mode of drug delivery. Keeping this in mind, we report the development of ,-carboxymethyl chitosan (,-CMCS)-guar gum-based injectable hydrogels for the sustained delivery of anticancer drugs. The hydrogels were synthesized by chemical crosslinking of multialdehyde guar gum (MAGG) and ,-CMCS through dynamic Schiff base linkages, without requiring any external crosslinker. Read More

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September 2021

Heterogeneous distribution of shell matrix proteins in the pearl oyster prismatic layer.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 20;189:641-648. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Yangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua University, Jiaxing 314000, China. Electronic address:

Shell formation in molluscan bivalves is regulated by organic matrices composed of biological macromolecules, but how these macromolecules assemble in vitro remains elusive. Prismatic layer in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata consists of polygonal prisms enveloped by thick organic matrices. In this study, we found that the organic matrices were heterogeneously distributed, with highly acidic fractions (EDTA-soluble and EDTA-insoluble) embedded inside the prism columns, while basic EDTA-insoluble faction as inter-column framework enveloping the prisms. Read More

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Deconstruction and Reassembly of Renewable Polymers and Biocolloids into Next Generation Structured Materials.

Chem Rev 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland.

This review considers the most recent developments in supramolecular and supraparticle structures obtained from natural, renewable biopolymers as well as their disassembly and reassembly into engineered materials. We introduce the main interactions that control bottom-up synthesis and top-down design at different length scales, highlighting the promise of natural biopolymers and associated building blocks. The latter have become main actors in the recent surge of the scientific and patent literature related to the subject. Read More

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Validamycin treatment significantly inhibits the glycometabolism and chitin synthesis in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

Insect Sci 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Analytical and Testing Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Validamycin, as a broadly applied antibiotic, has been used to control rice sheath blight disease. Furthermore, validamycin was considered as an insecticide to control agricultural pests. Insight into the mechanism of validamycin's action on insects can provide molecular targets for the control of agricultural pests. Read More

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Inhibitory effect of berberine hydrochloride against Candida albicans and the role of the HOG-MAPK pathway.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

College of Medical Technology, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Berberine hydrochloride (BH), an active component of Coptis chinensis and other plant taxa, has broad antimicrobial activity and may be useful for the treatment of Candida infections. In this study, the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of BH against Candida albicans were evaluated, with a focus on the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (HOG-MAPK) pathway, which regulates multiple physiological functions. BH (256 and 64 μg ml) significantly increased intracellular glycerol and ROS levels in C. Read More

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Performance indicators and gastrointestinal response of rabbits to dietary soybean meal replacement with silkworm pupae and mealworm larvae meals.

Arch Anim Nutr 2021 Aug 18;75(4):294-310. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Fur-bearing Animal Breeding and Game Management, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of silkworm pupae meal (SPM) and mealworm larvae meal (MLM) on the production results and function of the digestive system in rabbits. Thirty male New Zealand White growing rabbits were divided into three feeding groups: control (C) (10% soybean meal [SBM] in the diet), group SPM (5% SBM and 4% SPM) and group MLM (5% SBM and 4% MLM). Compared with group C, rabbits of groups SPM and MLM, were characterised by higher final body weight and daily body weight gains. Read More

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